Adelaide city centre

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This article is about the central locality of Adelaide. For the greater metropolitan area, see Adelaide. For the local government area, see City of Adelaide.

Coordinates: 34°55′44″S 138°36′04″E / 34.929°S 138.601°E / -34.929; 138.601

Adelaide
AdelaideSouth Australia
Adelaide festival centre.jpg
Adelaide city centre over the Torrens Lake
Population
 • Density 2,100/km2 (5,430/sq mi)
Established 1837
Postcode(s) 5000
Area 10.5 km2 (4.1 sq mi)
Location
LGA(s) City of Adelaide
State electorate(s) Adelaide
Federal Division(s) Adelaide
Suburbs around Adelaide:
Hindmarsh North Adelaide Gilberton
Hackney
Thebarton
Mile End
Adelaide Kent Town
Rose Park
Dulwich
Keswick
Wayville
Unley
Parkside
Eastwood
Glenside
Adelaide city centre, North Adelaide and the Park Lands

The Adelaide city centre is the innermost locality of Greater Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia. It is known by locals simply as "The City" or "Town" to distinguish it from Greater Adelaide. The locality is split into two key geographical distinctions: the city "square mile", bordered by North, East, South and West Terraces; and the section of the Adelaide Parklands south of the River Torrens which separates the built up part of the city from the surrounding suburbs.

The locality is home to the Parliament of South Australia and many key state government offices. Due to the construction of many new apartments in the city, the population has grown from 10,229 (2006 census)[1] to an estimated 22,000 (2012).[citation needed] The central business district (CBD) of Adelaide is a part of the city centre, roughly the area between N-S: Victoria Square and North Terrace, and E-W: Morphett Street and East Terrace.[2]

History[edit]

Prior to the European settlement of South Australia, the Adelaide Plains, on which Adelaide was built, were home to the Kaurna group of Indigenous Australians.

The colony of South Australia was established in 1836 at Glenelg, and the city itself established in 1837. The location and layout of the city is accredited to Colonel William Light (1786–1839), in a plan known as Light's Vision.

Geography[edit]

City skyline from Light's Vision.
10 October 2006.
Aerial view of the Adelaide city centre looking south-east.
3 August 2005.
A statue of Queen Victoria has stood in the geometric centre of both Victoria Square and "the square mile" since 1894.
Adelaide CBD from above.
27 November 2010.
High rise buildings on Hindmarsh Square.
Adelaide city centre from the East (Mount Lofty), 2007.
Adelaide city centre from the North ("Lightsview"), 2008.

Built environment[edit]

Architectural detail of the Adelaide General Post Office on King William Street

Adelaide is separated from its greater metropolitan area by a ring of public parklands on all sides. The square mile within the parklands is defined by a small area of high rise office and apartment buildings in the centre north, around King William Street, which runs north-to-south through the centre. Surrounding this central business district are a large number of medium to low density apartments, townhouses and detached houses which make up the residential portion of the city centre.

Layout[edit]

The layout of Adelaide, known as Light's Vision, features a grid pattern of wide streets and terraces and five large public squares: Victoria Square in the centre of the city, and Hindmarsh, Light, Hurtle and Whitmore Squares in the centres of each of the four quadrants of the Adelaide city centre. These squares occupy 32 of the 700 numbered "town acre" allotments on Light's plan.

All east-west roads change their names as they cross King William Street, except for North and South terraces.[3] They also alternate between being wide and narrow, 99 and 66 feet (30 and 20 m), except for the central Grote and Wakefield which are extra-wide, 132 feet (40 m),[4] along with the surrounding four terraces.[5] In the south half of the city, in several places the Adelaide City Council has constructed wide footpaths and road markings to restrict traffic to a lesser number of lanes than the full width of the road could support.[citation needed]

The street pairs, design widths, and town acres in Light's Vision are illustrated in this diagram:


 
W
e
s
t

T
e
r
r
a
c
e
North Terrace E
a
s
t

T
c
e
132'
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 M
o
r
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 K
i
n
g

 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 P
u
l
25 26 27 28 29 30 31
62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32
Hindley Street Rundle Mall Rundle Street 66'
63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93
124 123 122 121 120 119 118 Light

Square
115 114 113 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 105 104 103 102 Hind-
marsh
Square
99 98 97 96 95 94
Currie Street Grenfell Street 99'
125 126 127 128 129 130 131 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 150 151 152 153 154 155
186 185 184 183 182 181 180 177 176 175 174 173 172 171 170 169 168 167 166 165 164 161 160 159 158 157 156
Waymouth p
h
e
t
t

 
Street Pirie t
e
n
e
y

 
Street 66'
187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 H
u
t
t

S
t
r
e
e
t
219
252 251 250 249 248 247 246 245 244 243 242 241 240 239 238 237 236 235 234 233 232 231 230 229 228 227 226 225 224 223 222 221 220
Franklin Street Flinders Street 99'
253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 Victoria

Square
270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286
320 319 318 317 316 315 314 313 312 311 310 309 308 307 306 303 302 301 300 299 298 297 296 295 294 293 292 291 290 289 288 287
Grote Street Wakefield Street 132'
321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 B
r
o
w
n
329 330 331 332 333 334 335 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 H
a
n
s
o
n
345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356
392 391 390 389 388 387 386 385 384 383 382 381 380 379 378 375 374 373 372 371 370 369 368 367 366 365 364 363 362 361 360 359 358 357
Gouger Street W
i
l
l
i
a
m

S
t
Angas Street
E
a
s
t
99'
393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430
468 467 466 465 464 463 462 461 460 459 458 457 456 455 454 453 452 451 450 449 448 447 446 445 444 443 442 441 440 439 438 437 436 435 434 433 432 431
Wright Street Carrington Street 66'
469 470 471 472 473 474 475 Whit-
more
Square
478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 Hurtle

Square
494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506
544 543 542 541 540 539 538 535 534 533 532 531 530 529 528 527 526 525 524 523 522 519 518 517 516 515 514 513 512 511 510 509 508 507
Sturt Street Halifax Street T
c
e

 
99'
545 546 547 548 549 550 551 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583
622 621 620 619 618 617 616 615 S
t
614 613 612 611 610 609 608 607 606 605 604 603 602 601 600 599 S
t
598 597 596 595 594 593 592 591 590 589 588 587 586 585 584
Gilbert Street Gilles Street 66'
623 624 625 626 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 653 654 655 656 657 658 659 660 661
700 699 698 697 696 695 694 693 692 691 690 689 688 687 686 685 684 683 682 681 680 679 678 677 676 675 674 673 672 671 670 669 668 667 666 665 664 663 662
South Terrace 132'

 
                 132' 99' 132' 99' 132' 132'                  (width)

Street names[edit]

The streets and squares were named by a committee of a number of prominent settlers after themselves, after early directors of the South Australian Company, after Commissioners appointed by the British government to oversee implementation of the acts that established the colony, and after various notables involved in the establishment of the colony.

The Street Naming Committee comprised:[6]

All members of the committee (except Stephens) had one or more of the streets and squares in the Adelaide city centre and North Adelaide named after themselves. Brown Street, named for John Brown, was subsequently subsumed as a continuation of Morphett Street in 1967. In the same year, Hanson Street, named for Richard Hanson, was subsumed as a continuation of Pulteney Street.

The squares were named after:

The east-west streets named on 22 December 1836 were:[9]

Most of these people did not reside in or visit South Australia.

The naming of the streets was completed on 23 May 1837[6] and gazetted on 3 June.[11]

East-west streets:

North-south streets:

Politics[edit]

Since the mid-1990s, Adelaide has consistently favoured the centre-left Australian Labor Party (Labor) at both federal and state elections, although the centre-right Liberal Party of Australia (Liberal) have on occasion obtained a primary vote majority within the suburb's boundaries, and in the 1993 state election, an absolute majority. Under the preferential system in Australia, however, the 15% or more of the vote which typically goes to the Australian Democrats and the Greens consistently favours Labor.

At federal level, Adelaide is within the Division of Adelaide, a marginal seat which historically has alternated between the Liberal and Labor parties. It has been held since 2004 by Kate Ellis of the Labor party.[13]

In the South Australian House of Assembly, Adelaide is within the Electoral district of Adelaide. The seat has mostly been held by Labor, but from 1989 until 2002 was held by Dr Michael Armitage for the Liberals. From 2002 to 2010, it was held by Labor's Jane Lomax-Smith. Since the March 2010 state election, it has been held by Rachel Sanderson for the Liberal party.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Australian Bureau of Statistics (25 October 2007). "Adelaide (State Suburb)". 2006 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 25 October 2007. 
  2. ^ Fewster, Sean (2014-06-06). "The day when fugitive Rodney Clavell's siege caused Adelaide's CBD to be ruled by guns". The Advertiser (News Limited). Retrieved 2014-12-03. Buses ferried stranded tram passengers into the CBD as pedestrians gathered by the police tape, ... 
  3. ^ Royal Automobile Association. "Adelaide CBD & North Adelaide". Retrieved 7 December 2014.  This map, showing the Adelaide city centre, North Adelaide and the Adelaide Parklands, was published on the website "soul underground". 
  4. ^ Elgar, Frederic (1863). Handbook to the Colony of South Australia. London: "Australian and New Zealand Gazette" Office. p. 3. Retrieved 8 December 2014. ... principal north and south streets (from 99 to 132 feet wide) being nearly one mile in length, and the east and west streets (from 66 to 132 feet wide) from a mile and a quarter to a mile and three quarters. 
  5. ^ History SA (1837). Colonel William Light’s Plan of Adelaide, 1837 (Map). Cartography by Robert Thomas for William Light. HT2001.166. http://adelaidia.sa.gov.au/panoramas/lights-plan-of-adelaide-1837. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
  6. ^ a b "The Street Naming Committee". HistorySouthAustralia.net. 30 September 2001. Retrieved 22 September 2011. 
  7. ^ The Colonial Storekeeper, like the Colonial Secretary, was an official position.
  8. ^ "Stephens, Edward (1811-1861)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. 1967. Retrieved 22 September 2011. 
  9. ^ "City Streets named 22 December 1836". SAHistorians.org.au. 
  10. ^ Daniel Bell Wakefield should not to be confused with his uncle, Daniel Wakefield. Note that the street is named after him, not after his better known brother Edward Gibbon Wakefield - Refer Wakefield Street in "Streets Named on the 23rd May, 1837", HistorySouthAustralia.net.
  11. ^ "City of Adelaide municipal year book". Adelaide: Adelaide City Council. 1972. pp. 57, 70. 
  12. ^ a b Spence & Beams (2006) p.33
  13. ^ Antony Green (27 December 2007). "Adelaide (Inner City) - Green Guide". ABC News Online - Elections. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 3 January 2009. 

References[edit]

  1. Spence, Catherine Helen; Beams, Maryan (2006). Susan Magarey, Barbara Wall, Maryan Beams, Mary Lyons, ed. Ever yours, C.H. Spence: Catherine Helen Spence's An autobiography (1825-1910), Diary (1894) and Some correspondence (1894-1910). Wakefield Press. ISBN 978-1-86254-656-1.