Adelaide city centre

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This article is about the central locality of Adelaide. For the greater metropolitan area, see Adelaide. For the local government area, see City of Adelaide.

Coordinates: 34°55′44″S 138°36′04″E / 34.929°S 138.601°E / -34.929; 138.601

Adelaide
AdelaideSouth Australia
Adelaide festival centre.jpg
Adelaide city centre over the Torrens Lake
Population
 • Density 2,100/km2 (5,430/sq mi)
Established 1837
Postcode(s) 5000
Area 10.5 km2 (4.1 sq mi)
Location
LGA(s) City of Adelaide
State electorate(s) Adelaide
Federal Division(s) Adelaide
Suburbs around Adelaide:
Hindmarsh North Adelaide Gilberton
Hackney
Thebarton
Mile End
Adelaide Kent Town
Rose Park
Dulwich
Keswick
Wayville
Unley
Parkside
Eastwood
Glenside
Adelaide city centre, North Adelaide and the Park Lands

The Adelaide city centre is the innermost locality of Greater Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia. It is known by locals simply as "The City" or "Town". The locality is split into two key geographical distinctions: the city "square mile", bordered by North, East, South and West Terraces; and that part of the Adelaide Parklands south of the River Torrens which separate the built up part of the city from the surrounding suburbs. The locality is home to the parliament of the state of South Australia and many key state government offices. Due to the construction of many new apartments in the city, the population has grown from 10,229 (2006 census)[1] to an estimated 22,000 (2012).[citation needed]

History[edit]

Prior to the European settlement of South Australia, the Adelaide Plains, on which Adelaide was built, were home to the Kaurna group of Indigenous Australians.

The colony of South Australia was established in 1836 at Glenelg, and the city itself established in 1837. The location and layout of the city is accredited to Colonel William Light (1786–1839), in a plan known as Light's Vision.

Geography[edit]

City skyline from Light's Vision.
10 October 2006.
Aerial view of the Adelaide city centre looking south-east.
3 August 2005.
A statue of Queen Victoria has stood in the geometric centre of both Victoria Square and "the square mile" since 1894.
Adelaide CBD from above.
27 November 2010.
High rise developments on Hindmarsh Square.
Adelaide city centre from the East (Mount Lofty), 2007.
Adelaide city centre from the North ("Lightsview"), 2008.

Built environment[edit]

Architectural detail on the Adelaide General Post Office

Adelaide is separated from its greater metropolitan area by a ring of public parklands on all sides. The square mile within the parklands is defined by a small area of high rise office and apartment buildings in the centre north, around King William Street, which runs north-to-south through the centre. Surrounding this central business district are a large number of medium to low density apartments, townhouses and detached houses which make up the residential portion of the city centre.

Layout[edit]

The layout of Adelaide, known as Light's Vision, features a grid pattern of wide streets and terraces and five large public squares: Victoria Square in the centre of the city, and Hindmarsh, Light, Hurtle and Whitmore Squares in the centres of each of the four quadrants of the Adelaide city centre.

Between North Terrace and South Terrace, all east-west roads change their names as they cross King William Street. Also, travelling north-south, the cross-streets alternate between being wide (up to 4-lanes wide) and narrow (2-lanes wide), with the exception that Grote Street and Wakefield Street are up to 6-lanes wide. Note that in the south half of the city, in several places the Adelaide City Council has increased the widths of footpaths and changed the road markings so that traffic is restricted to use a lesser number of lanes than the full width of the road.

Travelling south from North Terrace, the street pairs are:[2]

West
Terrace
Morphett
Street
King
William
Street
Pulteney
Street
East
Terrace
Designed
width
North
Terrace
North
Terrace
North
Terrace
North
Terrace
4-lane
Hindley
Street
Hindley
Street
Rundle
Mall
Rundle
Street
2-lane
Currie
Street
Light
Square
Currie
Street
Grenfell
Street
Hindmarsh
Square
Grenfell
Street
4-lane
Waymouth
Street
Waymouth
Street
Pirie
Street
Pirie
Street
2-lane
Franklin
Street
Franklin
Street
Victoria

Square
Flinders
Street
Flinders
Street
4-lane
Grote
Street
Grote
Street
Wakefield
Street
Wakefield
Street
6-lane
Gouger
Street
Gouger
Street
Angas
Street
Angas
Street
4-lane
Wright
Street
Whitmore
Square
Wright
Street
Carrington
Street
Hurtle
Square
Carrington
Street
2-lane
Sturt
Street
Sturt
Street
Halifax
Street
Halifax
Street
4-lane
Gilbert
Street
Gilbert
Street
Gilles
Street
Gilles
Street
2-lane
South
Terrace
South
Terrace
South
Terrace
South
Terrace
4-lane

Street names[edit]

The streets and squares were named by a committee of a number of prominent settlers after themselves, after early directors of the South Australian Company, after Commissioners appointed by the British government to oversee implementation of the acts that established the colony, and after various notables involved in the establishment of the colony.

The Street Naming Committee comprised:[3]

All members of the committee (except Stephens) had one or more of the streets and squares in the Adelaide city centre and North Adelaide named after themselves. Brown Street, named for John Brown, was subsequently subsumed as a continuation of Morphett Street in 1967. In the same year, Hanson Street, named for Richard Hanson, was subsumed as a continuation of Pulteney Street.

The squares were named after:

The east-west streets named on 22 December 1836 were:[6]

Most of these people did not reside in or visit South Australia.

The naming of the streets was completed on 23 May 1837[3] and gazetted on 3 June.[8]

East-west streets:

North-south streets:

Politics[edit]

Since the mid-1990s, Adelaide has consistently favoured the centre-left Australian Labor Party (Labor) at both federal and state elections, although the centre-right Liberal Party of Australia (Liberal) have on occasion obtained a primary vote majority within the suburb's boundaries, and in the 1993 state election, an absolute majority. Under the preferential system in Australia, however, the 15% or more of the vote which typically goes to the Australian Democrats and the Greens consistently favours Labor.

At federal level, Adelaide is within the Division of Adelaide, a marginal seat which historically has alternated between the Liberal and Labor parties. It has been held since 2004 by Kate Ellis of the Labor party.[10]

In the South Australian House of Assembly, Adelaide is within the Electoral district of Adelaide. The seat has mostly been held by Labor, but from 1989 until 2002 was held by Dr Michael Armitage for the Liberals. From 2002 to 2010, it was held by Labor's Jane Lomax-Smith. Since the March 2010 state election, it has been held by Rachel Sanderson for the Liberal party.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Australian Bureau of Statistics (25 October 2007). "Adelaide (State Suburb)". 2006 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 25 October 2007. 
  2. ^ Map of the Adelaide city centre, North Adelaide and the Adelaide Parklands.
  3. ^ a b "The Street Naming Committee". HistorySouthAustralia.net. 30 September 2001. Retrieved 22 September 2011. 
  4. ^ The Colonial Storekeeper, like the Colonial Secretary, was an official position.
  5. ^ "Stephens, Edward (1811-1861)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. 1967. Retrieved 22 September 2011. 
  6. ^ "City Streets named 22 December 1836". SAHistorians.org.au. 
  7. ^ Daniel Bell Wakefield should not to be confused with his uncle, Daniel Wakefield. Note that the street is named after him, not after his better known brother Edward Gibbon Wakefield - Refer Wakefield Street in "Streets Named on the 23rd May, 1837", HistorySouthAustralia.net.
  8. ^ City of Adelaide municipal year book. Adelaide: Adelaide City Council. 1972. pp. 57, 70. 
  9. ^ a b Spence & Beams (2006) p.33
  10. ^ Antony Green (27 December 2007). "Adelaide (Inner City) - Green Guide". ABC News Online - Elections. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 3 January 2009. 

References[edit]

  1. Spence, Catherine Helen; Beams, Maryan (2006). Susan Magarey, Barbara Wall, Maryan Beams, Mary Lyons, ed. Ever yours, C.H. Spence: Catherine Helen Spence's An autobiography (1825-1910), Diary (1894) and Some correspondence (1894-1910). Wakefield Press. ISBN 978-1-86254-656-1.