Adelaide of Normandy

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Not to be confused with Adeliza or Alice of Normandy. ‹See Tfd›

Adelaide of Normandy (or Adeliza) (c. 1030 – bef. 1090) was the sister of William the Conqueror and was Countess of Aumale in her own right.

Life[edit]

She was a natural daughter of Robert the Magnificent,[a] Duke of Normandy and born c.1030[1] Elisabeth Van Houts, in her article Les femmes dans l’histoire du duché de Normandie (or Women in the history of ducal Normandy) mentions Countess Adelaide as one of those notable Norman women who were known to have exerted a strong influence on their children especially with regard to passing on their own family history.[2]

Adelaide's first marriage to Enguerrand II, Count of Ponthieu potentially gave then Duke William a powerful ally in upper Normandy.[3] But at the Council of Reims in 1049, when the marriage of Duke William with Matilda of Flanders was prohibited based on consanguinity, so were those of Eustace II, Count of Boulogne and Enguerrand of Ponthieu, who was already married to Adelaide.[4] Adelaide's marriage was apparently annulled c.1049/50 and another marriage was arranged for her, this time to Lambert II, Count of Lens, younger son of Eustace I, Count of Boulogne forming a new marital alliance between Normandy and Boulogne.[5] Lambert was killed in 1054 at Lille, aiding Baldwin V, Count of Flanders against Emperor Henry III.[6] Now widowed, Adelaide resided at Aumale, probably part of her dower from her first husband, Engurerand, or part of a settlement after the capture of Guy of Ponthieu, her brother-in-law.[b][5] As a dowager Adelaide began a semi-religious retirement and became involved with the church at Auchy presenting them with a number of gifts.[5] In 1060 she was called upon again to form another marital alliance, this time to a younger man Odo, Count of Champagne.[7] Odo seems to have been somewhat of a disappointment as he appears on only one of the Conqueror's charters and received no land in England; his wife being a tenant-in-chief in her own right.[7]

In 1082 King William and Queen Matilda gave to the abbey of the Holy Trinity in Caen the town of Le Homme in the Cotentin with a provision to the Countess of Albamarla (Aumale), his sister, for a life tenancy.[8] In 1086, as Comitissa de Albatnarla,[8] as she was listed in the Domesday Book, was shown as having numerous holdings in both Suffolk and Essex,[9] one of the very few Norman noblewomen to have held lands in England at Domesday as a tenant-in-chief.[10] She was also given the lordship of Holderness which was held after her death by her 3rd husband, Odo, the by then disinherited Count of Champagne; the lordship then passed to their son, Stephen.[8] Adelaide died before 1090.[11]

Family[edit]

Adelaide married three times; first to Enguerrand II, Count of Ponthieu (died 1053)[12] by whom she had issue:

She married secondly Lambert II, Count of Lens (died 1054),[11] they had a daughter:

Adelaide married thirdly in 1060 Odo II, Count of Champagne (d. aft. 1096),[14] by whom she had a son:

References[edit]

  1. ^ George Andrews Moriarty, The Plantagenet Ancestry of King Edward III and Queen Philippa (Mormon Pioneer Genealogy Society, Salt Lake City, UT, 1985), p. 13
  2. ^ Elisabeth van Houts, 'Les femmes dans l'histoire du duché de Normandie', Tabularia « Études », n° 2, 2002, (10 July 2002), p. 24
  3. ^ Kathleen Thompson, 'Being the Ducal Sister: The Role of Adelaide of Aumale', Normandy and its Neighbours 900–1250; Essays for David Bates, ed. David Crouch, Kathleen Thompson (Brepols Publishers, Belgium, 2011), pp. 69–70
  4. ^ Kathleen Thompson, 'Being the Ducal Sister: The Role of Adelaide of Aumale', Normandy and its Neighbours 900–1250; Essays for David Bates, ed. David Crouch, Kathleen Thompson (Brepols Publishers, Belgium, 2011), p. 68
  5. ^ a b c Kathleen Thompson, 'Being the Ducal Sister: The Role of Adelaide of Aumale', Normandy and its Neighbours 900–1250; Essays for David Bates, ed. David Crouch, Kathleen Thompson (Brepols Publishers, Belgium, 2011), p. 71
  6. ^ John Carl Andressohn, The ancestry and life of Godfrey of Bouillon (Ayer Publishing, 1972) p. 20
  7. ^ a b Kathleen Thompson, 'Being the Ducal Sister: The Role of Adelaide of Aumale', Normandy and its Neighbours 900–1250; Essays for David Bates, ed. David Crouch, Kathleen Thompson (Brepols Publishers, Belgium, 2011), p. 72
  8. ^ a b c d George Edward Cokayne, The Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant Extinct or Dormant, ed. Vicary Gibbs, Vol. I (The St. Catherine Press, Ltd., London, 1910), p. 351
  9. ^ Ann Williams, The English and the Norman Conquest (The Boydell Press, Woodbridge, UK, 1995), p. 58, n. 57
  10. ^ Kathleen Thompson, 'Being the Ducal Sister: The Role of Adelaide of Aumale', Normandy and its Neighbours 900–1250; Essays for David Bates, ed. David Crouch, Kathleen Thompson (Brepols Publishers, Belgium, 2011), p. 76
  11. ^ a b George Edward Cokayne, The Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant Extinct or Dormant, ed. Vicary Gibbs, Vol. I (The St. Catherine Press, Ltd., London, 1910), p. 352
  12. ^ George Edward Cokayne, The Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant Extinct or Dormant, ed. Vicary Gibbs, Vol. I (The St. Catherine Press, Ltd., London, 1910), pp. 350–2
  13. ^ N. J. Higham, The Kingdom of Northumbria, AD 350 – 1100 (Alan Sutton Publishing, Ltd. , 1993), p. 226
  14. ^ a b Detlev Schwennicke, Europäische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, Neue Folge, Band II (Verlag von J. A. Stargardt, Marburg, Germany, 1984), Tafel 46

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The question of who her mother was remains unsettled. Elisabeth Van Houts ['Les femmes dans l'histoire du duché de Normandie', Tabularia « Études », n° 2, 2002, (10 July 2002), p. 23, n. 22] makes the argument that Robert of Torigny in the GND II, p. 272 (one of three mentions in this volume of her being William's sister) calls her in this instance William's 'uterine' sister' (soror uterina) and is of the opinion this is a mistake similar to one he made regarding Richard II, Duke of Normandy and his paternal half-brother William, Count of Eu (calling them 'uterine' brothers). Based on this she concludes Adelaide was a daughter of Duke Robert by a different concubine. Kathleen Thompson ["Being the Ducal Sister: The Role of Adelaide of Aumale", Normandy and Its Neighbors, Brepols, (2011) p. 63] cites the same passage in GND as did Elisabeth Van Houts, specifically GND II, 270-2, but gives a different opinion. She noted that Robert de Torigni stated here she was the uterine sister of Duke William "so we might perhaps conclude that she shared both mother and father with the Conqueror." But as Torigni wrote a century after Adelaide's birth and in that same sentence in the GND made a genealogical error, she concludes that the identity of Adelaide's mother remains an open question.
  2. ^ Prior to it becoming a small county, Aumale was a town on the Bresle river in northeastern Normandy. It came into the family by way of Enguerrand's mother, the heiress of Aumale. It was settled on Adelaide of Normandy as a countship by her brother William the Conqueror, but at what exact time isn't known. Adelaide was the first countess followed by her son Stephen of Aumale as the second holder but first count. See Cokayne, The Complete Peerage, Vol. I, p. 350.
French nobility
Preceded by
Countess of Aumale
1069–1090
Succeeded by
Stephen