||This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (February 2013)|
|Jmol-3D images||Image 1
|Molar mass||347.22 g/mol|
|Appearance||white crystalline powder|
178-185 °C, 451-458 K, 352-365 °F
798.5 °C, 1072 K, 1469 °F
|Acidity (pKa)||0.9, 3.8, 6.1|
| (what is: / ?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as 5'-adenylic acid, is a nucleotide that is used as a monomer in DNA and RNA. It is an ester of phosphoric acid and the nucleoside adenosine. AMP consists of a phosphate group, the sugar ribose, and the nucleobase adenine. As a substituent it takes the form of the prefix adenylyl-.
Production and degradation
- 2 ADP → ATP + AMP
- ADP → AMP + Pi
- ATP → AMP + PPi
When RNA is broken down by living systems, nucleoside monophosphates, including adenosine monophosphate, are formed.
AMP can be regenerated to ATP as follows:
- AMP + ATP → 2 ADP (adenylate kinase in the opposite direction)
- ADP + Pi → ATP (this step is most often performed in aerobes by the ATP synthase during oxidative phosphorylation)
In a catabolic pathway, adenosine monophosphate can be converted to uric acid, which is excreted from the body.
AMP can also exist as a cyclic structure known as cyclic AMP (or cAMP). Within certain cells the enzyme adenylate cyclase makes cAMP from ATP, and typically this reaction is regulated by hormones such as adrenaline or glucagon. cAMP plays an important role in intracellular signaling.
- Ming D, Ninomiya Y, Margolskee RF (1999). "Blocking taste receptor activation of gustducin inhibits gustatory responses to bitter compounds". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96 (17): 9903–9908. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.17.9903. PMC 22308. PMID 10449792.