Adhan

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This article is about the Islamic call to prayer. For the settlement in Ras al-Khaimah, see Adhan, Ras al-Khaimah.

The adhān (Arabic: أَذَان[ʔaˈðaːn]), (or azan as pronounced in Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, India, Iran, Malaysia, Pakistan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan, ezan in Turkey, Bosnia and Herzegovina), azon in Uzbekistan, is the Islamic call to worship, recited by the muezzin at prescribed times of the day. The root of the word is ʾadhina أَذِنَ meaning "to listen, to hear, be informed about". Another derivative of this word is ʾudhun (أُذُن), meaning "ear".

Adhan is called out by a muezzin from the mosque five times a day, traditionally from the minaret, summoning Muslims for mandatory (fard) worship (salat). A second call, known as iqama, (set up) then summons Muslims to line up for the beginning of the prayers. The main purpose behind the multiple loud pronouncements of adhan in every mosque is to make available to everyone an easily intelligible summary of Islamic belief. It is intended to bring to the mind of every believer and non-believer the substance of Islamic beliefs, or its spiritual ideology. In modern times, loudspeakers have been installed on minarets for this purpose.

The adhan sums up the Shahada, the statement of faith: There is no deity but God, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God. This statement of faith, called the Kalimah, is the first of the Five Pillars of Islam.

Adhan
Arabic أَذَان
Romanization aḏān, azaan, adhaan
Literal meaning call to prayer

Muezzin[edit]

The Muezzin is the person who recites the adhan/azan from the mosque. Typically in modern times, this is done using a microphone: a recitation that is consequently broadcast to the speakers usually mounted on the higher part of the mosque's minarets, thus calling those nearby to prayer. The Muezzin is the most notable person in the mosque; he is chosen for his talent and ability in reciting the adhan beautifully, melodiously and loudly for all Muslims to hear. This is perhaps one of the most important duties in the mosque, as his companions rely on him in his call for Muslims to come physically to pray. The Imam leads the prayer five times a day.

11 second sample from Hafiz Zeeshan Kasimuddin's recitation of the Adhan.

Problems playing this file? See media help.

Text[edit]

Sunni[1][2][3][4][edit]

Recital Arabic Transliteration Translation
4x الله أكبر Allāhu akbar Allah is the greatest, Allah is the greatest.
2x أشهد أن لا اله إلا الله Ash-hadu an-lā ilāha illā allāh I bear witness that there is no God but Allah.
2x أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله Ash-hadu anna Muḥhammadan-Rasulullāh I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.
2x حي على الصلاة Hayya ʿala ṣ-ṣsalāt Hasten to worship (salat).
2x حي على الفلاح Hayya ʿala 'l-falāḥ Hasten to success.
2x 2 الصلاة خيراً من النوم As-salatu Khayrun Minan-nawm Prayer is better than sleep. 2
2x الله أكبر Allāhu akbar Allah is greatest.
1x لا إله إلا الله Lā ilāha illā-Allāh There is no God but Allah. 3
  • ^1 Followers of the Maliki madh'hab say this line twice and repeat the following two lines before line four, as noted in Sahih Muslim, Book 4, Ch. 2, No. 0740.
  • ^2 The line "Prayer is better than sleep" is used only for the first prayers of the day at dawn (fajr prayer; Salat al-fajr).
  • ^3 Allah is a compound word of the definite article al and the Arabic word for "deity", ilah, meaning "The God".

Shi'a[1][2][3][4][5][edit]

Recital Arabic Transliteration Translation[6]
4x الله أكبر,الله أكبر Allāhu akbar, Allāhu akbar God is greatest, God is greatest.
2x أشهد أن لا اله إلا الله Ash-hadu an-lā ilāha illā allāh I bear witness that there is no deity but God.
2x أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله Ash-hadu anna Muḥhammadan-Rasulullāh I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of God.
2x1 اشهد ان عليا ولي الله Ash-hadu anna Alīyan walī-ullāh I testify that Ali is the authority (wali) of God.
2x حي على الصلاة Hayya ʿala ṣ-ṣsalāt Hasten to worship (salat).
2x حي على الفلاح Hayya ʿala 'l-falāḥ Hasten to success.
2x حي على خير العمل Ḥayya ʿala khayr al ʿamal The time for the best of deeds has come!
2x الله أكبر Allāhu akbar God is the greatest.
2x لا إله إلا الله Lā ilāha illā-Allāh There is no deity but God. 3

*^1 According to Usuli Twelver Shi'a scholars, Ashhadu ana Alian waliullah ("I testify that Ali is the vicegerent of Allah") is not a part of adhan and iqamah but some say it is recommended (Mustahabb) to say that twice after third part of the adhan which is Ash-hadu anna Muhammadan-rasūl ullāh. Whereas Akhbari Shia Twelver consider Ashhadu ana Alian waliullah ("I testify that Ali is the vicegerent of Allah") as an integral part of adhan and iqamah without same both are incomplete.[7]

Fatimid/Ismaili/Dawoodi Bohra believe and include and recite this at same place, twice in main adhan, but not in Iqama.

Fatimid/Ismaili/Dawoodi Bohra also recite mohammadun -va- ali-un khayr-ul- basar va itarat-o- homa khayr-ul-itar (Muhammad and Ali are the best gentleman and their progeny is the best of progeny) twice after 6th part Ḥayya ʿala-khayr il-ʿamal. At the end of Azaan, they recite Lā ilāha illā llāh twice (but once in Iqama). This tradition is continued from their first Da'i al-Mutlaq, Zoeb bin Moosa (1132 CE), after their 21st Imam, At-Tayyib Abi l-Qasim, and claim this is true Fatimid tradition.[8][9][10]

Zaidiyyah[edit]

Recital Arabic Transliteration Translation
4x الله أكبر Allāhu akbar God is greatest.
2x أشهد أن لا اله إلا الله Ash-hadu an-lā ilāha illā allāh I bear witness that there is no deity but God.
2x أشهد أن محمدا رسول الله Ash-hadu anna Muḥhammadan-Rasulullāh I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of God.
2x حي على الصلاة Hayya ʿala ṣ-ṣsalāt Hasten to worship (salat).
2x حي على الفلاح Hayya ʿala 'l-falāḥ Hasten to success.
2x حي على خير العمل Ḥayya ʿala khayr al ʿamal The time for the best of deeds has come!
2x الله أكبر Allāhu akbar God is the greatest.
1x لا إله إلا الله Lā ilāha illā-Allāh There is no deity but God. 3

Views[edit]

Shi'a [1][2][3][4][5] view[edit]

Shi'a sources state Muhammad, according to God's command, ordered the adhan as a means of calling Muslims to prayer. Shi'a Islam teaches that no one else contributed, or had any authority to contribute, towards the composition of the adhan.

Other Shi'a sources state that Bilal ibn Rabah al-Habashi was, in fact, the first person to recite the adhan publicly out loud in front of the Muslim congregation.

The fundamental phrase Lā- ilāha-illā-al-lāh is the foundation stone of Islam along with the belief that "there is no god but the God". This is confession of Tawhid or the "doctrine of Oneness [of God]".

The phrase Muḥammadun –rasulu-llāh fulfils the requirement that there should be someone to guide in the name of God, which states Muhammad is God's rasul (messenger) nabi (prophet). This is acceptance of Nabuwat of Muhammad.

photo of kalima at Bab al-Nasr of Shia Fatimid dynasty of Cairo with phrase ʿalīyun walī allāh
The qiblah of Mustansir of Shia Fatimid dynasty of, in Mosque of Ibn Tulun of Cairo showing Kalimat ash-shahādah with the phrase ʿalīyun walī allāh

Muhammad declared Ali (Ali bin Abu Talib) as his successor, at Ghadir Khumm, which was required for the continuation of his guidance. According to the hadith of the pond of Khumm, Muhammad stated that "Of whomsoever I am the mawla, Ali is his mawla". Hence, the Adhan requires further confession, the phrase ʿalīyun walī allāh means "Ali is His (God's) Wali "the headman", stressing the need that, for the continuation of the faith, there is a requirement of Wali, which is the one and only Imam after Imam which are really taking care of Islam, hence this is also confession of Imamah.

There are several Ayahs in the Quran[5][11] and hadiths in the Sunnah confirming the Shia belief of the 12 Imams.

In one of the Qiblah of Ma'ad al-Mustansir Billah (1035–1094) of Fatemi era masjid of Qahira (Mosque of Ibn Tulun) engraved his name and kalimat ash-shahādah as lā ʾilāha ʾilā-llāh, muḥammadun rasūl allāh, ʿalīyun walī allāh.

Adhan reminds everyone, these three Islamic teaching Tawhid, Nabuwat and Imamate before each prayer. These three emphasise devotion to God, Muhammad and Imam, which are so linked together that these can not be viewed separately. One leads to other and finally to God.

The phrase is optional to some Shia as justified above. They feel that Ali's Valayat is self-evident, a testification and need not be declared. However, the greatness of God is also taken to be self-evident, but Muslims still declare Allāhu ʾAkbar to publicize their faith. This is the reason that the most Shia give for the recitation of the phrase regarding Ali.

Sunni[1][2][3][4] view[edit]

Sunnis state that the adhan was not written or said by the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, but by one of his Sahabah (his companions). Umar, a prominent sahabi of Muhammad, had a vision in his dream, in which the call for prayers was revealed to him by God. He later related this to his companions. Meanwhile, this news reached Muhammad, and he liked it and confirmed it. Because of his stunning voice Muhammad choose a freed Habeshan slave by the name of Bilal ibn Rabah al-Habashi to make the call for prayers. Muhammad preferred the call better than the use of bells (as used by the Christians) and horns (as by the Jews).[12]

During the Friday prayer (Salat Al Jumu'ah), there is one adhan but some Sunni Muslims increase it to two adhans; the first is to call the people to the mosque, the second is said before the Imam begins the khutbah (sermon). Just before the prayers start, someone amongst the praying people recites the iqama as in all prayers. The basis for this is that at the time of the Caliph Uthman he ordered two adhans to be made, the first of which was to be made in the marketplace to inform the people that the Friday prayer was soon to begin, and the second adhan would be the regular one held in the mosque. Not all Sunnis prefer two adhans as the need for warning the people of the impending time for prayer is no longer essential now that the times for prayers are well known.

Dua[edit]

During adhan[edit]

While listening to the adhan, Muslims repeat the same words silently, except when the muezzin says ḥayya ʿala ṣ-ṣalāh or ḥayya ʿala l-falāḥ they silently say lā hawla wa lā quwata illā billāh (there is no strength or power except from God).

Post-adhan[edit]

The following dua (supplication) is optionally read by Muslims after the adhan is recited:

Arabic Transliteration Translation
اللهم رب هذه الدعوة التامة والصلاة القائمة Allahumma rabba hadhihi-d-daʿwati -t-tāmma wa-ṣ-ṣalāti-l-qāʾimah O God, owner of this perfect call and owner of this prayer to be performed.
آت محمداً الوسيلة و الفضيلة ʾāti muḥammadan al-wasīlata w-al-faḍīlah Bestow upon Muhammad a station in Jannah[13] and a rank above the rest of creation.
وابعثه مقاماً محموداً الذي وعدته w-abʿath-hu maqāman maḥmūdan alladhī waʿadtahu And raise him to the rank you have promised him.

Form[edit]

Each phrase is followed by a longer pause and is repeated one or more times according to fixed rules. During the first statement each phrase is limited in tonal range, less melismatic, and shorter. Upon repetition the phrase is longer, ornamented with melismas, and may possess a tonal range of over an octave. The adhan's form is characterised by contrast and contains twelve melodic passages which move from one to another tonal center of one maqam a fourth or fifth apart. The tempo is mostly slow; it may be faster and with fewer melismas for the sunset prayer. During festivals, it may be performed antiphonally as a duet.[14]

Turkey[edit]

As an extension of the reforms brought about by the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, the Turkish government at the time, encouraged by Atatürk, introduced secularism to Turkey. The program involved implementing a Turkish adhan program as part of its goals, as opposed to the conventional Arabic call to prayer.[15]

The adhan was replaced with the following:

Tanrı uludur
Şüphesiz bilirim, bildiririm
Tanrı'dan başka yoktur tapacak.
Şüphesiz bilirim, bildiririm;
Tanrı'nın elçisidir Muhammed.
Haydin namaza, haydin felaha,
Namaz uykudan hayırlıdır.

Following the conclusion of said debates, the Presidency of Religious Affairs (Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı) released an official mandate on July 18, 1932, announcing the decision to all the mosques across Turkey, and the practice was continued for a period of 18 years.

On July 16, 1950, a new government was sworn in, led by Adnan Menderes, which restored Arabic as the liturgical language.

Turkish National Anthem[edit]

Adhan in the eighth verse of İstiklâl Marşı, the Turkish national anthem

O glorious Allah, the sole wish of my soul is that,
No heathen's hand should ever touch the bosom of my sacred Temples.
These adhans, whose shahadahs are the foundations of my Dīn (religion),
May their noble sound last loud and wide over my eternal homeland.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Sahih Bukhari 89.329
  2. ^ a b c d Sahih Muslim : Book 020: Number 4477, 4478, 4480, 4481, 4482, 4483
  3. ^ a b c d Sunan Abu Dawood : Book 36: Number 4266
  4. ^ a b c d Sunan al-Tirmidhi (Arabic) Chapter of Fitan,
    2:45 (India) and 4:501 Tradition # 2225 (Egypt)
    Hadith #2149 (numbering of al-'Alamiyyah)
  5. ^ a b c Quran : Surah Sajda: Ayah 24-25
  6. ^ Adapted from: Adhan and Iqamah
  7. ^ "Akhbari". Akhbari. Retrieved 2013-12-31. 
  8. ^ Islamic Laws : Rules of Namaz » Adhan and Iqamah
  9. ^ Importance and Conditions of Prayers - Question #466
  10. ^ Ad'han- Call to Prayer #928
  11. ^ Quran : Al‑Ahzaab: Ayah 33
  12. ^ Haykal, Muhammad Husayn. The Life of Muhammad. p. 200. 
  13. ^ Islamic paradise.
  14. ^ Touma, Habib Hassan (1996). The Music of the Arabs, p.157-158, trans. Laurie Schwartz. Portland, Oregon: Amadeus Press. ISBN 0-931340-88-8.
  15. ^ The Adhan in Turkey

External links[edit]