The Adirondack Park is a publicly protected, elliptical area encompassing much of the northeastern lobe of Upstate New York, United States. It is the largest park and the largest state-level protected area in the contiguous United States, and the largest National Historic Landmark.
The park covers some 6.1 million acres (2.5×106 ha), a land area roughly the size of Vermont and greater than the National Parks of Yellowstone, Yosemite, Grand Canyon, Glacier, and Great Smoky Mountains combined.
The Adirondack Park boundary, commonly referred to as the 'Blue Line,' contains the entire Adirondack Mountain range, as well as some surrounding areas, all within the state of New York. The park includes all of Hamilton and Essex counties, as well as considerable portions of Clinton, Franklin, Fulton, Herkimer, St. Lawrence, and Warren counties and small portions of Lewis, Oneida, Saratoga, and Washington counties as well. (The Clinton County towns of Altona and Dannemora, despite being entirely within the park boundary, are specifically excluded from the park by statute, due to the large prison facilities in both towns.)
Not all of the land within the park is owned by the state, although new sections are frequently purchased or donated. State land comprises 2.7 million acres (1.1×106 ha), about 45% of the park's area, including the highest peaks in New York State, as well as Mount Marcy, the highest elevation in the state. About 1 million acres (400,000 ha) of this is classified as wilderness, with most of the remainder managed under the somewhat less stringent wild forest classification. Villages and hamlets comprise less than 1% of the area of the park; the remaining area of more than 3 million acres (1.2×106 ha) is privately held but is generally sparsely developed. There is often no clear demarcation between state, private, and wilderness lands in the park. Signs marking the Adirondack Park boundary can be found on most of the major roads in the region, but there are no entrance gates and no admission fee.
The vast majority of the Adirondack Mountains are within the bounds of the traditional territory of the Mohawk First Nation until at least 1720. A sedentary agrarian democratic society before Contact, they controlled the eastern part of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Confederacy or Six Nations. The Mohawk population had already been decimated by European diseases when they were largely driven out of their homeland by foreign European settlers. Although the Confederacy was divided, most of the Iroquois sided with the British during the American Revolution. After the war, most of the Iroquois land which fell within the American border was forcefully signed over through treaties or seized outright. During the 19th century, the U.S. Government forced most of the Iroquois off their traditional territory into reservations in the Midwest. Many escaped to Canada, where they were granted land in the British colony of Upper Canada, modern day Ontario. Citizens of the Mohawk Nation, numbering around 125,000 today, now live mostly north of the Saint Lawrence River in Canada along with the other member nations of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy. The Iroquois are now in the midst of land claims proceedings over parts of the state of New York.
The thinking that was to lead to the creation of the park first appeared in George Perkins Marsh's Man and Nature, published in 1864. Marsh argued that deforestation could lead to desertification: referring to the clearing of once lush lands surrounding the Mediterranean, he asserted "the operation of causes set in action by man has brought the face of the earth to a desolation almost as complete as that of the moon."
The idea for the park itself first occurred to surveyor Verplanck Colvin in 1870, while taking in the view from atop Seward Mountain. He wrote to the state government that action was necessary to protect the forests or it would be wasted, which would lead to the drying up of the water needed to keep the Erie Canal in operation. Three years later he was appointed to a committee formed to consider how to do this.
While his term 'Adirondack Park' led to some derision and fears from longtime residents of the area that they might be bought out and evicted, proponents of the idea began to use 'Adirondack Forest Preserve' instead. Both terms continue in use to this day, with the former referring to the land inside the Blue Line and the latter to that portion owned by the state.
In 1878, Seneca Ray Stoddard produced a topographical survey of the Adirondacks that was influential in the creation of the Park.
Serious efforts to protect this land began in 1882, when businessmen in New York began to be concerned about the effects of widespread logging. Without trees, the many steep slopes on the mountains in the region were likely to erode, and the silt from the slopes could conceivably have silted up the Erie Canal and the Hudson itself, choking off New York State’s economic backbone.
In 1885, legislation, signed by Governor David B. Hill, declared that the land in the Adirondack Park and the Catskill Park was to be conserved and never put up for sale or lease. The park was established in 1892, due to the activities of Colvin and other conservationists, including those affiliated with the Northwoods Walton Club. The park was given state constitutional protection in 1894, so that the state-owned lands within its bounds would be protected forever ('forever wild'). The part of the Adirondack Park under government control is referred to as the Adirondack Forest Preserve. Further, this became a National Historic Landmark in 1963.
On September 18, 2008, The Nature Conservancy purchased Follensby Pond - about 14,600 acres (5,900 ha) of private land inside the park boundary - for $16 million. The group plans on selling the land to the state which will add it to the forest preserve once the remaining leases for recreational hunting and fishing on the property expire.
Comparison of selected data from 1900 and 2000
|Area of the Park||2,800,000 acres (1,100,000 ha)||6,000,000 acres (2,400,000 ha)|
|State-owned area||1,200,000 acres (490,000 ha) (43%)||2,400,000 acres (970,000 ha) (40%)|
|Travel time, New York City to Old Forge||6.5 hours by railroad||6 hours by car|
|Permanent park residents||100,000||130,000|
|Length of public road in the park||4,154 miles (6,685 km) plus 500 miles (800 km) of passenger railroad track||6,970 miles (11,220 km)|
|Industry||92 sawmills, 15 iron mines, 10 pulp/paper mills||40 sawmills|
Ongoing efforts have been made to reintroduce native fauna that had been lost in the park during earlier exploitation. Animals in various stages of reintroduction include the American beaver, the fisher, the American marten, the moose, the Canadian lynx, and the osprey. Not all of these restoration efforts have been successful yet. There are 53 known species of mammals that live in the park.
The park has a year-round population of about 130,000 people in dozens of villages and hamlets. Seasonal residents number about 200,000, while an estimated 7-10 million tourists visit the park annually. It is estimated that 84 million people live within a day's drive of the park.
There are more than 3,000 lakes and 30,000 miles (48,000 km) of streams and rivers. Many areas within the park are devoid of settlements and distant from usable roads. The park includes over 2,000 miles (3,200 km) of hiking trails; these trails comprise the largest trail system in the nation. With its combination of private and public lands, its large scale and its long history as a place people have tried to coexist with nature, many see the Adirondacks as a model for the ways natural areas with human populations can be protected into the future. There are parks in India and other countries that use the Adirondacks concept.
The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) is responsible for the care, custody, and management of the 2.7 million acres (1.1×106 ha) of public (state) land in the Adirondack Forest Preserve. The Adirondack Park Agency (APA, created 1971) is a governmental agency that performs long-range planning for the future of the Adirondack State Park. It oversees development plans of private land-owners, as well as activities within the Forest Preserve. Development by private owners must be reviewed to determine if their plan is compatible with the park.
This system of management is distinctly different from New York's state park system, which is managed by different agencies, primarily the state's Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation. While it is frequently referred to as a state park, the Adirondack Park has much more in common with a national forest: it mixes private and public land and has year-round residents within its boundaries in long-established settlements. 'Adirondack Park' was Verplanck Colvin's original term for the area; it and the park itself predate by several decades the formal establishment of state parks in New York.
There are two major museums that interpret the region. The Adirondack Museum contains extensive collections about the human settlement of the park while The Wild Center is dedicated to the natural world of the Adirondacks.
There are currently a total of 32 golf courses within the Adirondack Park border. These courses include:
The southern side of the park is closer to major population centers, and lies just north of the New York State Thruway (Interstate 90). Interstate 87 (the Adirondack Northway) traverses the eastern side of the park between the Capital District of New York and Montreal, Canada. The northern and western portions of the park are somewhat more remote, but can be reached from Interstate 81, NY 3, NY 28, and US 11. The park is also served by the Adirondack Regional Airport, Amtrak's Adirondack Route along the shores of Lake Champlain, the Adirondack Scenic Railroad from Utica to Lake Placid, and the Saratoga and North Creek Railroad. Plattsburgh International Airport, is situated just a few miles outside of the parks eastern boundary in Plattsburgh, NY and offers easy access as well.
- Adirondack Mountains
- Adirondack Museum
- Adirondack Park Visitor Information Center
- The Wild Center
- List of Wilderness Areas in the Adirondack Park
- List of New York state parks
- "Adirondack Forest Preserve". National Park Service. 2007-11-01.
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2007-01-23.
- Adirondack Park Land Use Area Statistics - March 2003
- De Capua, Sarah. The IroquoisPublished by Marshall Cavendish, 2006. ISBN 0-7614-1896-2, ISBN 978-0-7614-1896-2
- "Post-Standard Special Reports". syracuse.com. 2006-01-07. Retrieved 2011-03-16.
- Terrie, Phillip G., Contested Terrain; A New History of Nature and People in the Adirondacks, Syracuse: Adirondack Museum/Syracuse University Press, 1997. ISBN 978-0-8156-0904-9.
- Schneider, Paul, The Adirondacks, A History of America's First Wilderness, New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1997. ISBN 978-0-8050-3490-5.
- Webb, Nina H., Footsteps through the Adirondacks, The Verplanck Colvin Story, Utica: North Country Books, 1996. ISBN 0-925168-50-5.
- Nash, Roderick F. 2001. Wilderness and the American Mind, 4th ed. New Haven: Yale University Press, p.117.
- Richard Greenwood (February 7, 1976). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Adirondack Forest Preserve". National Park Service.
- Martin Espinoza (2008-09-18). "Conservancy Buys Slice of Adirondacks". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 21 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-18.
- "SUNY-ESF: Adirondack Ecological Center". Esf.edu. Retrieved 2011-03-16.
- Adirondack Park Agency - Maps & Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
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- Pure Adirondacks A Guide to the Adirondack Experience
- Real Estate Adirondack Real Estate
- New York Adirondack Park Agency
- New York Department of Environmental Conservation
- The Adirondack Mountain Club
- The Adirondack Museum
- A Central Park for the World
- Protect the Adirondacks!
- The Adirondack Council
- The Wild Center
- The Wildlife Conservation Society's Adirondack Program
- Adirondack Journal of Environmental Studies