Adjectivals and demonyms for cities

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The following is a list of adjectival forms of cities in English and their demonymic equivalents, which denote the people or the inhabitants of these cities.

Note: Demonyms are given in plural forms. Singular forms simply remove the final 's' or, in the case of -ese endings, are the same as the plural forms. The ending -men has feminine equivalent -women (e.g. an Irishman and a Scotswoman). The French terminations -ois / ais serve as both the singular and plural masculine; adding 'e' (-oise / aise) makes them singular feminine; 'es' (-oises / aises) makes them plural feminine. The Spanish termination "-o" usually denotes the masculine and is normally changed to feminine by dropping the "-o" and adding "-a". The plural forms are usually "-os" and "-as" respectively.

Adjectives ending -ish can be used as collective demonyms (e.g. the English, the Cornish). So can those ending in -ch / -tch (e.g. the French, the Dutch) provided they are pronounced with a 'ch' /tʃ/ sound (e.g. the adjective Czech in /k/ does not qualify).

Where an adjective is a link, the link is to the language or dialect of the same name. (Reference: Ethnologue, Languages of the World)

Many place-name adjectives and many demonyms refer also to various other things, sometimes with and sometimes without one or more additional words. (Sometimes, the use of one or more additional words is optional.) Notable examples are cheeses, cat breeds, dog breeds, and horse breeds. (See List of words derived from toponyms.)

Note: Many of these adjectivals and demonyms are not used in English as frequently as their counterparts in other languages. A common practice is to use a city's name as if it were an adjective, as in "Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra", "Melbourne suburbs", etc.

City Country Adjective Demonym (colloquial)
Aberdeen United Kingdom Aberdonian Aberdonians
Adelaide Australia Adelaidean Adelaideans
Albany United States Albanian Albanians
Alexandria Egypt Alexandrian Alexandrines
Amalfi Italy Amalfitan Amalfitans
Angeles Philippines Angelino Angelinos
Aosta Italy Aostan, Aostain Aostans, Aostains
Armagh United Kingdom Armachian Armachians
Asheville United States Ashevillain Ashevillains
Athens Greece Athenian Athenians
Atlanta United States Atlantan Atlantans
Auckland New Zealand Auckland Aucklanders ("Jafas")
Austin United States Austonian Austinites
Baltimore United States Baltimorean Baltimoreans
Bangalore India Bangalorean Bangaloreans
Bangkok Thailand Bangkokian Bangkokians
Baton Rouge United States Baton Rougean Baton Rougeans
Bedford United Kingdom Bedfordian (not Bedfordite) Bedfordians
Beijing (Peking) China Pekinese Beijinger, Pekinese
Belfast United Kingdom Belfast Belfastite
Belo Horizonte Brazil Belo-Horizontino Belo-Horizontinos
Belgrade Serbia Belgradian Belgraders
Benevento Italy Beneventan Beneventans
Bergamo Italy Bergamasque Bergamasques
Berlin Germany Berliner Berliners
Bern Switzerland Bernese Bernese
Birmingham United Kingdom Birminghamian ("Brummie") Birminghamians ("Brummies")
Birmingham United States Birminghamian Birminghamians ("Birminghamsters")
Bologna Italy Bolognese Bolognese
Bogota Colombia Bogotan Bogotans
Bolton United Kingdom Boltonian Boltonians
Bordeaux France Bordelais Bordelais
Boston United States Bostonian Bostonians
Brasilia Brazil Brasiliense Brasilienses
Bratislava Slovakia Bratislavan Bratislavan
Brescia Italy Brescian Brescians
Brighton United Kingdom Brightonian Brightonians
Brisbane Australia Brisbanian Brisbanians (Brisbanites)
Bristol United Kingdom Bristolian Bristolians
Brussels Belgium Bruxellois1, Brusselaar2, Brusseleer3
Budapest Hungary Budapesti Budapesters
Buenos Aires Argentina Porteño Porteños
Buffalo United States Buffalonian Buffalonians
Cagayan de Oro Philippines Cagayanon Cagayanons
Cairns Australia Cairnian Cairnians
Cairo Egypt (Cairene) Cairenes
Calgary Canada Calgarian Calgarians
Cambridge United Kingdom Cantabrigian Cantabrigians4
Cambridge United States
Campinas Brazil Campineiro Campineiros
Canberra Australia Canberran Canberrans
Cape Town South Africa (Capetonian) Capetonians
Caracas Venezuela Caraquenian Caraquenians
Cardiff United Kingdom Cardiffian Cardiffian
Carystus Greece Carystian Carystians
Cebu Philippines Cebuano Cebuanos
Charlotte United States Charlottean Charlotteans
Chelmsford United Kingdom Chelmsfordian Chelmsfordians
Chennai India Chennaite Chennaites
Chicago United States Chicagoan Chicagoans
Christchurch New Zealand Cantabrian Cantabrians
Cincinnati United States Cincinnatian Cincinnatian
Cleveland United States Clevelander
Copenhagen Denmark Copenhagener Copenhageners
Corinth Greece Corinthian Corinthians
Cork Republic of Ireland Cork Corkonians ("Leesiders")
Cracow (Kraków) Poland Cracovian (Krakovian) Cracovians (Krakovians)
Curitiba Brazil Curitibano Curitibanos
Dallas United States Dallasites
Da Lat Vietnam Dalatese Dalatese
Darwin Australia Darwinian5 Darwinians
Davao Philippines Davaoeño Davaoeños
Delhi India Delhiite Delhiites
Denver United States Denverite Denverites
Derry United Kingdom Derry Derrian
Detroit United States Detroiters
Devonport Australia Devonportian Devonportians
Dresden Germany Dresdener Dresdeners
Dublin Republic of Ireland Dublin Dubliners ("Dubs")
Dundee United Kingdom Dundonian Dundonians
Dunedin New Zealand Dunedin Dunedinites
Durban South Africa Durban Durbanites
East Troy United States East Trojan East Trojans
Edinburgh United Kingdom Edinburgensian Edinburger
Edmonton Canada Edmontonian Edmontonians
Epidaurus Greece Epidaurian Epidaurians
Florence Italy Florentine Florentines
Fort Lauderdale United States Fort Lauderdalers, Fort Lauderdalians
Fort Wayne United States Fort Wayniacs
Foz do Iguaçu Brazil Iguaçuense Iguaçuenses
Frankfurt Germany Frankfurter Frankfurters
Fredericton Canada Frederictonian Frederictonians
Fresno United States Fresnans, Fresnoans
Galway Republic of Ireland Galway Galwegians
Geneva Switzerland Genevan, Genevese Genevans, Genevese
Genoa Italy Genoese Genoese
Glasgow United Kingdom Glaswegian Glaswegians
Gold Coast Australia Gold Coast Gold Coasters
Grand Rapids United States Grand Rapidian Grand Rapidians
Guadalajara Mexico Tapatío Tapatíos
Halifax Canada Haligonian Haligonians
Hamburg Germany Hamburger Hamburgers
Hamilton Canada Hamiltonian Hamiltonians
Hamilton New Zealand
Hanoi Vietnam Hanoian Hanoians
Hanover Germany Hanoverian Hanoverians
Hartlepool United Kingdom Hartlepudlian Hartlepudlian ("Monkey hanger")
Hastings New Zealand Hastingite Hastingites
Helsinki Finland Helsinkian Helsinkians
Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam Saigonese Saigoners
Hong Kong China Hong Kong, Hongkongish Hongkongers, Hongkongish, Honger
Honolulu United States Honolulan Honolulans
Houston United States Houstonian Houstonians
Hyderabad India Hyderabadi Hyderabadis
Iloilo Philippines Ilonggo Ilonggos
Invercargill New Zealand Invercargill Invercargillites, Invercargillonians
Inverness United Kingdom Invernessian Invernessians
Iqaluit Canada Iqalummiut (sing. Iqalummiuq)
Islamabad Pakistan Islamabadi Islamabadians
Itabira Brazil Itabirano Itabiranos
Istanbul Turkey Istanbulite Istanbulites
Jacksonville United States Jacksonvillian; Jaxon Jacksonvillians; Jaxons[1]
Izmir Turkey Izmirian Izmirians
Jerusalem Israel Jerusalemite, Yerushalmi
ירושלמי (Hebrew)
Jerusalemites, Yerushalmim
Juiz de Fora Brazil Juiz-forano Juiz-foranos
Juneau City/Borough United States Juneauites
Karachi Pakistan Karachiite Karachiites
Kastoria Greece Kastorian Kastorians
Kenosha United States Kenoshan Kenoshans
Kiev Ukraine Kievan Kievans
Kingston United States Kingstonian Kingstonians
Knoxville United States Knoxvillian Knoxvillians
Kota Kinabalu Malaysia Kota Kinabaluan Kota Kinabaluans
Kuala Lumpur Malaysia ("KL-ites"6)
Kuching Malaysia Kuchingite Kuchingites
Lagos Nigeria Lagosian Lagosians
Lahore Pakistan Lahori Lahoris
La Paz Bolivia Paceño Paceños
Las Vegas United States Las Vegan Vegan
Leeds United Kingdom Leodensian Leodensians
León Spain Leonese Leoneses
Lima Peru Limeño Limeños
Lisbon Portugal Lisboeta Alfacinha
Liverpool United Kingdom Liverpudlian Liverpudlians ("Scousers")
Livorno Italy Leghornese, Livornese Leghornese, Livornese
London United Kingdom Londoner Londoners
Londrina Brazil Londrinense Londrinenses
Los Angeles United States Angeleno Angelenos
Lucca Italy Lucchese Lucchesi
Lviv Ukraine Leopolitan Lviviane
Lyon (Lyons) France Lyonese; Lyonnais (French) Lyonese; Lyonnais (French)
Macau China Macanese Macanese
Madrid Spain Madrilenian; Madrileño (Spanish) Madrilenians; Madrileños (Spanish)
Malacca Malaysia Malaccan Malaccans
Málaga Spain Malagan; Malagüeño (Spanish) Malagans; Malagüeños (Spanish)
Manchester United Kingdom Mancunian Mancunians ("Mancs")
Manila Philippines Manileño Manileños
Mantua Italy Mantuan Mantuans
Marathon Greece Marathonian Marathonians
Marseille France Marseillais Marseillais
Megara Greece Megarian Megarians
Melbourne Australia Melburnian Melburnians
Memphis United States Memphian Memphians
Messina Italy Messinese Messinese
Mexico City Mexico Capitalino Capitalinos ("Chilangos"/"Defeños")
Milan Italy Milanese Milanese
Milan United States Milanites, Milaners
Milwaukee United States Milwaukeean Milwaukeeans
Misrata Libya Misratan Misratans
Minneapolis United States Minneapolitan Minneapolitans
Minot United States Minotian Minoters
Modena Italy Modenese Modenese
Monterrey Mexico Regiomontano Regiomontanos
Montreal Canada Montreal Montrealers/Montrealais
Moscow Russia Muscovite Muscovites
Mumbai India Mumbaikar Mumbaikars
Muncie United States Munsonian Munsonian
Munich Germany Münchner Münchner
Napier New Zealand Napieran Napierans
Naples Italy Neapolitan Neapolitans
Nashville United States Nashvillian Nashvillians
Nassau The Bahamas Nassuvian Nassuvians
Nelson New Zealand Nelson Nelsonians
New Orleans United States New Orleanian New Orleanians, New Orleaners ("Yats")
New York City United States New York New Yorkers ("Gothamites"/"Knickerbockers")
The Bronx Bronx Bronxites, Bronxers
Brooklyn Brooklyn Brooklynites (archaic: "Trolley Dodgers")
Manhattan Manhattan Manhattanites
Queens Queens Queensites
Staten Island7 Staten Island Staten Islanders
Newcastle Australia Novocastrian Novocastrians
Newcastle upon Tyne United Kingdom Novocastrian ("Geordie") Novocastrians ("Geordies")
Nice France Niçois Niçois
Nicosia Cyprus Nicosian Nicosians
Northampton United Kingdom Northamptonian Northamptonians
Oakbank Canada Oakbankian Oakbankians
Oakland United States Oaklander Oaklanders
Oamaru New Zealand Oamaru, Oamaruvian Oamaruvians
Odessa Ukraine Odessit(e) Odessites
Omak United States Omakian Omakians[2]
Oslo Norway Oslovian Oslovians
Osaka Japan Osakan Naniwakko (難波っ子/浪速っ子; Japanese), Osakans (English)
Ottawa Canada Ottawan Ottawans
Oxford United Kingdom Oxonian Oxonians8
Paddock Lake United States Paddock Laker Paddock Lakers
Padua Italy Paduan Paduans
Palermo Italy Palermitan Palermitans
Palmerston North New Zealand Palmerstonian Palmerstonians
Paris France Parisian Parisians
Parma Italy Parmesan Parmesans
Penang Malaysia Penangite Penangites
Perth Australia Perth Perthites, Perthians
Perugia Italy Perugian Perugians
Peterborough United Kingdom Peterbourian Peterbourians
Philadelphia United States (Philadelphian) Philadelphians
Phoenix United States Phoenician, Phoenixer Phoenicians, Phoenixers
Pisa Italy Pisan Pisans
Pittsburgh United States Pittsburgher Pittsburghers
Polmont United Kingdom Polmontarian Polmontarians
Pompeii Italy Pompei(i)an Pompei(i)ans
Ponferrada Spain Ponferradian Ponferradians
Porto Portugal Portuense Tripeiro
Porto Alegre Brazil Porto-Alegrense Porto-Alegrenses
Portland United States Portlander Portlanders
Prague Czech Republic Praguer Praguers
Pristina Kosovo Prishtinali, Prishtinas (Albanian)
Prištinci, Prištevci (Serbian)
Providence United States Providentian Providentians
Pylos Greece Pylian Pylians
Quebec City Canada Quebec (City) (English); québécois (French) Quebeckers, Quebecers (English); Québécois9 (French)
Randall United States Randallite Randallites
Reading United Kingdom Readingite Readingites
Regina Canada Regina (modifier), Reginan Reginans
Reno United States Renoite Renoites
Rethymno Greece Rethymnian Rethymnians
Reims (or Rheims) France Rémois (Cornichons) Rémois
Richmond United States Richmonder Richmonders
Riga Latvia Rigan Rigans
Rio de Janeiro Brazil Carioca Cariocas
Rhodes Greece Rhodian Rhodians
Rochester United States (Rochesterian) Rochesterians
Rome Italy Roman Romans
Rotorua New Zealand Rotoruan Rotoruans
St. Louis United States St. Louisan St. Louisans
Sacramento United States Sacramentan Sacramentans
Saint Petersburg Russia Saint Petersburgian Saint Petersburgians
Salem United States Salemander Salemanders
Salerno Italy Salernitan Salernitans
Salt Lake City United States Salt Lake Salt Lakers
Salvador Brazil Soteropolitano Soteropolitanos
San Antonio United States San Antonian San Antonians
San Diego United States San Diegan San Diegans
San Francisco United States San Franciscan San Franciscans
San Jose United States San Josean San Joseans
Santa Clarita United States Santa Claritan Santa Claritans
Santa Cruz de la Sierra Bolivia Cruceño Cruceños
São Carlos Brazil Sãocarlense and Carlopolitano Sãocarlenses and Carlopolitanos
São Paulo Brazil Paulistano Paulistanos
Saskatoon Canada Saskatoon (modifier), Saskatonian Saskatonians ("Saskabushers")
Savannah United States Savannaian Savannians
Seattle United States Seattleite Seattleites
Seoul South Korea Seoulite Seoulites
Serres Greece Serrean Serreans
Shanghai China Shanghainese Shanghainese
Siena Italy Sien(n)ese Sien(n)ese
Silver Lake United States Silver Laker Silver Laker
Sheffield United Kingdom Sheffielders
Skopje Macedonia Skopjan Skopjans
Slough United Kingdom Sluff Sluffs
Sofia Bulgaria Sofian Sofians
Solihull United Kingdom Silhillian Silhillians
Somers United States Somersite Somersites
Sorrento Italy Sorrentine Sorrentines
Sparta Greece Spartan Spartans
Spoleto Italy Spoletian Spoletians
Stockholm Sweden Stockholmer Stockholmers
Strasbourg France Strasbourgeois Strasbourgeois
Stuttgart Germany Stuttgarter Stuttgarters
Sunderland United Kingdom "Mackems"
Swindon United Kingdom Swindonian Swindonians
Sydney Australia Sydney Sydneysiders
Syracuse Italy Syracusan Syracusans
Tallinn Estonia Tallinner Tallinners
Taranto Italy Tarantine, Tarentine Tarantines, Tarentines
Tbilisi Georgia Tbilisian Tbilisians; Tbiliselebi (Georgian)
Thebes Greece Theban Thebans
Thessaloniki Greece Thessalonian Thessalonians
Tokyo Japan Edokko (江戸っ子; Japanese), Tokyoites (English)
Toowoomba Australia Toowoomban Toowoombans
Toronto Canada Toronto, Torontonian Torontonians[3]
Tournai Belgium Tournaisian Tournaisian
Townsville Australia Townsvillian Townsvillians
Trevor United States Trevorite Trevorites
Trent Italy Tridentine Tridentines
Trieste Italy Triestine Triestines
Tripoli Libya Tripolitan Tripolitans
Trois-Rivières Canada Trifluvien, Trifluvienne (French); Trifluvian (English) Trifluviens/Trifluviennes (French); Trifluvians (English)
Trois-Rivières France Trois-rivieran Trois-rivieran
Tucson United States Tucsonan Tucsonans
Tulsa United States Tulsan Tulsans
Turin Italy Turinese Turinese
Twin Lakes United States Twin Laker Twin Lakers
Uberlândia Brazil Uberlandense Uberlandenses
Valencia Spain Valencian Valencians
Vancouver Canada Vancouverite Vancouverites
Venice Italy Venetian Venetians
Veracruz Mexico Veracruzano Veracruzano (Jarocho)
Verona Italy Veronese Veronese
Vicenza Italy Vicentine Vicentines
Vichy France Vichyssois Vichyssois
Vienna Austria Viennese Viennese
Warsaw Poland Varsovian Varsovians
Washington, D.C. United States Washingtonian Washingtonians10
Wellington New Zealand Wellington, Wellingtonian Wellingtonians
Wheatland United States Wheatlander Wheatlanders
Wichita United States Wichitan Wichitans
Wilmot United States Wilmotter Wilmotters
Winchester United Kingdom Wintonians
Winnipeg Canada Winnipeggers, Winnipegers
Wolverhampton United Kingdom Wulfrunians
Xalapa Veracruz Xalapeño Xalapeños
Xanthi Greece Xanthian Xanthians
Yerevan Armenia Yerevani Yerevanis
Zintan Libya Zintani Zintanis
  1. Used to identify those of Walloon descent
  2. Used to identify those of Flemish descent
  3. Used to identify those bi- or multilingual citizens merely belonging to Brussels
  4. Also used to identify graduates of the University of Cambridge.
  5. Not to be confused with the movements and concepts of English naturalist Charles Darwin.
  6. Pronounced "KAY-el-ites".
  7. Formerly Richmond.
  8. Also used to identify graduates of the University of Oxford.
  9. Often confused with residents of the Province of Québec. If it is necessary to distinguish between residents of the city and the province, French-speakers will use québécois/e de Québec for the city and québécois/e du Québec for the province.
  10. Not to be confused with the inhabitants of Washington State.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Call Box". The Florida Times-Union. April 26, 2000. Retrieved July 17, 2012. 
  2. ^ Clark, Doug (March 26, 1996). "Town Tradition Goads Residents Into Donations". The Spokesman-Review (Cowles Publishing Company). Retrieved April 6, 2013. 
  3. ^ Street, Hudson (1911-09-13). "Old Torontonian; If He Likes Toronto So Much, Why Live Here?". The New York Times. p. 8. Retrieved 2008-02-23.