List of adjectival and demonymic forms for countries and nations

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The following is a list of adjectival forms of countries and nations in English and their demonymic equivalents. A country adjective describes something as being from that country, for example, "Italian cuisine" is "cuisine of Italy". A country demonym denotes the people or the inhabitants of or from there, for example, "Germans" are people of or from Germany. Note: Demonyms are given in plural forms. Singular forms simply remove the final 's' or, in the case of -ese endings, are the same as the plural forms. The ending -men has feminine equivalent -women (e.g. an Irishman and a Scotswoman). The French terminations -ois / ais serve as both the singular and plural masculine; adding 'e' (-oise / aise) makes them singular feminine; 'es' (-oises / aises) makes them plural feminine. The Spanish termination "-o" usually denotes the masculine and is normally changed to feminine by dropping the "-o" and adding "-a". The plural forms are usually "-os" and "-as" respectively.

Adjectives ending in -ish can be used as collective demonyms (e.g. the English, the Cornish). So can those ending in -ch / -tch (e.g. the French, the Dutch) provided they are pronounced with a 'ch' sound (e.g. the adjective Czech does not qualify).

Many place-name adjectives and many demonyms refer also to various other things, sometimes with and sometimes without one or more additional words. (Sometimes, the use of one or more additional words is optional.) Notable examples are cuisines, cheeses, cat breeds, dog breeds, and horse breeds. (See List of words derived from toponyms.)

Country name Adjectivals Demonyms
colloquial term(s)
Abkhazia Abkhaz, Abkhazian Abkhazians
Afghanistan Afghan Afghans
Albania Albanian Albanians
Algeria Algerian Algerians
American Samoa American Samoan American Samoans
Andorra Andorran Andorrans
Angola Angolan Angolans
Anguilla Anguillan Anguillans
Antigua and Barbuda Antiguan, Barbudan Antiguans, Barbudans
Argentina Argentine, Argentinean, Argentinian Argentines, Argentineans, Argentinians
Armenia Armenian Armenians
Aruba Aruban Arubans
Australia Australian Australians "Aussies"
Austria Austrian Austrians
Azerbaijan Azerbaijani, Azeri Azerbaijanis, Azeris
Bahamas Bahamian Bahamians
Bahrain Bahraini Bahrainis
Bangladesh Bangladeshi Bangladeshis
Barbados Barbadian  ("Bajan") Barbadians "Bajans"
Belarus Belarusian Belarusians
Belgium Belgian Belgians
Belize Belizean Belizeans
Benin Beninese, Beninois Beninese, Beninois
Bermuda Bermudian, Bermudan Bermudians, Bermudans
Bhutan Bhutanese Bhutanese
Bolivia Bolivian Bolivians
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian, Bosniak, Herzegovinian Bosnians, Bosniaks, Herzegovinians
Botswana Motswana (pl. Batswana), Botswanan Batswana, Botswanans
Brazil Brazilian Brazilians
British Virgin Islands British Virgin Island British Virgin Islanders
Brunei Bruneian Bruneians
Bulgaria Bulgarian Bulgarians
Burkina Fasoa Burkinabè/Burkinabé Burkinabè/Burkinabé
Burmab Burmese Bamar, Burmese
Burundi Burundian Burundians, Barundi
Cambodia Cambodian Cambodians
Cameroon Cameroonian Cameroonians
Canada Canadian Canadians "Canucks"c
Cape Verde Cape Verdean Cape Verdeans
Cayman Islands Caymanian Caymanians
Central African Republic Central African Central Africans
Chad Chadian Chadians
Chile Chilean Chileans
People's Republic of China Chinese Chinese
Republic of China See Taiwan, below
Christmas Island Christmas Island Christmas Islanders
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Cocos Island Cocos Islanders
Colombia Colombian Colombians
Comoros Comorian Comorians
Dem. Republic of the Congo Congolese, Congo[citation needed] Congolese
Republic of the Congo
Cook Islands Cook Island, Cook Islands Cook Islanders
Costa Rica Costa Rican Costa Ricans "Ticos"
Côte d'Ivoire Ivorian Ivorians
Croatia Croatian Croatians, Croats
Cuba Cuban Cubans
Cyprus Cypriot Cypriots
Czech Republic Czech Czechs
Denmark Danish Danes
Djibouti Djiboutian Djiboutians
Dominica Dominicand Dominicansd
Dominican Republic Dominicane Dominicanse "Quisqueyanos"
East Timor Timorese Timorese "Maubere"
Ecuador Ecuadorian Ecuadorians
Egypt Egyptian Egyptians
El Salvador Salvadoranf Salvadoransf
England English English
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinean, Equatoguinean Equatorial Guineans, Equatoguineans
Eritrea Eritrean Eritreans
Estonia Estonian Estonians
Ethiopia Ethiopian Ethiopians
Falkland Islands Falkland Island Falkland Islanders "Belongers"
Faroe Islands Faroese Faroese
Fiji Fijian Fijians
Finland Finnish Finns
France French French (or Frenchman/Frenchwoman)
French Guiana French Guianese French Guianese
French Polynesia French Polynesian French Polynesians, Tahitians[1]
Gabon Gabonese Gabonese
Gambia Gambian Gambians
Georgia Georgian Georgians
Germany German Germans
Ghana Ghanaian Ghanaians
Gibraltar Gibraltar Gibraltarians Llanitos
Great Britain British Britons see Other words for "British"
Greece Greek, Greciang, Hellenic Greeks, Greciansg, Hellenes
Greenland Greenlandic Greenlanders
Grenada Grenadian Grenadians
Guadeloupe Guadeloupe Guadeloupians
Guam Guamanian, Guambat Guamanians
Guatemala Guatemalan Guatemalans
Guinea Guinean Guineans
Guyana Guyanese Guyanese
Haiti Haitian Haitians Ayisyen
Honduras Honduran Hondurans "Catrachos"
Hong Kong Hong Kong, Hongkongese Hongkongers, Hongkongese "Hongkies" "Hongers"
Hungary Hungarian, Magyar Hungarians, Magyars
Iceland Icelandic Icelanders
India Indian Indians
Indonesia Indonesian Indonesians
Iran Iranian, Persian Iranians, Persians
Iraq Iraqi Iraqis
Ireland Irish Irish
Isle of Man Manx Manx
Israel Israeli Israelis
Italy Italian, Italicf Italians, Italicsf
Jamaica Jamaican Jamaicans
Japan Japanese Japanese
Jordan Jordanian Jordanians
Kazakhstan Kazakh, Kazakhstani Kazakhstanis, Kazakhs
Kenya Kenyan Kenyans
Kiribati I-Kiribati I-Kiribati
North Korea North Korean Koreans
South Korea South Korean
Kosovo Kosovar, Kosovan Kosovars
Kuwait Kuwaiti Kuwaitis
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstani, Kyrgyz, Kirgiz, Kirghiz Kyrgyzstanis, Kyrgyz, Kirgiz, Kirghiz
Laos Laotian, Lao Laotians, Laos
Latvia Latvian Latvians, Letts
Lebanon Lebanese Lebanese
Lesotho Basotho Basotho
Liberia Liberian Liberians
Libya Libyan Libyans
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein Liechtensteiners
Lithuania Lithuanian Lithuanians
Luxembourg Luxembourg, Luxembourgish Luxembourgers
Macau Macanese, Chinese Macanese, Chinese
Republic of Macedonia Macedonian Macedonians
Madagascar Malagasy Malagasy
Malawi Malawian Malawians
Malaysia Malaysian Malaysians
Maldives Maldivian Maldivians
Mali Malian Malians
Malta Maltese Maltese
Marshall Islands Marshallese Marshallese
Martinique Martiniquais, Martinican Martiniquais
Mauritania Mauritanian Mauritanians
Mauritius Mauritian Mauritians
Mayotte Mahoran Mahorais
Mexico Mexican Mexicans
Micronesia, Federated States of Micronesian Micronesians
Moldova Moldovan Moldovans
Monaco Monégasque, Monacan Monégasques, Monacans
Mongolia Mongolian Mongolians, Mongols
Montenegro Montenegrin Montenegrins
Montserrat Montserratian Montserratians
Morocco Moroccan Moroccans
Mozambique Mozambican Mozambicans
Namibia Namibian Namibians
Nauru Nauruan Nauruans
Nepal Nepalese, Nepali Nepalese, Nepali
Netherlands Dutch, Netherlandic Dutch, Netherlanders, Dutchmen
New Caledonia New Caledonian New Caledonians
New Zealand New Zealand, NZ New Zealanders "Kiwis"
Nicaragua Nicaraguan Nicaraguans
Niue Niuean Niueans
Niger Nigerien Nigeriens
Nigeria Nigerian Nigerians
Norway Norwegian Norwegians
Northern Ireland Northern Irish / British / Irish Northern Irish / British / Irish
Northern Marianas Northern Marianan Northern Marianans
Oman Omani Omanis
Pakistan Pakistani Pakistanis
Palestine Palestinian Palestinians
Palau Palauan Palauans
Panama Panamanian Panamanians
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinean, Papuan Papua New Guineans, Papuans
Paraguay Paraguayan Paraguayans
Peru Peruvian Peruvians
Philippines Philippine, Filipino Filipinos, Filipinas Pinoys
Pitcairn Island Pitcairn Island Pitcairn Islanders
Poland Polish Poles
Portugal Portuguese Portuguese
Puerto Rico Puerto Rican Puerto Ricans, Boricuas
Qatar Qatari Qataris
Republic of Ireland Irish / Southern Irish h Irish / Southern Irish h
Réunion Réunionese, Réunionnais Réunionese, Réunionnais
Romania Romanian Romanians
Russia Russian Russians
Rwanda Rwandan Rwandans, Banyarwanda
St. Helena St. Helenian St. Helenians
St. Kitts and Nevis Kittitian, Nevisian Kittitians, Nevisians
St. Lucia St. Lucian St. Lucians
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon Saint-Pierrais, Miquelonnais Saint-Pierrais, Miquelonnais
St. Vincent and the Grenadines St. Vincentian, Vincentian St. Vincentians, Vincentians
Samoa Samoan Samoans
San Marino Sammarinese Sammarinese
São Tomé and Príncipe São Toméan São Toméans
Saudi Arabia Saudi, Saudi Arabian Saudis, Saudi Arabians
Scotland Scots, Scottish, Scotchi Scots, Scotsmen
Senegal Senegalese Senegalese
Serbia Serbian Serbians, Serbs
Seychelles Seychellois Seychellois
Sierra Leone Sierra Leonean Sierra Leoneans
Singapore Singaporean[2][3] Singaporeans[4][5]
Slovakia Slovak Slovaks
Slovenia Slovenian, Slovene Slovenians, Slovenes
Solomon Islands Solomon Island Solomon Islanders
Somalia Somali; Somalian Somalis; Somalians
South Africa South African South Africans
South Ossetia South Ossetian South Ossetians
South Sudan South Sudanese South Sudanese
Spain Spanish Spaniards
Sri Lanka Sri Lankan Sri Lankans
Sudan Sudanese Sudanese
Surinam Surinamese Surinamers
Swaziland Swazi Swazis
Sweden Swedish Swedes
Switzerland Swiss Swiss
Syria Syrian Syrians
Taiwan Taiwanese Taiwanese
Tajikistan Tajikistani Tajikistanis, Tajiks
Tanzania Tanzanian Tanzanians
Thailand Thai Thai
Togo Togolese Togolese
Tonga Tongan Tongans
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidadian, Tobagonian Trinidadians, Tobagonians "Trinis", "Trinibagonians"
Tunisia Tunisian Tunisians
Turkey Turkish Turks
Turkmenistan Turkmen Turkmens
Turks and Caicos Islands none Turks and Caicos Islanders
Tuvalu Tuvaluan Tuvaluans
Uganda Ugandan Ugandans
Ukraine Ukrainian Ukrainians
United Arab Emirates Emirati, Emirian, Emiri Emiratis, Emirians, Emiri
United Kingdom British, UK Britons see Other words for "British"
United States Americanj, US Americansj "Yanks" / "Yankees"
Uruguay Uruguayan Uruguayans
Uzbekistan Uzbekistani, Uzbek Uzbekistanis, Uzbeks
Vanuatu Ni-Vanuatu, Vanuatuan Ni-Vanuatu
Venezuela Venezuelan Venezuelans
Vietnam Vietnamese Vietnamese
Virgin Islands Virgin Island Virgin Islanders
Wales Welsh Welsh
Wallis and Futuna Wallisian, Futunan Wallisians, Futunans
Western Sahara Sahraw, Sahrawian, Sahraouian Sahrawis, Sahraouis
Yemen Yemeni Yemenis
Zambia Zambian Zambians
Zimbabwe Zimbabwean Zimbabweans

a  Formerly known as Upper Volta.
b  Also known as Myanmar.
c  Sometimes considered offensive.
d  The penultimate syllable is stressed.
e  The second syllable is stressed.
f  Salvadorean and Salvadorian are also found, but Salvadoran is the generally preferred form.
g  Rare and/or archaic.
h  There is no adjective or demonym that distinguishes the Republic of Ireland from the entire island of Ireland. When distinction from Northern Ireland is necessary, the colloquial Southern Irish or Southerner is sometimes used; some people in the Republic of Ireland may find this offensive, though others in Northern Ireland may find it equally offensive in not distinguishing the Republic of Ireland from the island. As an alternative, an adjectival phrase may be used – for instance, "a law of the Republic of Ireland" – or, as a last resort, the name "Republic of Ireland" may be used as if it were an adjective (as in "a Republic of Ireland law").
i  Scotch is only normally used for manufactured products of Scotland, most commonly food and drink – in most other contexts it is archaic and often considered mildly derogatory. Scottish is used for everything else.
j  In near-universal use, though many names for United States citizens have been proposed.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Sometimes used pars pro toto.
  2. ^ |url= missing title (help). Retrieved 13 June 2013. 
  3. ^ Merriam-Webster |url= missing title (help). Retrieved 13 June 2013. 
  4. ^ |url= missing title (help). Retrieved 13 June 2013. 
  5. ^ Merriam-Webster |url= missing title (help). Retrieved 13 June 2013. 

External links[edit]