List of adjectivals and demonyms for subcontinental regions

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The following is a list of adjectival forms of subcontinental regions in English and their demonymic equivalents, which denote the people or the inhabitants of these subcontinental regions.

Note: Demonyms are given in plural forms. Singular forms simply remove the final 's' or, in the case of -ese endings, are the same as the plural forms. The ending -men has feminine equivalent -women (e.g. an Irishman and a Scotswoman). The French terminations -ois / ais serve as both the singular and plural masculine; adding 'e' (-oise / aise) makes them singular feminine; 'es' (-oises / aises) makes them plural feminine. The Spanish termination "-o" usually denotes the masculine and is normally changed to feminine by dropping the "-o" and adding "-a". The plural forms are usually "-os" and "-as" respectively.

Adjectives ending -ish can be used as collective demonyms (e.g. the English, the Cornish). So can those ending in -ch / -tch (e.g. the French, the Dutch) provided they are pronounced with a 'ch' sound (e.g. the adjective Czech does not qualify).

Where an adjective is a link, the link is to the language or dialect of the same name. (Reference: Ethnologue, Languages of the World)

Many place-name adjectives and many demonyms refer also to various other things, sometimes with and sometimes without one or more additional words. (Sometimes, the use of one or more additional words is optional.) Notable examples are cheeses, cat breeds, dog breeds, and horse breeds. (See List of words derived from toponyms.)

Where an adjective is a link, the link is to the language or dialect of the same name.

Africa
Name Adjective Demonym
Mediterranean Mediterranean
Nile River Nilotic
Nubia Nubian Nubians
Sahara Saharan Sahrawi
Americas
Name Adjective Demonym
Acadiana, Cajun Country Acadian (Cajuns)
Aleutian Islands Aleut, Aleutian Aleuts, Aleutians
Amazon river and region Amazonian
Antilles Antillean Antilleans
Appalachia Appalachian
Caribbean Caribbean
Ceara Cearense Cearenses
Guiana Guianan Guianans
Long Island Long Islanders
Maritimes Maritime Maritimers
Minas Gerais Mineiro Mineiros
New England New England New Englanders
Patagonia Patagonian Patagonians
Parana (state) Paranaense Paranaenses
Rio de Janeiro (state) Fluminense Fluminenses
Rio Grande do Sul Sul-rio-grandense, Gaúcho Gaúchos
St. Lawrence River Laurentian
Santa Catarina Catarinense, Barriga-verde Catarinenses, Barrigas-verdes
São Paulo (state) Paulista Paulistas
Upper Peninsula of Michigan Yoopers
West Indies West Indian West Indians
Asia
Name Adjective Demonym
Bali Balinese Balinese
Balochistan, Baluchistan Balochi/s, Baluchi/s
Bengal Bengali Bengalis
Bihar Bihari Biharis
Borneo Bornean Borneans
Caucasus, Caucasia Caucasian, Caucasic Caucasians
Gujarat Gujarati Gujaratis
Hokkaidō Dosanko (道産子)
Indochina Indochinese Indochinese
Java Javanese, Sundanese Javanese, Sundanese
Kashmir Kashmiran Kashmiris
Korea Korean Koreans
Melanesia Melanesian Melanesians
Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands Okinawan, Ryukyuan Okinawans, Ryukyuans
Punjab Punjabi Punjabis
Siberia Siberian Siberians
Sindh, Sind Sindhi Sindhi, Sindhis
Tibet Tibetan Tibetans
Middle East
Name Adjective Demonym
Galilee Galilean Galileans
Judea, Judaea Judean, Judaean Judeans, Judaeans
Kurdistan Kurdish Kurds
Samaria Samaritan Samaritans
Oceania
Name Adjective Demonym
Antipodesa Antipodean Antipodeans
Melanesia Melanesian Melanesians
Micronesia Micronesian Micronesians
Polynesia Polynesian Polynesians
Tahiti Tahitian Tahitians

a Usually refers to Australia and New Zealand.

Europe
Name Adjective Demonym
Alps Alpine
Alsace Alsatian Alsatians
Apennines Apennine
Aragon Aragonese Aragonese
Asturias Asturian Asturians
Balkans Balkan
Baltic region Baltic Balts
Bavaria Bavarian Bavarians
Basque Country Basque Basques
Bohemia Bohemian Bohemians
Brittany Breton Bretons
Burgundy Burgundian Burgundians
Cambridge Cantabrigian Cantabrigians
Canterbury (England) Cantuarian Cantuarians
Carinthia Carinthian Carinthians
Castile Castilian Castilians
Caucasus, Caucasia Caucasian, Caucasic Caucasians
Cornwall Cornish Cornish
Crimea Crimean Crimeans
Courland Curonian Curonians
Danube River Danubian
Fife Fife Fifers
Flanders Flemish Flemings
Franconia Franconian Franconians
Friesland, Frisian Islands Friesian, Frisian Friesians, Frisians
Galicia (Central Europe) Galician Galicians
Galloway Gallovidian Gallovidians
Gascony Gascon Gascons
Harrow Harrovian Harrovians
Hesse Hessian Hessians
Holstein Holsteinian Holsteiner
Iberian Peninsula Iberian Iberians
Kosovo and Methohija Kosovar, Kosovan Kosovars, Kosovans
Lancashire Lancastrian Lancastrians
Lapland Lapp, Saami Lappish, Saamis
León Leonese Leoneses
Lombardy Lombard, Lombardic Lombards
Lorraine Lorrainian Lorrainians
Lusatia Lusatian Lusatians
Mediterranean Mediterranean
Murcia Murcian Murcians
Navarre Navarrese Navarrese
Normandy Norman Normans
Northumberland Northumbrian Northumbrians
Palatinate Palatine Palatines
Pennines Pennine
Picardy Picard Picards
Piedmont Piedmontese Piedmontese
Po River Padane
Provence Provençal
Rhineland Rhenish Rhinelanders
Savoy Savoyard Savoyards
Saxony Saxon Saxons
Scandinavia Scandinavian Scandinavians
Tuscany Tuscan Tuscans
Tyrol Tyrolean, Tyrolese Tyroleans, Tyrolese
Veneto Venetian Venetians
Wallonia Walloon Walloons
Westphalia Westphalian Westphalian