Administrative division of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
The lands that once belonged to the Commonwealth are now largely distributed among several Central, Eastern, and Northern European countries today: Poland (except western Poland), Lithuania, Latvia, Belarus, most of Ukraine, parts of Russia, southern half of Estonia, and smaller pieces in Slovakia, Romania and Moldova.
While the term "Poland" was also commonly used to denote this whole polity, Poland was in fact only part of a greater whole – the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which comprised primarily two parts:
- the Crown of the Polish Kingdom (Poland proper), colloquially "the Crown"; and
- the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, colloquially "Lithuania."
The Crown in turn comprised two "prowincjas": Greater Poland and Lesser Poland. These and a third province, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, were the only three regions that were properly termed "provinces." The Commonwealth was further divided into smaller administrative units known as voivodeships (województwa – note that some sources use the word palatinate instead of voivodeship). Each voivodeship was governed by a Voivode (governor). Voivodeships were further divided into powiat's (often translated as county) being governed by a starosta generalny or grodowy. Cities were governed by castellans. There were frequent exceptions to these rules, often involving the ziemia subunit of administration: for details on the administrative structure of the Commonwealth, see the article on offices in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
By provinces, voivodships and lesser entities.
Crown of the Polish Kingdom (Polish Crown)
Crown of the Polish Kingdom or just colloquially the Crown (Polish: Korona) is the name for the territories under Polish direct administration in the times of Kingdom of Poland until the end of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1795.
|Voivodeship after 1569||Capital||Year established||Number of powiats (counties)||Area (km²)|
|Bełz Voivodeship||Bełz||1462||4 powiats||9,000|
|Bracław Voivodeship||Bracław||1569||2 powiats||31,500|
|Brześć Kujawski Voivodeship||Brześć Kujawski||14th century||5 powiats||3,000|
|Chernihiv Voivodeship||Chernihiv||1635||2 powiats|
|Gniezno Voivodeship||Gniezno||1768||3 powiats||7,500|
|Kalisz Voivodeship||Kalisz||1314||6 powiats||15,000|
|Kiev Voivodeship||Kiev||1471||3 powiats||200,000|
|Kraków Voivodeship||Kraków||14th century||4 powiats||17,500|
|Lublin Voivodeship||Lublin||1474||3 powiats||10,000|
|Łęczyca Voivodeship||Łęczyca||1772||3 powiats||4,000|
|Malbork Voivodeship||Malbork||1466||4 powiats||2,000|
|Masovian Voivodeship||Warsaw||1526||23 powiats||23,000|
|Podole Voivodeship||Kamianets-Podilskyi||1434||3 powiats||17,750|
|Poznań Voivodeship||Poznań||14th century||4 powiats||15,500|
|Płock Voivodeship||Płock||1495||8 powiats||3,500|
|Podlaskie Voivodeship||Drohiczyn||1513||3 powiats|
|Rawa Voivodeship||Rawa Mazowiecka||1462||6 powiats||6,000|
|Ruthenian Voivodeship||Lviv||1434||13 powiats||83,000|
|Sandomierz Voivodeship||Sandomierz||14th century||6 powiats||24,000|
|Sieradz Voivodeship||Sieradz||1339||4 powiats||10,000|
|Volhynian Voivodeship||Lutsk||1569||3 powiats||38,000|
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania or just colloquially the Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuva) is the name for the territories under direct Lithuanian administration in the times of medieval sovereign Lithuanian statehood, and later until the end of common Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth statehood in 1795.
Just before the Union of Lublin (1569), four voivodeships (Kiev, Podlaskie, Bracław, and Wołyń) of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were transferred to Polish Crown by direct order of Sigismund II Augustus and the Duchy of Livonia, that was acquired in 1561, became condominium (joint domain) of both Lithuania and Poland. Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was another condominium.
After 1569, Lithuania had eight voivodeships and one eldership remaining:
|Voivodeship after 1569||Capital||Year established||Number of powiats||Area (km²) in 1590|
|Brest Litovsk Voivodeship||Brest||1566||2 powiats||40,600|
|Minsk Voivodeship||Minsk||1566||3 powiats||55,500|
|Mstsislaw Voivodeship||Mstsislaw||1566||1 powiat||22,600|
|Nowogródek Voivodeship||Navahrudak||1507||3 powiats||33,200|
|Polotsk Voivodeship||Polotsk||1504||1 powiat||21,800|
|Samogitian Eldership||Raseiniai||1411||1 powiat||23,300|
|Trakai Voivodeship||Trakai||1413||4 powiats||31,100|
|Vilnius Voivodeship||Vilnius||1413||5 powiats||44,200|
|Vitebsk Voivodeship||Vitebsk||1511||2 powiats||24,600|
One of the oldest Lithuanian territories, the Duchy of Samogitia, had a status equal to that of a voivodeship, but retained the name of a Duchy.
Duchy of Prussia (1569–1657)
The Duchy of Prussia was a duchy in the eastern part of Prussia from 1525–1701. In 1525 during the Protestant Reformation, the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, Albert of Hohenzollern, secularized the Prussian State of the Teutonic Order, becoming Albert, Duke of Prussia. His duchy, which had its capital in Königsberg (Kaliningrad), was established as a fief of the Crown of Poland, as had been Teutonic Prussia since the Second Peace of Thorn in October 1466. This treaty had ended the War of the Cities or Thirteen Years' War and provided for the Order's cession of its rights over the western half of its territories to the Polish crown, which became the province of Royal Prussia, while the remaining part of the Order's land had became a fief of the Kingdom of Poland (1385–1569). In the 17th century King John II Casimir of Poland submitted Frederick William to regain Prussian suzerainty in return for supporting Poland against Sweden. On July 29, 1657 they signed the Treaty of Wehlau in Wehlau (Polish: Welawa; now Znamensk), whereby Frederick William renounced a previous Swedish-Prussian alliance and John Casimir recognised Frederick William's full sovereignty over the Duchy of Prussia. Full sovereignty was a necessary prerequisite for upgrading the Duchy to Kingdom of Prussia in 1701.
Duchy of Livonia (Inflanty) (1569–1772)
Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (Courland) (1562–1791)
The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia is a duchy in the Baltic region that existed from 1562 to 1791 as a vassal state of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In 1791 it gained full independence, but on 28 March 1795, it was annexed by the Russian Empire in the third Partition of Poland.
Thought was given at various times to the creation of a Duchy of Ruthenia, particularly during the 1648 Cossack insurrection against Polish rule in Ukraine. Such a Duchy, as proposed in the 1658 Treaty of Hadiach, would have been a full member of the Commonwealth, which would thereupon have become a tripartite Polish-Lithuanian-Ruthenian Commonwealth, but due to szlachta demands, Muscovite invasion, and division among the Cossacks, the plan was never implemented.
For similar reasons, plans for a Polish-Lithuanian-Muscovite Commonwealth also were never realized, although during the Polish-Muscovite War (1605-1618) the Polish Prince (later, King) Władysław IV Waza was briefly elected Tsar of Muscovy.
- Simas Sužiedėlis, ed. (1970–1978). "Administration". Encyclopedia Lituanica I. Boston, Massachusetts: Juozas Kapočius. pp. 17–21. LCC 74-114275.
- (Lithuanian) Vaitiekūnas, Stasys (2006). Lietuvos gyventojai: Per du tūkstantmečius. Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidybos institutas. p. 53. ISBN 5-420-01585-4.
- Henryk Rutkowski, 'Rivalität der Magnaten und Bedrohung der Souveränität', in: Polen. Ein geschichtliches Panorama, Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Interpress, 1983, pp. 81-91, here p. 83. ISBN 83-223-1984-3
- Trade, Diplomacy and Cultural Exchange: Continuity and Change in the North ISBN 90-6550-881-3, p 17