Administrative divisions of Mongolia during Qing

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Mongolia during Qing rule was generally administered as Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia; additional Mongol-inhabited regions were directly administered by the Qing dynasty.

The estate of the Jebtsundamba Khutugtu, the Great Shabi (from Mongolian shabi = disciple) would from 1723 on be independent from the four aimags, in the sense that its subjects would be exempt from most taxes and corvees. The shabi did - except the three Darkhad otog in Khövsgöl - not have an own territory. Rather, its subjects would mostly live among the general population. The shabi was led by a Shanzav or Shanzobda, and divided into otog, and then bag and arvan.[citation needed] Similar shabis would exist for other high lamas.[1]

Regions under direct control[edit]

The Direct-controlled Mongols (Chinese: 內屬蒙古) were banners (khoshuu) controlled by provinces, generals and ambasa.The following regions were directly controlled by the Manchu:

Inner Mongolia[edit]

Inner Mongolia[2] 's original 24 Aimags were torn apart and replaced by 49 banners (khoshuus) which would later be organized into six leagues (chuulgans, assemblys). The eight Chakhar banners and the two Tümed banners around Guihua were directly administered by the Manchu.

Outer Mongolia (Khalkha)[edit]

The Khalkha aimags were preserved - with the notable exception of the establishment of Sain Noyan aimag in 1725. Each aimag would also have a chigulgan, usually named after the place (mountains or rivers) where it convened. The aimags were divided into banners - whose number increased from originally eight to finally 86 - and further into sums.[3] A sum would consist of 150 men fit for military service, a bag of 50.[4] A military governor would be installed in Uliastai, and two civil governors (amban) in Khüree and in Kobdo.

  • Ochirbatu Tüshiyetu Khan aimag 20 banners
    • Gobi Tüshiye Gong
    • Darhan Chin Wang khoshuu
    • Zorigtu Wang khoshuu
    • Gobi Mergen Wang khoshuu
    • Erdeni Daichin Wang khoshuu
    • Daichin Beise khoshuu
  • Sain Noyan aimag 24 banners
    • Sain Noyan 22 banners
    • Ööld Banner
    • Ööld Front Banner
  • Maha Samadhi Secen Khan aimag 23 banners
    • Borjigin Secen Wang khoshuu
    • Achitu Wang khoshuu
    • Secen Chin Wang khoshuu
    • Sang Beise khoshuu
    • Höbchi yin Jinong Wang khoshuu
    • Hurtsa Wang khoshuu
    • Dalai Darhan Beile
  • Zasagtu Khan aimag 19 banners
    • Erdeni Bishireltu Zasagtu Khan khoshuu
    • Akhai Beile khoshuu
    • Dalai Gong khoshuu
    • Mergen Gong khoshuu
    • Degüregchi Wang khoshuu
    • Tsogtoi Beise khoshuu
    • Chin Achit Wang khoshuu
    • Zorigtu Wang khoshuu
    • Jilhanza Hutuhtu shabi
    • Ilagugsan Hutuhtu shabi
    • Sartaul Secen Hang khoshuu
    • Bagatur Wang khoshuu
    • Erdeni Beise khoshuu
    • Darhan Beile khoshuu
    • Daichin Wang khoshuu
    • Süjigtu Gong khoshuu
    • Üizen Beise khoshuu
    • Nomun Khan Hutuhtu shabi
    • Ilden Gong khoshuu
    • Bishireltu Gong khoshuu
    • Itgemjitu Beile khoshuu
    • Yosotu Beise khoshuu
    • Jinong Wang khoshuu

Khövsgöl[edit]

  • Jebtsundamba Khutugtu’s Darkhad Shabi 3 otog
  • Khövsgöl Nuur Uriankhai 4 sum
  • Ar Shirkhten Uriankhai 1 otog
  • Övör Shirkhten Uriankhai 1 otog

Western Hetao Mongolia[edit]

  • Alasha Ööled Banner (Modern day Alxa left and right banners in Alxa League, Inner Mongolia)
  • Ejine Torghuud Banner (Modern day Ejina banner in Alxa League, Inner Mongolia)

Other Mongolian Banners[edit]

Kobdo[edit]

30 khoshuu

  • Batu Irugertu Tögs Khülug Dalai Khan aimag
    • Batu Irugertu Tögs Khülug Dalai Khan khoshuu
    • Kobdo Taiachin khoshuu
    • Daichin Zasag khoshuu
    • Dalai Gong khoshuu
    • Jinong Zasag khoshuu
    • Erdeni Zasag khoshuu
    • Erhe Zasag khoshuu
    • Bagatur Zasag khoshuu
    • Mergen Zasag khoshuu
    • Iltei Zasag khoshuu
    • Secen Zasag khoshuu
    • Hurtsa Gong khoshuu
    • Saragul Gong khoshuu
  • Ünen Zorigtu Khan aimag
  • Altai Uriankhai 7 banners
    • Daichin Gong Banner
    • Tusalagchi Gong Banner
    • Torghuud, Khoshuud 3 banners
    • Zakhchin Örnö, Dorno Banner
    • Hovd Tümed Tariachin Banner

Qinghai Mongols[edit]

  • Khoshuud 21 banners
  • Choros 2 banners
    • Choros North Middle Banner
    • Choros South Right Wing First Banner
  • Khoyid 1 banner
    • Khoyid South Banner
  • Torghuud 4 banners
    • Torghuud West Banner
    • Torghuud South Front Banner
    • Torghuud South Middle Banner
    • Torghuud South Rear Banner
  • Khalkha 1 banner
    • Khalkha South Right Banner

Ili[edit]

13 banners (in modern day Xinjiang)

References[edit]

  1. ^ C.R.Bawden, The Modern History of Mongolia, London 1968, p. 106f
  2. ^ Michael Weiers (editor) Die Mongolen. Beiträge zu ihrer Geschichte und Kultur, Darmstadt 1986, p. 416ff
  3. ^ Weiers 1986, p.446
  4. ^ S. Demberel et al., BNMAU-yn tüükhiin zarim ner tomyoo, on tsagiin tailbar toli, Ulaanbaatar 1991, p. 18, 65