Adna Chaffee

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For his son, who was also a general, see Adna R. Chaffee, Jr..
Adna Romanza Chaffee
AdnaChaffee.jpg
General Adna R. Chaffee
Born (1842-04-14)April 14, 1842
Orwell, Ohio
Died November 1, 1914(1914-11-01) (aged 72)
Los Angeles, California
Place of burial Arlington National Cemetery
Allegiance  United States of America
Service/branch  United States Army
Years of service 1861-1906
Rank Union army lt gen rank insignia.jpg Lieutenant General
Commands held Department of the East
Chief of Staff of the United States Army
Battles/wars

American Civil War

Indian Wars

Spanish-American War

Boxer Rebellion

Philippine-American War

Other work Public Servant

Adna Romanza Chaffee (April 14, 1842 – November 1, 1914) was a Lieutenant General in the United States Army. Chaffee took part in the American Civil War and Indian Wars, played a key role in the Spanish-American War, and fought in the Boxer Rebellion in China. He was the Chief of Staff of the United States Army from 1904 to 1906, overseeing far-reaching transformation of organization and doctrine in the Army.

Civil War[edit]

Chaffee was born in Orwell, Ohio. When the American Civil War broke out in July 1861, Chaffee enlisted in the Union Army as a Private in the U.S. 6th Cavalry Regiment. In 1862, Chaffee was promoted to sergeant and took part in the Peninsular Campaign and the Battle of Antietam. In September of that year he was made the First Sergeant of Company K. He was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in May 1863. His 6th Cavalry, on detached service from General John Buford's 1st Union Cavalry Division, though outnumbered attacked a Confederate Cavalry regiment at Fairfield, Pennsylvania, just outside of Gettysburg on July 3, 1863 (source, Wittenberg, Eric: Gettysburg: Forgotten Cavalry Actions). In the ensuing action he was wounded and briefly held a prisoner of the Confederates. He served with the 6th Cavalry for the remainder of the war, being twice wounded. In February 1865, he was promoted to First Lieutenant. For his "gallant and meritorious" actions in the Battle of Dinwiddie Court House he was brevetted Captain.

After the War, Chaffee became a member of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States.

Indian Wars[edit]

Chaffee decided to remain with the Army after the war. He was posted to the western frontier, and was promoted to Captain of Regulars in October 1867. For the next thirty years he served in the Indian Wars, fighting the Central Plains and Southwestern tribes. In 1868, he was brevetted major for his actions at Paint Creek, Texas. In the following years he engaged the Indians many times, most notably at Red River, Texas in 1874, and Big Dry Wash, Arizona in 1882, for which he was brevetted Lieutenant Colonel. In July 1888 he was promoted to Major and transferred to the 9th Cavalry. From 1894 to 1896, he was an instructor of tactics at the Army’s Infantry and Cavalry School at Fort Leavenworth. In June 1897 he was promoted to Colonel and transferred to the 3rd Cavalry, where he served as commandant of the Cavalry School at Fort Riley until 1898.

Spanish-American War[edit]

With the outbreak of the Spanish-American War in 1898, he was assigned a brigade and was promoted to Brigadier General of volunteers in May of that year, and in July after the victory at El Caney, to Major General of volunteers. From late 1898 to May 1900, he served as the chief of staff to the military governor of Cuba, General Leonard Wood, being promoted to Colonel of regulars in May 1899.

Boxer Rebellion[edit]

In June 1900, the Boxer Rebellion broke out in China. Chaffee was sent to China in July as the commander of the U.S. Army’s China Relief Expedition. The Expedition was a part of the international force sent to rescue Western citizens and put down the rebellion. Chaffee participated in the Gaselee Expedition and subsequently the Battle of Peking (1900) in which the legations were relieved.

Later Military Service[edit]

In February 1901, he became a Major General in the regular army. From July of that year until October 1902, he served as the military governor of the Philippines. This included the beginning of the second phase of the Philippine Insurrection. In October 1902, he became commander of the Department of the East, a position he held until October 1903.

In January 1904, he was promoted to Lieutenant General and, from January 9, 1904 until January 14, 1906, served as the Chief of Staff of the United States Army. At his own request, he was retired on February 1, 1906.

In his retirement, he moved to Los Angeles, where he was appointed President of the Board of Public Works for the city of Los Angeles.

Family[edit]

Adna Chaffee, Jr.

Chaffee was married twice; in 1868, he married Kate Haynie Reynolds, who died the following year; in 1875, he married his second wife, Annie Frances Rockwell. His son, Adna Chaffee, Jr., also became a general and was one of the fathers of U.S. Army’s armored forces.

Dates of rank[edit]

Rank Date Component
              Private 22 July 1861 Union Army
Confederate States of America Sergeant-Artillery.svg Sergeant 1862 Union Army
Confederate States of America First Sergeant.jpg First Sergeant September 1862 Union Army
Union 2nd lt rank insignia.svg Second Lieutenant 13 March 1863 Union Army
Union army 1st lt rank insignia.jpg First Lieutenant 22 February 1865 Union Army
Union army cpt rank insignia.jpg Captain 12 October 1867 Regular Army
Union army maj rank insignia.jpg Major 7 July 1888 Regular Army
Union army lt col rank insignia.jpg Lieutenant Colonel 1 June 1897 Regular Army
Union army brig gen rank insignia.jpg Brigadier General 4 May 1898 Volunteers
Union army maj gen rank insignia.jpgMajor General 8 July 1898 Volunteers
Union army col rank insignia.jpg Colonel 8 May 1899 Regular Army
Union army maj gen rank insignia.jpg Major General 4 February 1901 Regular Army
Union army lt gen rank insignia.jpg Lieutenant General 9 January 1904 Regular Army

Tributes[edit]

A historical marker[1] documenting Chaffee's birthplace stands in Orwell, Ohio. As well, the city of Chaffee, Missouri was named in his honor when founded in 1905.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Military offices
Preceded by
Samuel B.M. Young
Chief of Staff of the United States Army
1904–1906
Succeeded by
John C. Bates