Adobe Flash Player
|Developer(s)||Adobe Systems and Microsoft Corporation (formerly by Macromedia)|
Google Chrome and Chrome OS
Linux (except for Google Chrome and Chrome OS)
|Operating system||Microsoft Windows, OS X, Linux, Solaris, BlackBerry Tablet OS, Android, and Pocket PC|
|Platform||Web browsers and ActiveX-based software|
|Available in||Chinese Simplified, Chinese Traditional, English, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Polish, Russian, Spanish, Korean, and Turkish.|
|Type||Run-time environment, Media player, and Browser extension|
The Adobe Flash Player is freeware software for viewing multimedia, executing rich Internet applications, and streaming video and audio, content created on the Adobe Flash platform. Flash Player can run from a web browser (as a browser plug-in) or on supported mobile devices, but there also exist versions running directly on an operating system intended both for regular users and content developers, denoted with the Projector (or Standalone) and Debugger name suffixes, respectively. Flash Player runs SWF files that can be created by the Adobe Flash Professional authoring tool, by Adobe Flex or by a number of other Macromedia and third party tools. Flash Player was created by Macromedia and now developed and distributed by Adobe Systems after its acquisition.
Flash Player can be downloaded for free and its plug-in version is available for recent versions of web browsers (such as Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Opera and Safari) on selected platforms. Google Chrome distribution comes bundled with the sandboxed Adobe Flash plug-in and will continue to support the plug-in in Windows 8 Metro mode. Each version of Adobe Flash Player is backwards-compatible.
- 1 Architecture
- 2 Development toolset
- 3 Availability
- 4 Criticism
- 5 Release history
- 6 See also
- 7 References and notes
- 8 External links
Adobe Flash Player is a runtime that executes and displays content from a provided SWF file, although it has no in-built features to modify the SWF file at runtime. It can execute software written in the ActionScript programming language which enables the runtime manipulation of text, data, vector graphics, raster graphics, sound and video. The player can also access certain connected hardware devices, including web cameras and microphones, after permission for the same has been granted by the user.
Flash Player is used internally by the Adobe Integrated Runtime (Adobe AIR), in order to provide a cross-platform runtime environment for desktop applications and mobile applications. Adobe AIR supports installable applications on Windows, Linux, OS X, and some mobile operating systems such as iOS and Android. Flash applications must specifically be built for the Adobe AIR runtime in order to utilize additional features provided, such as file system integration, native client extensions, native window/screen integration, taskbar/dock integration, and hardware integration with connected Accelerometer and GPS devices.
- XML: Flash Player has included native support for XML parsing and generation since version 8. XML data is held in memory as an XML Document Object Model, and can be manipulated using ActionScript. ActionScript 3 also supports ECMAScript for XML (E4X), which allows XML data to be manipulated more easily.
- AMF: Flash Player allows cookies to be stored on users computers, in the form of Local Shared Objects, the Flash equivalent to browser cookies. Flash Player can also natively read and write files in the Action Message Format, the default data format for Local Shared Objects. Since the AMF format specification is published, data can be transferred to and from Flash applications using AMF datasets instead of JSON or XML, reducing the need for parsing and validating such data.
- SWF: The specification for the SWF file format was published by Adobe, enabling the development of the SWX Format project, which utilized the SWF file format and AMF as a means for Flash applications to exchange data with server side applications. The SWX system stores data as standard SWF bytecode which is automatically interpreted by Flash Player. Another open-source project, SWXml allows Flash applications to load XML files as native ActionScript objects without any client-side XML parsing, by converting XML files to SWF/AMF on the server.
Flash Player is primarily a graphics and multimedia platform, and has supported raster graphics and vector graphics since its earliest version. It supports the following different multimedia formats which it can natively decode and playback.
- MP3: Support for decoding and playback of streaming MPEG-2 Audio Layer III (MP3) audio was introduced in Flash Player 4. MP3 files can be accessed and played back from a server via HTTP, or embedded inside an SWF file, which is also a streaming format.
- FLV: Support for decoding and playing back video and audio inside Flash Video (FLV and F4V) files, a format developed by Adobe Systems and Macromedia. Flash Video is only a container format and supports multiple different video codecs, such as Sorenson Spark, VP6 and more recently H.264. Flash Player uses hardware acceleration to display video where present, using technologies such as DirectX Video Acceleration and OpenGL to do so. Flash Video is used by YouTube, Hulu, Yahoo! Video, BBC Online and other news providers. FLV files can be played back from a server using HTTP progressive download, and can also be embedded inside an SWF file. Flash Video can also be streamed via RTMP using the Adobe Flash Media Server or other such server-side software.
- PNG: Support for decoding and rendering Portable Network Graphics (PNG) images, in both its 24-bit (opaque) and 32-bit (semi-transparent) variants. Flash Player 11 can also encode a PNG bitmap via ActionScript.
- JPEG: Support for decoding and rendering compressed JPEG images. Flash Player 10 added support for the JPEG-XR advanced image compression standard developed by Microsoft Corporation, which results in better compression and quality than JPEG. JPEG-XR enables lossy and lossless compression with or without alpha channel transparency. Flash Player 11 can also encode a JPEG or JPEG-XR bitmap via ActionScript.
- GIF: Support for decoding and rendering compressed Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) images, in its single-frame variants only. Loading a multi-frame GIF will display only the first image frame.
- HTTP: Support for communicating with web servers using HTTP requests and POST data. However, only websites that explicitly allow Flash to connect to them can be accessed via HTTP or Sockets, in order to prevent Flash being used as a tool for Cross-site request forgery, Cross-site scripting, DNS rebinding and Denial-of-service attacks. Websites must host a certain XML file known as a "cross domain policy", allowing or denying Flash content from specific websites to connect to them. Certain websites, such as Digg, Flikr, Photobucket already host a cross domain policy that permits Flash content to access their website via HTTP.
- RTMP: Support for live audio and video streaming using the Real Time Messaging Protocol (RTMP) developed by Macromedia. RTMP supports a non-encrypted version over the TCP or an encrypted version over a secure SSL connection. RTMPT can also be encapsulated within HTTP requests to traverse firewalls that only allow HTTP traffics.
- TCP: Support for TCP socket communication to communicate with any type of server, using stream sockets. Sockets can only be utilized using ActionScript, and can transfer plain text, XML or binary data (ActionScript 3.0 and later). In order to prevent security issues, web servers that permit Flash content to communicate with them using sockets must host an XML-based cross domain policy file, served on Port 843. Sockets enable AS3 programs to interface with any kind of server software, such as MySQL.
Current versions of Flash Player are optimized to use hardware acceleration for video playback and 3D graphics rendering on many devices, including desktop computers. Performance is similar to HTML5 video playback. Also, Flash Player has been used on multiple mobile devices as a primary user interface renderer.
Although code written in ActionScript 3 executes up to 10 times faster than the previous ActionScript 2, the Adobe ActionScript 3 compiler is a non-optimizing compiler, and produces inefficient bytecode in the resulting SWF, when compared to toolkits such as Adobe Alchemy (now available as part of the Flash C++ Compiler).
The Flash C++ Compiler, a toolkit that targets C++ code to run within the Flash Player, uses the LLVM compiler to produce bytecode that runs up to 10 times faster than code the ActionScript 3 compiler produces, only because the LLVM compiler uses more aggressive optimization.
Adobe has released ActionScript Compiler 2 (ASC2) in Flex 4.7 and onwards, which improves compilation times and optimizes the generated bytecode and supports method inlining, improving its performance at runtime.
Adobe has provided a free SDK in order to build Flash applications, now known as the Apache Flex SDK. The Flex SDK allows developers to use any text editor such as Notepad++ or FlashDevelop (an IDE) to edit ActionScript source code (.as files), and then build a corresponding Flash application application (.swf) or AIR application application and installer (.air file) from the same.
Adobe AIR applications can be built either with the Apache Flex Framework, or without. The framework is an integrated collection of stylable Graphical User Interface, data manipulation and networking components, and applications built upon it are known as "Flex" applications. Applications built without the framework depend entirely on the developer's own skills and artistic abilities, and are commonly known as "pure ActionScript" projects.
In both methods, developers can access the full Flash Player set of functionalities, including text, vector graphics, bitmap graphics, video, audio, camera and microphone support, among others. Adobe AIR also includes additional features such as file system integration, native extensions, native desktop integration, and hardware integration with connected devices.
Adobe provides three ways of developing applications:
- Adobe Flash Builder (formerly Adobe Flex Builder)
- Adobe Flash Professional
- Flash Runtime C++ Compiler (compiles C++ code to run in Flash Player)
Third-party development environments are also available:
- FlashDevelop, an open-source Flash ActionScript IDE, which includes a debugger for AIR applications
- FDT by PowerFlasher Solutions, a commercial ActionScript IDE
- CodeDrive, an extension to Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 for ActionScript 3 development and debugging
Adobe developed the Flash Runtime C++ Compiler (also known as "FlasCC"), that cross-compiles C/C++ code to run within the Flash Player, using LLVM and GCC as compiler backends, and high-performance memory-access opcodes in the Flash Player (known as "Domain Memory") to work with in-memory data quickly. FlasCC is targeted toward the game development industry, and includes tools for building, testing, and debugging C/C++ projects in Flash Player.
FlasCC also uses the GPU-based 3D rendering acceleration present in Flash Player 11 (known as "Stage3D"), and when used in combination with Domain Memory, form the Premium Features for Flash Player (also known as "XC APIs"). The Premium Features must be licensed for use and publishers must pay royalties to Adobe for use of the same. Adobe also ported OpenGL for use within Flash Player Stage3D and released it as an open-source project in 2012.
The documentation for the SWF file format is provided by Adobe free of cost on their website,. after they relaxed the requirement of accepting a non-disclosure agreement to view the same in 2008.
Adobe has not been willing to make complete source code of the Flash Player available for free software development. Free and open source alternatives to the Adobe Flash Player such as Gnash have been built, but are still incomplete and therefore not a viable alternative. The Lightspark Player is another such project, and has made more progress.
The source code for ActionScript Virtual Machine 2 (AVM2) which implements ActionScript 3 was donated as open-source to Mozilla Foundation on November 7, 2006, to begin work on the Tamarin virtual machine that will finally implement the ECMAScript 4 language standard with the help of the Mozilla community. It was released under the terms of a MPL/GPL/LGPL tri-license and includes the specification for the ActionScript bytecode format. Tamarin Project is jointly managed by Mozilla and Adobe Systems.
Adobe created the Open Screen Project which removes licensing fees and opens data protocols for Flash.
The Flash community has created many open-source projects that target Flash Player, such as FlashDevelop (an alternative IDE to Flash Builder), MTASC (compiler), and Haxe (multiplatform language).
The latest version of Flash Player, is available for many major desktop platforms including Windows (XP and newer) and OS X (10.6 and later). The latest version is also available on Linux but only on Google Chrome as Adobe no longer releases updates for the non-PPAPI plugin on Linux.
Adobe released an alpha version of Flash Player 10 for x86-64 Linux on November 17, 2008. Adobe released a beta version of Flash Player 11 on July 13, 2011, which has 64-bit editions for all supported platforms. Flash Player 11 was released to web on October 3, 2011.
Adobe Flash Player 11 is available in three flavors: "ActiveX", "Plug-in" and "Projector". The "ActiveX" version is an ActiveX control for use in Internet Explorer and any other Windows applications that supports ActiveX technology. The "plug-in" version is available for Netscape-compatible browsers on Microsoft Windows, Macintosh and Linux. The "projector" version is a standalone player that can open SWF files directly.
In 2011, Flash Player had emerged as the de facto standard for online video publishing on the desktop, with adaptive bitrate video streaming, DRM, and fullscreen support. On mobile devices however, after Apple refused to allow the Flash Player within the inbuilt iOS web browser, Adobe changed strategy enabling Flash content to be delivered as native mobile applications using the Adobe Integrated Runtime.
Up until 2012, Flash Player 11 was available for the Android (ARM Cortex-A8 and above), although in June 2012, Google announced that Android 4.1 (codenamed Jelly Bean) will not support Flash by default. Starting in August 2012, it is not possible to install Flash Player onto Android devices, and only devices with Flash already installed are updated.
Flash Player is certified to be supported on a select range of mobile and tablet devices, from Acer, BlackBerry 10, Dell, HTC, Lenovo, Logitech, LG, Motorola, Samsung, Sharp, SoftBank, Sony (and Sony Ericsson), and Toshiba. As of 2012, Adobe has stopped browser-based Flash Player development for mobile browsers in favor of HTML5, however Adobe continues to support Flash content on mobile devices with the Adobe Integrated Runtime, which allows developers to publish content that runs as native applications on certain supported mobile phone platforms.
Version 9 is the most recent version currently available for the Linux/ARM-based Nokia 770/N800/N810 Internet Tablets running Maemo OS2008, classic Mac OS and Windows 95/NT. Version 10 can be run under Windows 98/Me using KernelEx. HP offers Version 6 of the player for HP-UX. Other versions of the player have been available at some point for OS/2, Symbian OS, Palm OS, BeOS and IRIX. The Kodak Easyshare One includes Flash Player.
Adobe said it will optimize Flash for use on ARM architecture (ARMv6 and ARMv7 architectures used in the ARM11 family and the Cortex-A series of processors) and release it in the second half of 2009. The company also stated it wants to enable Flash on NVIDIA Tegra, Texas Instruments OMAP 3 and Samsung ARMs. Beginning 2009, it was announced that Adobe would be bringing Flash to TV sets via Intel Media Processor CE 3100 before mid-2009. Later on, ARM Holdings said it welcomes the move of Flash, because "it will transform mobile applications and it removes the claim that the desktop controls the Internet." However, as of May 2009, the expected ARM/Linux netbook devices had poor support for Web video and fragmented software base.
Among other devices, LeapFrog Enterprises provides Flash Player with their Leapster Multimedia Learning System and extended the Flash Player with touch-screen support. Sony has integrated Flash Player 6 into the PlayStation Portable's web browser via firmware version 2.70 and Flash Player 9 into the PlayStation 3's web browser in firmware version 2.50. Nintendo has integrated Flash Lite 3.1, equivalent to Flash 8, in the Internet Channel on the Wii.
The following table documents Flash Player and Adobe AIR support on mobile operating systems:
|Operating System||Prerequisites||Usage||Latest Adobe Flash Player|
|Android||Android 2.2+, ARM Cortex-A8+||Standalone Applications & Internet Browser||Flash Player 11.1, AIR 3.1|
|Android||Android 2.1, available on some rare Android Devices like the Motorola Flipout||Internet Browser||Flash Lite 3.0|
|Apple iOS||None||Standalone Applications||Flash Player 11.1, AIR 3.1|
|BlackBerry 10||Any version of BlackBerry 10||Internet Browser & Standalone Applications||Flash Player 11.1, AIR 3.1|
|BlackBerry Tablet OS||None||Standalone Applications & Internet Browser||Flash Player 11.1, AIR 3.1|
|Maemo||Internet Browser||Flash Player 9.4|
|PS3||Firmware 2.50, NetFront 2.81||Internet Browser||Flash Player 9.1 (update 3)|
|PSP||Firmware 2.70||Internet Browser||Flash Player 6)|
|Symbian OS||Internet Browser||Flash Lite 4.0|
|Wii||Opera||Internet Channel||Flash Lite 3.1|
|Pocket PC||Pocket PC 2003||Internet Browser||Flash Player 7 (stand-alone apps v6)|
|Windows Mobile||Windows Mobile 5||Internet Browser||Flash Player 7|
Flash Player is criticized for consuming more CPU time and memory compared to HTML5 alternatives. This is especially true for the non-windows versions.
In some browsers, previous Flash versions have had to be uninstalled before an updated version could be installed. However, as of version 11.2 for Windows, there are now automatic updater options. Linux is partially supported, as Adobe is cooperating with Google to implement it via Chrome web browser on all Linux platforms.
Mixing flash applications with HTML leads to inconsistent behavior with respect to input handling (keyboard and mouse not working as they would in an HTML-only document). This is often done in web sites  and can lead to poor user experience with the site.
Flash Player supports persistent local storage of data (also referred to as Local Shared Objects), which can be used similarly to HTTP cookies or Web Storage in web applications. Local storage in Flash Player allows websites to store non-executable data on a user's computer, such as authentication information, game high scores or saved games, server-based session identifiers, site preferences, saved work, or temporary files. Flash Player will only allow content originating from exactly the same website domain to access data saved in local storage.
Because local storage can be used to save information on a computer that is later retrieved by the same site, a site can use it to gather user statistics, similar to how HTTP cookies and Web Storage can be used. With such technologies, the possibility of building a profile based on user statistics is considered by some a potential privacy concern. Users can disable or restrict use of local storage in Flash Player through a "Settings Manager" page. These settings can be accessed from the Adobe website or by right-clicking on Flash-based content and selecting "Global Settings".
Local storage can be disabled entirely or on a site-by-site basis. Disabling local storage will block any content from saving local user information using Flash Player, but this may disable or reduce the functionality of some websites, such as saved preferences or high scores and saved progress in games.
Flash Player 10.1 and upward honor the privacy mode settings in the latest versions of the Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, and Safari web browsers, such that no local storage data is saved when the browser's privacy mode is in use.
Flash Player 10.3 introduced a Local Settings Manager that can be accessed from the Microsoft Windows Control Panel or the OS X System Preferences panel. This panel superseded the previous Global Online Settings Manager. The Privacy Settings panel allows users to specify whether websites must ask their permission before using the web camera or microphone. This was apparently part of a fix for vulnerabilities that enabled the use of Flash for spying via web camera.
Steve Jobs criticized the security of Flash Player, noting that "Symantec recently highlighted Flash for having one of the worst security records in 2009". Adobe responded by pointing out that "the Symantec Global Internet Threat Report for 2009 found that Flash Player had the second lowest number of vulnerabilities of all Internet technologies listed (which included both web plug-ins and browsers)."
Adobe security bulletins and advisories announce security updates, but Adobe Flash Player release notes do not disclose the security issues addressed when a release closes security holes, making it difficult to evaluate the urgency of a particular update. A version test page allows the user to check if the latest version is installed, and uninstallers may be used to ensure that old-version plugins have been uninstalled from all installed browsers.
In April 2010, Steve Jobs, at the time CEO of Apple Inc. published an open letter explaining why Apple wouldn't allow Flash on the iPhone, iPod touch and iPad. In the letter he blamed the "openness", the stability, the security and the performance of the Flash Player as reasons for refusing to support it. He explained why Flash is not suitable for touchscreen devices. He also claimed that when one of Apple's Macintosh computers crashes, "more often than not" the cause can be attributed to Flash. Additionally, he described Flash as "buggy". Adobe's CEO Shantanu Narayen responded by saying, "If Flash [is] the number one reason that Macs crash, which I'm not aware of, it has as much to do with the Apple operating system."
Steve Jobs also claimed that a large percentage of the video on the internet is supported on iOS, since many popular video sharing websites such as YouTube have published video content in an HTML5 compatible format, enabling videos to playback in mobile web browsers even without Flash Player.
- Macromedia Flash Player 2 (1997)
- Macromedia Flash Player 3 (1998)
- Added alpha transparency, licensed MP3 compression
- Brought improvements to animation, playback, and publishing, as well as the introduction of simple script commands for interactivity.
- Macromedia Flash Player 4 (May 1999)
- Saw the introduction of streaming MP3s and the Motion Tween. Initially, the Flash Player plug-in was not bundled with popular web browsers and users had to visit Macromedia website to download it; As of 2000, however, the Flash Player was already being distributed with all AOL, Netscape and Internet Explorer browsers. Two years later it shipped with all releases of Windows XP. The install-base of the Flash Player reached 92 percent of all Internet users.
- Macromedia Flash Player 5 (August 2000)
- A major leap forward in capability, with the evolution of Flash's scripting capabilities as released as ActionScript.
- Saw the ability to customize the authoring environment's interface.
- Macromedia Generator was the first initiative from Macromedia to separate design from content in Flash files. Generator 2.0 was released in April 2001 and featured real-time server-side generation of Flash content in its Enterprise Edition. Generator was discontinued in 2002 in favor of new technologies such as Flash Remoting, which allows for seamless transmission of data between the server and the client, and ColdFusion Server.
- In October 2000, usability guru Jakob Nielsen wrote a polemic article regarding usability of Flash content entitled "Flash: 99% Bad". (Macromedia later hired Nielsen to help them improve Flash usability.)
- Macromedia Flash Player 6 (version 22.214.171.124, codenamed Exorcist) (March 2002)
- Support for the consuming Flash Remoting (AMF) and Web Service (SOAP)
- Supports ondemand/live audio and video streaming (RTMP)
- Support for screenreaders via Microsoft Active Accessibility
- Added Sorenson Spark video codec for Flash Video
- Support for video, application components, shared libraries, and accessibility.
- Macromedia Flash Communication Server MX, also released in 2002, allowed video to be streamed to Flash Player 6 (otherwise the video could be embedded into the Flash movie).
- Macromedia Flash Player 7 (version 126.96.36.199, codenamed Mojo) (September 2003)
- Supports progressive audio and video streaming (HTTP)
- Supports ActionScript 2.0, an object-oriented programming language for developers
- Ability to create charts, graphs and additional text effects with the new support for extensions (sold separately), high fidelity import of PDF and Adobe Illustrator 10 files, mobile and device development and a forms-based development environment. ActionScript 2.0 was also introduced, giving developers a formal object-oriented approach to ActionScript. V2 Components replaced Flash MX's components, being rewritten from the ground up to take advantage of ActionScript 2.0 and object-oriented principles.
- In 2004, the "Flash Platform" was introduced. This expanded Flash to more than the Flash authoring tool. Flex 1.0 and Breeze 1.0 were released, both of which utilized the Flash Player as a delivery method but relied on tools other than the Flash authoring program to create Flash applications and presentations. Flash Lite 1.1 was also released, enabling mobile phones to play Flash content.
- Macromedia Flash Player 8 (version 188.8.131.52, codenamed Maelstrom) (August 2005)
- Support for runtime loading of GIF and PNG images
- New video codec (On2 VP6)
- Improved runtime performance and runtime bitmap caching
- Live filters and blendmodes
- File upload and download capabilities
- New text-rendering engine, the Saffron Type System
- ExternalAPI subsystem introduced to replace fscommand
- On December 3, 2005, Adobe Systems acquired Macromedia and its product portfolio (including Flash).
- Adobe Flash Player 9 (version 184.108.40.206, codenamed Zaphod and previously named Flash Player 8.5) (June 2006)
- Introduction of ActionScript Virtual Machine 2 (AVM2). AVM1 retained for compatibility.
- ActionScript 3 (a superset of ECMAScript 3) via AVM2.
- E4X, which is a new approach to parsing XML.
- Support for binary sockets.
- Support for regular expressions and namespaces.
- AVM2 donated to Mozilla Foundation as open-source virtual machine named Tamarin.
- Adobe Flash Player 9 Update 1 (version 220.127.116.11, codenamed Marvin) (November 2006)
- Support for full-screen mode.
- Adobe Flash Player 9 Update 2 (version Mac/Windows 18.104.22.168 and Linux 22.214.171.124, codenamed Hotblack) (July 2007)
- Security Update
- Adobe Flash Player 9 Update 3 (version 126.96.36.199, codenamed Moviestar or Frogstar) (December 2007)
- Adobe Flash Player 10 (version 10.0.12.36, codenamed Astro) (October 2008)
- New Features
- Enhanced Features
- Larger bitmap support
- Graphics drawing API
- Context menu
- Hardware acceleration
- Anti-aliasing engine (Saffron 3.1)
- Read/write clipboard access
- Adobe Flash Player 10.1 (version 10.1.53.64, codenamed Argo) (June 2010)
- Reuse of bitmap data copies for better memory management
- Improved garbage collector
- Hardware-based H.264 video decoding
- HTTP Dynamic Streaming
- Peer-assisted networking and multicast
- Support for browser privacy modes
- Multi-touch APIs
- For Macs/OSX 10.4 ppc or later
- Using Cocoa UI for Macs
- Use of double-buffered OpenGL context for fullscreen
- Use of Core Animation
- Adobe Flash Player 10.2 (version 10.2.152.26, codenamed Spicy) (February 2011)
- Adobe Flash Player 10.3 (version 10.3.181.14, codenamed Wasabi) (May 2011)
- Media measurement (video analytics for websites; desktop only)
- Acoustic Echo Cancellation (acoustic echo cancellation, noise suppression, voice activity detection, automatic compensation for microphone input levels; desktop only)
- Integration with browser privacy controls for managing local storage (ClearSiteData NPAPI)
- Native control panel
- Auto-update notification for OS X
- Adobe Flash Player 11 (version 188.8.131.52, codenamed Serrano) (October 2011)
- Desktop only
- Desktop and mobile
- Mobile only
- H.264/AAC playback
- Front-facing camera
- Background audio playback
- Device speaker control
- 16 and 32-bit color depth
- Adobe Flash Player 11.1 (version 184.108.40.206, codenamed Anza) (November 2011)
- Last version of the web browser plug-in for mobile devices (made for Android 2.2 to 4.0.3)
- iOS 5 native extensions for AIR
- StageText: Native text input UI for Android
- Security enhancements
- Adobe Flash Player 11.2 (codenamed Brannan) (March 2012)
- The Windows version offers automatic updater options.
- Dropped support of the browser plug-in for mobile devices (Android). Android app developers are encouraged to use Adobe Air and Android web developers should switch to HTML5.
- Extended support for Flash player 11.2 on Linux and Solaris as it is the last version to be supported.
- Adobe Flash Player 11.3
- Desktop and mobile
- Fullscreen interactive mode (keyboard input during fullscreen)
- Native bitmap encoding and compression (PNG, JPEG, JPEG-XR)
- Draw bitmaps with quality (low, medium, high, best)
- Texture streaming for Stage3D
- Dropped support for Linux and Solaris.
- Auto-orientation on specific devices
- USB debugging for AIR on iOS
- Desktop and mobile
- Adobe Flash Player 11.4
- Flash Player only
- ActionScript workers
- SandboxBridge support
- Licensing support: Flash Player Premium Features for Gaming
- Flash Player and AIR
- Stage3D "constrained" profile for increased GPU reach
- LZMA support for
- StageVideo attachCamera/Camera improvements
- Compressed texture with alpha support for Stage3D
- DXT encoding
- AIR only
- Deprecated Carbon APIs for AIR
- Direct AIR deployment using ADT
- Push notifications for iOS
- Ambient AudioPlaybackMode
- Exception support in Native Extensions for iOS
- Flash Player only
- Adobe Flash Player 11.5 
- Shared ByteArray
- Invoke Event enhancement (for openurl)
- Packaging multiple libraries in an ANE (iOS)
- Debug stack trace in release builds of Flash Player
- Statically link DRM (Desktop only)
- Adobe Flash Player 11.6 (codenamed Folsom) 
- Lossless video export from standalone and authplay.dll
- Support for flash.display.graphics.readGraphicsData() that returns a Vector of IGraphicsData
- Improve permissions UI related to full screen keyboard access
- Prevent ActiveX Abuse in Office Documents
- Support file access in cloud on Windows
- Enhance multi-SWF support
- Migration certification for ANEs
- File API update so AIR apps conform to Apple data storage guidelines
- Separate sampler state for Stage3D
- Set device specific Retina Display resolution (iOS)
- Adobe Flash Player 11.7 (codenamed Geary) 
- SharedObject.preventBackup property
- Remote hosting of SWF files in case of multiple SWFs
- Support for uploading 16-bit texture formats
- GameInput updates
- Android - Create captive runtime apps
- Adobe Flash Player 11.8 (codenamed Harrison) 
- Stage3D baselineExtended profile
- recursive stop on MovieClip
- Flash Player & AIR Desktop Game Pad Support
- Support for large textures (extendedBaseline, 4096)
- Rectangle texture
- Substitute a redirected URL from a source URLRequest for part of the URL in a new URLRequest
- Adobe Flash Player 11.9 (codenamed Irving) 
References and notes
- "Flash Player Download Center". Get.adobe.com. Retrieved April 10, 2012.
- Adobe Flash Player - Downloads, Adobe Systems Incorporated
- Adobe Flash Player Statistics: Penetration by version, Adobe Systems Incorporated
- Flash Player Usage Statistics, StatOwl
- Adobe Flash Player Enterprise Penetration, Adobe Systems Incorporated, study by Forrester Research, based on data from 50,000 corporate clients
- "Adobe Flash Runtimes Statistics". Adobe Systems Incorporated. Retrieved January 2, 2013.
- Integrated Adobe Flash Player Plug-in, Chrome team blog
- Porting Flash to sandboxed PPAPI platform, Official Chromium Blog
- Google Chrome plug-ins support in Windows 8 Metro mode, Official Chromium Blog
- Adobe AIR 3, Adobe
- "What are local shared objects?". Security and privacy. Adobe Systems. Retrieved 2007-12-05.
- SWX: SWF Data Format, official website
- swxjava - SWX RPC implementation in Java, Google Code
- swx-format - Data Format, Google Code
- SWX Contest Winners, SWX Format Website
- Introducing SWXml, Aral Balkan
- "Flash H.264". MainConcept. Retrieved 24 September 2010.
- Flash and the HTML5 <video> tag, YouTube Blog
- Pardon Our Dust, Hulu Blog
- Future Media Standards & Guidelines – AV Addendum v1.5 BBC
- Protocols: HTTP vs. RTMP> Beginner's Guide to Distributing Flash Video, Adobe Press
- Cross-domain policy file usage recommendations for Flash Player, Adobe
- Policy file changes in Flash Player 9 and Flash Player 10, Adobe
- Sites which support crossdomain.xml to allow Flash and Silverlight access, StackOverflow
- Socket, Adobe ActionScript 3 API Reference
- Sockets, ActionScript 3.0 Developer’s Guide
- Setting up a socket policy file server, Adobe
- AsSQL - MySQL Driver for AS3, Google Code
- Comparing Flash, HTML5 Performance, OS News
- Battery Performance with Flash Player 10.1 on Nexus One, Flash Mobile Blog
- Reference Designs and Demos, QNX
- ActionScript 3.0 overview, "ActionScript 3.0 code executes up to 10 times faster than legacy ActionScript code.", Adobe
- Alchemy:FAQ, Adobe Labs, "ASC performs few optimizations at this time"
- Zotov, Peter (2012-05-06). "Reaching the Limits of Adobe Stupidity - whitespace". Whitequark.org. Retrieved 2012-10-27.
- Alchemy:FAQ, Adobe Labs
- Optimizing ActionScript Bytecode using LLVM, Adobe
- Adobe Alchemy, is it ActionScript heresy?, Unit Zero One
- Introducing ASC 2.0, Thibault Imbert, ByteArray.com
- AS3 vs haXe performance, SplashDust website
- FlasCC for Flash Player, Adobe Gaming
- XC APIs, Adobe Gaming
- OpenGL for Stage3D, GitHub project hosting
- SWF Technology Center | Adobe Developer Connection. Adobe.com (July 14, 2009). Retrieved on March 11, 2011.
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