Garamond

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Garamond
AdobeGaramondSp.svg
Category Serif
Classification Old-style
Designer(s) Claude Garamond
Jean Jannon
Shown here Adobe Garamond Pro (based on the original Garamond)

Garamond /ˈɡærəmɒnd/ is the name given to many old-style serif typefaces, after the punch-cutter Claude Garamont (also spelled as Garamond, Latinised as garamondus) (c. 1480–1561). Many Garamond faces are more closely related to the work of a later punch-cutter, Jean Jannon, or incorporate italic designs created by Robert Granjon. Among contemporary typefaces, the Roman versions of Adobe Garamond, Granjon, Sabon, and Stempel Garamond are directly based on Garamond’s work.

Garamond’s letterforms convey a sense of fluidity and consistency. Some unique characteristics in his letters are the small bowl of the a and eye of the e and the upper-case W that resembles two Vs superimposed. Long extenders and top serifs have a downward slope. Like all old-style designs, variation in stroke width is restrained in a way that resembles handwriting, creating a design that seems organic and unadorned.

Although there is no conclusive evidence from legibility studies,[1] Garamond is considered to be among the most legible and naturally readable serif typefaces when printed on paper.[2][3]

History[edit]

Claude Garamond’s roman text face.

Original type[edit]

The first Roman type designed by Claude Garamond was used in an edition of the Erasmus book Paraphrasis in Elegantiarum Libros Laurentii Vallae published in 1530. The Roman design was based on an Aldus Manutius type, De Aetna, cut in 1455 by Francesco Griffo. After Claude Garamond died in 1561, most of his punches and matrices were acquired by Christophe Plantin from Antwerp, the Le Bé type foundry and the Frankfurt foundry Egenolff-Berner.[4]

The only complete set of the original Garamond dies and matrices is at the Plantin-Moretus Museum, in Antwerp, Belgium.

The term Garamond is today mostly applied to Garamond's designs for the Latin alphabet. Garamond designed type for the the Greek alphabet, but these, the glamorous and fluid Grecs du roi, are very different to his Latin designs: they mimic the elegant handwriting of scribes and contain a vast variety of ligatures and alternate glyphs to achieve this. As these are quite impractical for modern printing, several 'Garamond' releases such as Adobe's contain Greek designs that are either a compromise between Garamond's upright Latin designs and his slanted Greek ones or primarily inspired by his Latin designs.

Jean Jannon misattribution[edit]

In 1621, sixty years after Garamond’s death, the French printer Jean Jannon issued a specimen of typefaces that had some characteristics similar to the Garamond designs, though his letters were more asymmetrical and irregular in slope and axis. After the French government raided Jannon’s printing office, Cardinal Richelieu named Jannon’s type Caractère de l’Université (literally "Character of the University"),[5] and it became the house style of Royal Printing Office.

Various examples of typefaces using the name ‘Garamond’. The topmost sample (Monotype Garamond), as well as those for Garamond 3 and ITC Garamond, are actually based on the work of Jean Jannon – note the steep, concave upper serif of ‘n’, and the slightly more irregular proportions.

In 1825, the French National Printing Office adapted the type used by Royal Printing Office in the past, and claimed the type as the work of Claude Garamond.

Several revivals were produced in the early 20th century. However, in a 1926 paper published on the British typography journal The Fleuron, Beatrice Warde revealed that many of the revivals said to be based on Claude Garamond’s designs actually followed Jean Jannon's designs. Nevertheless the Garamond name had stuck.

Typefaces derived from Jannon's design include Monotype Garamond, Simoncini Garamond, LTC Garamont, and Linotype Garamond 3. This grouping also includes a version called ITC Garamond, designed by Tony Stan (1917–1988) of the International Typeface Corporation and released in 1977. It was initially intended to serve as a display version accompanying existing typefaces, and is considered by some to be only loosely based on Garamond and Jannon's designs.

Jannon-derived types are most immediately recognizable by the lowercase a, which has a long upper hook that extends slightly past the edge of the bowl; the bowl itself is smaller and more downward-pointing than those of Garamond. Other differences include the triangular serifs on the stems of such characters as m, n and r, which are more steeply inclined and concave in Jannon's design than in Garamond's.

Revivals based on Garamond's original face include Adobe Garamond and Garamond Premier (both designed by Robert Slimbach), Ludlow Garamond, Stempel Garamond, URW++ Garamond No 8, Granjon (designed by George William Jones) and Sabon (designed by Jan Tschichold).

Contemporary versions[edit]

Based on Garamond's design[edit]

Adobe Garamond[edit]

Released in 1989, Adobe Garamond is designed by Robert Slimbach for Adobe Systems, based on the Roman types of Garamond and the Italic types of Robert Granjon. The font family contains the regular, semibold, and bold weights. The OpenType version of the font family was released in 2000 as Adobe Garamond Pro, with enhanced support for alternate glyphs.[6]

Garamond Premier[edit]

Slimbach started planning for a new interpretation of Garamond after visiting the Plantin-Moretus Museum in 1988, during the production of Adobe Garamond. The OpenType font family, offered in four weights (regular, medium, semibold and bold, with an additional light weight for display sizes) and complete with optical sizes, was released in 2005 as Garamond Premier Pro, with glyph coverage for Central European, Cyrillic and Greek characters.[7]

Sabon[edit]

Main article: Sabon

Sabon is an oldstyle serif typeface designed by Jan Tschichold in 1964, jointly released by Linotype, Monotype and Stempel in 1967. Although it does not have the name "Garamond", Sabon is based on the original Garamond design. A distinguishing feature of Sabon is the same width occupied by characters in the Roman and Italic styles, and the Regular and Bold weights.

The open-source EB Garamond font, designed by Georg Duffner, showing the range of styles and optical weights.

EB Garamond[edit]

Released in 2011 by Georg Duffner, EB Garamond is a free software version of Garamond released under the Open Font License and available through Google Fonts. Duffner based the design on a specimen printed by Egelnoff-Berner in 1592, with italic and Greek characters based on Robert Granjon's work, as well as the addition of Cyrillic characters. It is intended to include multiple optical weights, as of 2014 including fonts based on the 8 and 12 point forms on the specimen.

URW++ Garamond No. 8[edit]

Garamond No. 8 is a freeware version of Garamond contributed by URW++ to the Ghostscript project that has also been adopted by the TeX community and some Linux distributions.

Based on Jannon's design[edit]

ITC Garamond[edit]

ITC Garamond was created by Tony Stan in 1975, and follows ITC's house style of unusually high x-height; as a result, it has proven somewhat controversial among designers for its perceived clumsiness and inauthenticity.[8] It was nevertheless adopted as a signature typeface for O'Reilly Media's books until switching to Adobe Minion in the mid-2000s. As seen below, it was also modified into Apple Garamond which served as Apple's corporate font from 1984 until replacement with Myriad in 2002.

Garamond 3[edit]

This variant was created by American Type Founders and named to distinguish it from an earlier version created by Morris Fuller Benton and T.M. Cleland; it was licensed to and marketed by Linotype.

Classiq[edit]

Classiq is a sans-serif font designed by Yamaoka Yasuhiro, based on Garamond's structure and shape together with influences from Jannon and Granjon's designs. Its design includes six weights from light to heavy together with strongly cursive italic designs. Released in 2002 through the designer's type foundry YOFonts, it is a free but not open source font.[9][10]

More economical?[edit]

It has been noted that Garamond uses much less ink than Times New Roman at a similar point size, so changing to Garamond could be a cost-saver for large organizations that print large numbers of documents, especially if using inkjet printers.[11][12]

However, this claim has been criticised as a mis-interpretation of how typefaces are actually measured, the difference being partially attributable to versions of Garamond bundled with Microsoft Windows having shorter characters (x-height) at the same point size compared to Times New Roman: the size must be increased to make text size comparable between Times and Garamond, though Garamond's strokes are generally narrower than Times New Roman's.[13] Garamond, along with Times New Roman and Century Gothic, has been identified by the GSA as a "toner-efficient" font.[14]

In popular culture[edit]

Garamond Infant.jpg
  • In Umberto Eco's novel Il pendolo di Foucault, the protagonists work for a pair of related publishing companies, Garamond and Manuzio, both owned by a Mister Garamond.
  • Garamond is the name of a character in the Wii game Super Paper Mario. He appears in the world of Flopside (the mirror-image of Flipside, where the game begins). He is a prolific and highly successful author, unlike his Flipside counterpart, Helvetica (a probable recognition of the relative suitability of the two fonts for use in book typesetting).
  • The large picture books of Dr. Seuss are set in a version of Garamond.
  • In 1988 British newspaper The Guardian redesigned its masthead to incorporate "The" in Garamond and "Guardian" in bold Helvetica. This led to a repopularising of Garamond in the UK.[citation needed]
  • Nvidia uses it in their scientific PDF documents.[15]
  • The Everyman's Library publication of 'The Divine Comedy is set in twelve-point Garamond.
  • A rare infant version—with single-story versions of the letters a and g—is available in the UK from DTP Types.
  • A variation on the Garamond typeface was adopted by Apple in 1984 upon the release of the Macintosh. For branding and marketing the new Macintosh family of products, Apple's designers used the ITC Garamond Light and Book weights and digitally condensed them twenty percent. The result was not as compressed as ITC Garamond Light Condensed or ITC Garamond Book Condensed. Not being a multiple master font, stroke contrast in some characters was too light, and some of the interior counters appeared awkward. To address these problems, Apple commissioned ITC and Bitstream to develop a variant for their proprietary use that was similar in width and feeling, but addressed the digitally condensed version’s shortcomings. Designers at Bitstream produced a unique digital variant, condensed approximately twenty percent, and worked with Apple to make the face more distinct. Following this, Chuck Rowe hinted the TrueTypes. The fonts delivered to Apple were known as Apple Garamond.[16]
  • One of the initial goals of the literary journal Timothy McSweeney's Quarterly Concern was to use only a single font: Garamond 3. The editor of the journal, Dave Eggers, has stated that it is his favorite font, "because it looked good in so many permutations—italics, small caps, all caps, tracked out, justified or not."[17]
  • Many O’Reilly Media books are set in ITC Garamond Light.
  • The logo of clothing company Abercrombie & Fitch uses a variation of the Garamond typeface.
  • Garamond text is used on 1985 Nintendo video game consoles in italic form (after the text "Nintendo Entertainment System" or NES) to describe the various version of the consoles.[citation needed]
  • In Robin Sloan's novel "Mr. Penumbra'a 24-Hour Bookstore: A Novel", Claude Garamont is fictionalized as Griffo Gerritszoon. The main character's name, Clay Jannon, as well as many other character names derive from historical figures associated with the Garamond typeface.[18]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ http://alexpoole.info/blog/which-are-more-legible-serif-or-sans-serif-typefaces/
  2. ^ "Review of Classic Serif Typefaces". 
  3. ^ Coale, Brian (8 October 2013). "#FontFriday: Garamond, the Eco-Friendly Font". Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  4. ^ "Claude Garamond". linotype.com. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
  5. ^ "Garamond & the Boys". 
  6. ^ "Adobe Garamond Pro specimen book". Adobe Systems. Retrieved 9 March 2014. 
  7. ^ "Adobe - Fonts: Garamond Premier Pro". Adobe Systems. Retrieved 9 March 2014. 
  8. ^ http://observatory.designobserver.com/entry.html?entry=2577
  9. ^ Yasuhiro, Yamaoka. "Classiq". YOFonts. 
  10. ^ "Classiq specimen booklet". YOFonts. 
  11. ^ Stix, Madeleine (March 28, 2014). Teen to gov't: change your typeface, save millions. CNN via KOCO-TV. Retrieved March 28, 2014.
  12. ^ Agarwal, Amit (19 July 2012). "Which Fonts Should You Use for Saving Printer Ink". Digital Inspiration. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  13. ^ Phinney, Thomas (28 March 2014). "Saving $400M printing cost from font change? Not Exactly…". Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  14. ^ "Toner-Efficient Fonts Can Save Millions". Department of the Navy. 8 March 2013. 
  15. ^ "NVIDIA OpenCL JumpStart Guide". Nvidia. Retrieved 7 October 2010. 
  16. ^ '"ITC Garamond Font Family". MyFonts.com. Retrieved 2007-01-19. 
  17. ^ Eggers, Dave. The Best of McSweeney's - Volume 1. ISBN 0-241-14234-2. 
  18. ^ Sloan, Robin. "Mister Penumbra's 24-hour bookstore. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2012. Print.

References[edit]

External links[edit]