Adolescent sexuality in the United States
||The neutrality of this article is disputed. (July 2013)|
Adolescent sexuality in the United States relates to the sexuality of American adolescents and its place in American society, both in terms of their feelings, behaviors and development and in terms of the response of the government, educators and interested groups.
According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in the year 2007, 35% of US high school students were currently sexually active and 47.8% of US high school students reported having had sexual intercourse. This percentage has decreased slightly since 1991. According to a 1994 study, every year an estimated one in four sexually active teens contracts a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Teenage pregnancy is four times as prevalent in the United States as in the European Union. However, US teen pregnancy rates have been steadily declining for decades, according to the Centers for Disease Control and were at a "record low" as of 2012.
In 1999, a Kaiser Family Foundation study found that 95% of public secondary schools offered sex education programs. More than half of the schools in the study followed a comprehensive approach that included information about both abstinence and contraception, while approximately one third of schools provided students with abstinence-only sex education. In 2002, most Americans favored the comprehensive approach. A 2000 study found that almost all schools included information about HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, in their curricula. There have been efforts among social conservatives in the US government to limit sex education in public schools to abstinence-only sex education curricula. The effectiveness of abstinence-only programs has been an issue of controversy.
- 1 Sexual practices
- 2 Physical effects
- 3 Psychological effects
- 4 Dating violence and sexual assault
- 5 Legal issues
- 6 Social and cultural influences
- 7 Sexual education given to teens
- 8 Correlations
- 9 Sexual minorities
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
|This section is missing information about contraceptive/protection use among queer teens. (November 2013)|
Some studies have indicated that approximately half of sexually active teens have had sexual partners whom they were not dating. This has led to belief in a "hookup culture" in which casual sex is more tolerated among teens and young adults. However, other research indicates that hookup culture is largely a social myth and evidence for greater casual sex among the young is lacking. It may be that news coverage of hookup culture creates a false belief among the young that such activity is occurring even if they themselves are not participating.
Self-report surveys suggest that half of all 15- to 19-year-olds have had oral sex. That percentage rises to 70% by the time they turn 19, and equal numbers of boys and girls participate. Research indicating that oral sex is less risky to teens' emotional and physical well being than vaginal sex has been advanced; researchers at the University of California do not believe this conclusion is warranted. They found that oral sex, as well as vaginal sex, was associated with negative consequences. Of adolescents engaging in oral sex only, girls were twice as likely as boys to report feeling bad about themselves and nearly three times as likely to feel used. Despite their behaviors, 90% of adolescents "agree that most young people have sex before they are really ready."
The average age of first sexual intercourse in the United States is 17.0 for males and 17.3 for females, and this has been rising in recent years. The percentage of teens who are waiting longer to have sex has been increasing. For those teens who have had sex, 70% of girls and 56% of boys said that their first sexual experience was with a steady partner, while 16% of girls and 28% of boys report losing their virginity to someone they had just met or who was just a friend.
Teens are using birth control (contraceptives) more today when they lose their virginity than they did in the past, and this is in part due to the AIDS epidemic. Of sexually experienced adolescents, 78% of girls and 85% of males used at least one contraceptive when they lost their virginity. A detailed qualitative study of girls' loss of virginity found that their experiences "were almost all quite negative (and, in some cases, horrific)." Before age 15, "a majority of first intercourse experiences among females are reported to be non-voluntary."
Adolescents who are better students initiate sexual activity later than those who are poor students. In addition, among those seventh and eighth graders, those with personal and perceived peer norms that encourage adolescents to refrain from sex are less likely to engage in it.
The percentage of teenagers who report they are currently sexually active has been dropping since 1991. By 2005, the overall percentage of teenagers reporting that they were currently sexually active was down to 33.9%. A lower number of sexually active teens is "quite positive in terms of their health and their well-being."
The condom is the most popular form of contraception used by teenagers. Based on statistics collected from 2006-2008, 79% of females and 87% of males used some form of contraception the first time they had sex. Among sexually active 15- to 19-year-olds, from 2002 to 2010 more than 80% of females and more than 90% of males reported using at least one method of birth control during their last intercourse. In 1995, only 71% of girls and 82% of boys reported using contraception the last time they had sex. In 2006–2010, one in five sexually active female teens (20%) and one-third of sexually active male teens (34%) reported having used both the condom and a hormonal method the last time they had sex. Less than 20% of girls at risk for unintended pregnancy were not using any contraceptive method the last time they had sex. Calendar abstinence, or the rhythm method, was used by 17% of female teens in 2006-2008.
Sexual abstinence and definitions of virginity
Sexual abstinence is the practice of refraining from some or all aspects of sexual activity for medical, psychological, legal, social, financial, philosophical, moral or religious reasons. For the last twenty years, abstinence rates among American adolescents have risen. The percentage of high school students in the US who reported that they have ever had sexual intercourse dropped from 54.1% in 1991 to 47.8% in 2007 and to 43% in 2011. A cross-sectional survey in 1998 found that fear of pregnancy was the most commonly cited reason for choosing abstinence, especially among girls, as well as boys who had caused a pregnancy in the past. Other reasons included a fear of sexually transmitted infections, a lack of desire, being afraid of getting caught, and the belief that sex was not appropriate for someone of their age.
Epidemiologists at the Center for Disease Control emphasize that for sex education to be effective, it should take place before teens become sexually active.
|Reason||Percent of 9th grade males||Percent of 12th grade males||Percent of 9th grade females||Percent of 12th grade females|
|Fear of pregnancy||82%||77%|
|Fear of STDs||57%||46%||75%||61%|
|Decision to wait until marriage||43%||47%||56%||58%|
|Belief that sex was not right for a person their age||50%||33%||70%||51%|
|Parents would object||56%||43%|
Both adolescents who have never had sex and those who have chosen to become abstinent after engaging in sexual behaviors cite the negative consequences of sex as reasons why they choose not to have sex. Girls of all ages and experience levels were more likely than boys to cite the fear of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Virgin boys were more likely than girls to say they believed most students did not have sex.
Boys who caused a pregnancy in the past were more than twice as likely to become abstinent after this episode than boys who had not. However, for girls, a past pregnancy had little correlation with secondary abstinence. Fear of pregnancy, wanting to wait until marriage, and not wanting to have sex were cited more often by virgins in the 12th grade than they were by 9th graders. Of the sexually experienced who are now practicing abstinence, girls were more likely than boys to say a lack of desire, fear of STDs, being afraid of getting caught, the belief that sex was not appropriate for someone their age, and that their parents had taught them the advantages of waiting as reasons why they made their decision.
Among young people engaging in some form of sexual activity, definitions of virginity differ. Virginity is usually defined as the state of a person who has never engaged in sexual intercourse, although there are some gray areas. For example, teenagers that engage in oral sex but not penile-vaginal sex may still identify themselves as virgins; this is sometimes termed technical virginity. Of those polled, 70% of adolescents aged 12–16 believed oral sex did not disqualify someone from virginity and 30% believed they were still abstinent.
Of adolescents age 12–16, 83% believe a person is still a virgin after engaging in genital touching, and 70% said they believed one retained their virginity after having oral sex. Additionally, 16% considered themselves virgins after anal sex. However, 44% believed that one was abstinent after genital touching and 33% believed one could have oral sex and still remain abstinent. Of anal and vaginal sex, 14% believed you could engage in the former and 12% said you could participate in the latter while still remaining abstinent.
Identifying oneself as a virgin even after limited sexual activity may be important so as not to induce a sense of shame or regret, i.e., denial. This is evidenced by studies indicating that if an adolescent engaged in a particular behavior, they were more likely to believe that they still met the definition of a virgin. Among those 15–19 years old, those who remain a "technical virgin" are motivated more by the fear of pregnancy or STIs and less by religion and morality.
The American Academy of Pediatrics has identified the sexual behaviors of American adolescents as a major public health problem. The Academy is concerned about the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in sexually active teenagers and about the very high rate of teenage pregnancy in the United States compared to other developed countries.
Research into adolescents' sexual behavior in situations outside traditional dating situations, commonly referred to as hooking up, shows that adolescents underestimate the risk involved in such situations. With all the issues and problems relating to adolescent sex, "ideally, they won’t be having sex."
Teen pregnancies—defined as pregnancies in women under the age of 20, regardless of marital status—in the United States decreased 28% between 1990 and 2000, from 117 pregnancies per every 1,000 teens to 84 per 1,000. The 2008 rate was a record low and represented a 42% decline from the peak rate of 117 per 1,000, which occurred in 1990. From 2009 to 2010, the teen pregnancy rate dropped 9%, the biggest one year drop since the 1940s.
Each year, almost 750,000 girls aged 15–19 become pregnant. Two-thirds of all teen pregnancies occur among the oldest teens (18–19-year-olds). Of them, 82% are unplanned, accounting for about 20% of all unintended pregnancies annually. Of pregnancies among 15–19-year-olds girls in 2008, 59% ended in birth, 26% in abortion, and the rest in miscarriage. Overall, 68 pregnancies occurred per 1,000 girls aged 15–19 in 2008. Nearly 7% of 15–19-year-old girls become pregnant each year. Pregnancies are much less common among girls younger than 15. In 2008, 6.6 pregnancies occurred per 1,000 teens aged 14 or younger. In other words, fewer than 1% of teens younger than 15 become pregnant each year. Stillborn and newborn deaths are 50% higher for teen moms than women aged 20–29, and are more likely to have a low birth weight.
Teenage birth rates, as opposed to pregnancies, peaked in 1991, when there were 61.8 births per 1,000 teens, and the rate dropped in 17 of the 19 years that followed. One in four American women who had sex during their teenage years will have a baby before they are married, compared to only one in ten who wait until they are older. Even more will experience a pregnancy. Of women who have sex in their teens, nearly 30% will conceive a child before they are married. Conversely, only 15% of women who don't have sex in their teens will become pregnant before they are married. Of all women, 16% will be teen mothers.
According to a study, girls who participate in girls-only activities are far less likely to experience a teenage pregnancy and less likely to be sexually active in general. Participating in competitive sports has also shown to have an effect for girls. A study published in 1999 found that female adolescents who participated in sports were less likely than their non-athletic peers to engage in sexual activity and/or report a pregnancy. Males interested in arts are also less likely to be involved in a pregnancy situation. It is unclear whether these correlations are causal or the reflection of the underlying bias of the considered population. The study that reported these findings did not take into account the sexual orientation of the subjects.
A survey by the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy found that "7% of youth used alcohol the first time they had sex, and 6% used alcohol the most recent time they had sex." In another study, teens aged 15–19 accounted for 15.5% of abortions in 2009, and patients aged 20–24 made up 32.7%. Together adolescents aged 15–24 made up just under half (48.2%) of the 784,000 abortions reported to the CDC that year.
According to one study, laws that require parental notification or consent before a minor can obtain an abortion "raise the cost of risky sex for teenagers." The study found that states which have enacted such laws have seen lower gonorrhea rates among teens than states that do not have such laws. The researchers of the study believe these laws lower the gonorrhea rate because teens reduce the amount of sexual activity they have and are more fastidious in their use of birth control. On the contrary, statistics released from the World Health Organization (WHO) indicate that more restrictive laws on abortions do not necessarily mean fewer abortions; the abortion rate one year for Latin America (where, broadly speaking, abortions are generally made illegal) was 32 per 1000 people, whereas the abortion rate for Western Europe (where overall the laws are more relaxed) was 12 in 1000.
Sexually transmitted infections
Each year, between 8 and 10 million American teens contract a sexually transmitted infection (STI/STD),[note 1] almost half of the 19 million STIs reported for all age groups in the United States.
Lloyd Kolbe, director of the Center for Disease Control's Adolescent and School Health program, called the STI problem "a serious epidemic." The younger an adolescent is when they first have any type of sexual relations, including oral sex, the more likely they are to get an STI.
HPV (Human papillomavirus) is the most common STI among teens (as well as adults). In a CDC study, 18% of teen girls were infected with HPV. Another study found that HPV infections account for about half of STIs detected among 15- to 24-year-olds each year. While HPV infections may not cause any disease and is often asymptomatic, it can cause genital warts and even cancer.
After HPV, trichomoniasis and chlamydia are the most common STI diagnoses among 15- to 24-year-olds; combined, they account for slightly more than one third of diagnoses each year. Genital herpes and gonorrhea together account for about 12% of diagnoses. HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B account for less than 1% of diagnoses, however young people aged 13–24 accounted for about 21% of all new HIV diagnoses in the United States in 2011.
Researchers from the CDC have noted that teenagers often do not understand the risks associated with sexual activity. "Research suggests that adolescents perceive fewer health-related risks for oral sex compared with vaginal intercourse. However, young people, particularly those who have oral sex before their first vaginal intercourse, may still be placing themselves at risk of STIs or HIV before they are ever at risk of pregnancy." "Several studies have documented that oral sex can transmit certain STIs, including chlamydia, genital herpes, gonorrhea and syphilis. Teenagers and young adults engaging in sexual activity are at increased risk of STIs or HIV."
A 2008 study by the CDC found that one in four teen girls, or an estimated 3 million girls, has an STI. The study of 838 girls who participated in a 2003–04 government health survey found the highest overall prevalence among black girls; nearly half in the study were infected. This is compared with 20% among both whites and Mexican-American teens. The same study found that, among those who were infected, 15% had more than one STI, and 20% of those who said they had only one sexual partner were infected.
Benefits and negative effects
Benefits to teen sex do exist, by extension of data on the benefits of sex: It can relieve pain, burn calories, relieve stress, help the immune system, stimulate the mind and mellow one's mood. Other health benefits have been observed in older men—decreased risk of stroke and heart attack—but the same benefits have not been confirmed in teenage patients.
The earlier onset of puberty can produce sexual drives at a time when teens are not yet fully socialized to understand the potential social and emotional consequences of sexual activities. Some scholars claim that the risk for depression is "clearly elevated" for the sexually active of either gender.
"We tend to focus on the health consequences of having sex, like pregnancy and STIs, but we also need to talk to [teens] about all the emotional consequences," some experts say.
For girls, even modest involvement in sexual experimentation elevates depression risk. Sexually active teenage girls are more than twice as likely to suffer depression compared to those who are not sexually active.
Sex therapists have found that the roots of sexual issues facing adults often date back to regretful teenage experiences. Research has also found that being abstinent in the teen years was associated with better mental health at age 29. Girls who were virgins at age 18 were also less likely to have a mental illness at age 40.
Girls are "at particular risk for experiencing negative social and emotional consequences of having any type of sex," including oral sex. Girls are more than twice as likely as boys to say they felt bad about themselves and more than three times as likely to say they felt used as a result of engaging in sex or hookups.
In a study of casual sex among adolescents, many girls believed they could have a purely sexual experience with no emotional ties, and they believed it was sexist to assume otherwise. However, the study found that both the girls and the boys who were hooking up often were depressed and didn't feel very good about themselves.
Effects on relationships
When engaging in sexual acts the body produces oxytocin, a chemical produced in the brain to promote feelings of connection and love. Production of oxytocin increases during the adolescent years. It has a larger effect on girls, suggesting it may make them care more about relationships and feel connections with others more intensely than boys.
Dating violence and sexual assault
Teen dating violence is defined as the physical, sexual, psychological or emotional violence within a dating relationship, as well as stalking. This includes electronic forms (e.g., threatening text messages, excessive yelling or cursing at someone in a phone message) as well as face-to-face forms.
Girls who have engaged in sexual intercourse are five times more likely than their virgin peers to be the victim of dating violence. Girls who were intentionally hurt by a date in the past 12 months are at a "significantly elevated risk for a broad range of sexual health concerns and for pregnancy." Girls who have been victims are also twice as likely to report high levels of multiple sexual partners.
Sexual assault is any involuntary sexual act in which a person is threatened, coerced, or forced to engage against their will, or any sexual touching of a person who has not consented. This includes but is not limited to rape, groping, forced kissing, or the torture of the victim in a sexual manner. In legal terms, sexual assault is a statutory offense in the United States, varying widely state-to-state.
Most rape victims are in their teens or young twenties: according to a study by the CDC and Department of Justice, 83% of rape victims interviewed were under the age of 25, and 54% were under the age of 18. 1 in 6 women had been raped in the study, and 1 in 33 men. 1 in 5 women and 1 in 7 men who have experienced sexual violence first experienced this through dating violence as a teen.
Teen sexual violence does not always equate with date rape, as the term might suggest; the term date rape may describe drug facilitated sexual assault (using drugs and/or alcohol), or a case of acquaintance rape (usually sexual assault by someone the victim doesn't know well, or just met).
Sexting, the sending of sexually explicit messages and/or photographs, has become increasingly popular with adolescents. However, sexting can "glamorize and normalize sex in a way that might cause some teenagers to start having sex earlier, or in unhealthy ways."
More than one fifth of teens have sent sexually suggestive text messages or nude photographs of themselves online. Teens who photograph or film themselves or receive photos of others, known as sexting, can be charged with child pornography. Others who post the photos online could also be charged with child pornography and face prison time. Sexting can be considered sexual harassment.
Sexting is linked to psychological distress among teens. Those involved in sexting are more likely to report a suicide attempt, and have twice the odds of reporting depressive symptoms as students who aren't involved in sexting. "For girls who send the sexts ... there is a disillusionment and a sense of betrayal when it's posted everywhere. When it gets forwarded to multiple boys at multiple schools and also other girls ... a girl starts getting called names and her reputation is ruined."
Boys who are victims of sexually predatory teenage girls can also be devastated. Sexually predatory girls will ask a boy, particularly a sexually naive boy, for photos, and "he's sort of flattered and he feels like a big guy and then she sends them around." Unbeknownst to them at the time, their compliance can cause lasting harm.
Often girls who take racy photos of themselves "want to be admired, want someone to want them. A lot of them are lonely and starved for attention. A lot of girls believe they have no choice but to pose in this way. There are also the thrill seekers who do it because it's "edgy and cool."
Experts say that sexting poses a serious problem, partly because teens do not understand that the images are permanent and can be spread quickly. "It does not click that what they’re doing is destructive, let alone illegal." "Once they are out there, it spreads like a virus," police say.
Age of consent
Each state has its own age of consent. Currently, state laws designate the age of consent as 16, 17, or 18, with more than half of the states designating 16 as the age limit. However, the five most populous states all have a higher age of consent (California: 18, Texas: 17, New York: 17, Florida: 18 and Illinois: 17).
In some common law jurisdictions, statutory rape is sexual activity in which one person is below the age required to legally consent to the behavior. Although it usually refers to adults engaging in sex with minors under the age of consent, it is a generic term, and very few jurisdictions use the actual term "statutory rape" in the language of statutes.
In statutory rape, overt force or threat need not be present. The laws presume coercion, because a minor or mentally challenged adult is legally incapable of giving consent to the act. Statutory rape laws are based on the premise that until a person reaches a certain age, that individual is legally incapable of consenting to sexual intercourse. Thus, the law assumes, even if he or she willingly engages in sexual intercourse, the sex is not consensual.
Often, teenage couples engage in sexual conduct as part of an intimate relationship. This may start to occur before either participant has reached the age of consent, or after one has but the other has not. In most jurisdictions, the person who has reached the age of consent would be guilty of the statutory rape provision. In some jurisdictions (such as California), if two minors have sex with each other, they are both guilty of engaging in unlawful sex with the other person. Most jurisdictions consider the act itself to be prima facie evidence of guilt, as any consent between partners, even if freely given, does not meet the standard of law, as it is given by a person the law has defined as being incapable of giving consent. Thus the accused individual often has no defense.
These aspects have often been considered unjust, leading to the passage of so-called Romeo and Juliet laws, which serve to reduce or eliminate the penalty of the crime in cases where the couple's age difference is minor and the sexual contact is only considered rape because of the lack of legally recognized consent.
Social and cultural influences
The American Academy of Pediatrics has argued that media representations of sexuality may influence teen sexual behavior; this view is supported by various scholars, while other scholars disagree.
Research indicates that sexual messages contained in film, television, and music are becoming more explicit in dialog, lyrics, and behavior. In television programming aimed at teens, more than 90% of episodes had at least one sexual reference in it with an average of 7.9 references per hour. Researchers have found a correlation between the amount of television with high sexual content that teenagers watch and an increased likelihood of them becoming pregnant or fathering a child out of wedlock, and believe that reducing the amount of sexual content adolescents watch on television could substantially reduce the teen pregnancy rate. By contrast, other scholars have argued that such claims have been premature; Steinberg and Monahan found that media effects diminished once other factors were controlled.
Scholarly studies suggest that approximately 15% of youth intentionally seek pornography in a given year. Donna Freitas, author of The End of Sex: How Hookup Culture is Leaving a Generation Unhappy, Sexually Unfulfilled, and Confused About Intimacy, has this to say about porn:
Many boys learn to assume that the things women do in porn—how they dress and act around men—is also how women are supposed to act in real life. These same boys are learning to expect girls their own age to act like the women in porn videos, too ... Social media and Internet porn are influencing junior-high and high-school girls' understanding of sexiness. Girls are learning to use porn and porn archetypes to impress boys as early as middle school.
Both boys and girls feel pressure from their friends to have sex. The perception adolescents have of their best friends' sexual behavior has a significant association with their own sex behavior. Sexually active peers have a negative effect on adolescent sexual delay; however, responsive parent-adolescent sex discussions can buffer these effects.
In a 2003 study, 89% of girls reported feeling pressured by boys to have sex, while 49% of boys reported feeling pressured by girls to have sex. In contrast, 67% of boys felt pressured by other boys, while 53% of girls felt pressured by other girls.
Adolescents who reported sexual activity had high levels of reputation-based popularity, but not likeability among peers; however, sex with more partners was associated with lower levels of popularity.
Sexual education given to teens
Two main forms of sex education are taught in American schools: comprehensive and abstinence-only. Comprehensive sex education covers abstinence as a positive choice, but also teaches about contraception use and the avoidance of STIs if the teen becomes sexually active. A 2002 study conducted by the Kaiser Family Foundation found that 58% of secondary school principals describe their sex education curriculum as comprehensive. The difference between these two approaches, and their impact on teen behavior, remains a controversial subject in the United States.
There have been numerous studies on the effectiveness of both approaches, and conflicting data on American public opinion. Public opinion polls conducted over the years have found that the majority of Americans favor broader sex education programs over those that teach only abstinence, although abstinence educators recently published poll data with the totally opposite conclusion. The poll sponsored by the National Abstinence Education Association and conducted by Zogby International found that:
When parents become aware of what abstinence education vs. comprehensive sex education actually teaches, support for abstinence programs jumps from 40% to 60%, while support for comprehensive programs drops from 50% to 30%. This sharp increase in support of abstinence education is seen across all political and economic groups. The majority of parents reject the so-called "comprehensive" sex education approach, which focuses on promoting and demonstrating contraceptive use. Sixty-six percent of parents think that the importance of the "wait to have sex" message ends up being lost when programs demonstrate and encourage the use of contraception.
Experts also encourage sex educators to include oral sex and emotional concerns as part of their curriculum. Their findings also support earlier studies that conclude:
...sexual risk-taking should be considered from a dynamic relationship perspective, rather than solely from a traditional disease-model perspective. Prevention programs rarely discuss adolescents’ social and emotional concerns regarding sex.... Discussion about potential negative consequences, such as experiencing guilt or feeling used by one's partner, may lead some adolescents to delay the onset of sexual behavior until they feel more sure of the strength of their relationship with a partner and more comfortable with the idea of becoming sexually active. Identification of common negative social and emotional consequences of having sex may also be useful in screening for adolescents at risk of experiencing more-serious adverse outcomes after having sex.
The National Association of School Psychologists, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Public Health Association, the Society for Adolescent Medicine and the American College Health Association, have all stated official support for comprehensive sex education. Comprehensive sex education curricula are intended to reduce sexually transmitted infections and out-of-wedlock or teenage pregnancies.
Proponents of this approach argue that sexual behavior after puberty is a given, and it is therefore crucial to provide information about the risks and how they can be minimized. They hold that abstinence-only sex ed and conservative moralizing will only alienate students and thus weaken the message.
A report issued by the Department of Health and Human Services has found the "most consistent and clear finding is that sex education does not cause adolescents to initiate sex when they would not otherwise have done so." The same report also found that:
Family life or sex education in the public schools, which traditionally has consisted largely of providing factual information at the secondary school level, is the most general or pervasive approach to preventing pregnancy among adolescents.... Adolescents who begin having sexual intercourse need to understand the importance of using an effective contraceptive every time they have sex. This requires convincing sexually active teens who have never used contraception to do so. In addition, sexually active teens who sometimes use contraceptives need to use them more consistently (every time they have sex) and use them correctly.
Abstinence-only sex education tells teenagers that they should be sexually abstinent until marriage and does not provide information about contraception. In the Kaiser study, 34% of high-school principals said their school's main message was abstinence-only. Some Christian organizations advocate abstinence-only sex education because it is the only approach they find acceptable and in accordance with their churches' teachings.
Some organizations promote what they consider to be "sexual purity", which encompasses abstaining from not only intercourse before marriage, but also from sexual thoughts, sexual touching, pornography, and actions that are known to lead to sexual arousal. Advocates of abstinence-only sex education object to comprehensive curricula which fail to teach moral behavior; they maintain that curricula should promote conventional (or conservative) morality as healthy and constructive, and that value-free knowledge of the body may lead to immoral, unhealthy and harmful practices.
A comprehensive review of 115 program evaluations published in November 2007 by the National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy found that two-thirds of sex education programs focusing on both abstinence and contraception had a positive effect on teen sexual behavior. The same study found no strong evidence that programs that stress abstinence as the only acceptable behavior for unmarried teens delayed the initiation of sex, hastened the return to abstinence, or reduced the number of sexual partners. According to the study author:
Even though there does not exist strong evidence that any particular abstinence program is effective at delaying sex or reducing sexual behavior, one should not conclude that all abstinence programs are ineffective. After all, programs are diverse, fewer than 10 rigorous studies of these programs have been carried out, and studies of two programs have provided modestly encouraging results. In sum, studies of abstinence programs have not produced sufficient evidence to justify their widespread dissemination.
Most teens (70%) say they have gotten some or a lot of information about sex and sexual relationships from their parents. Other sources of information include friends at 53%, school, also at 53%, TV and movies at 51% and magazines at 34%. School and magazines were sources of information for more girls than boys, and teens "who were sexually active were much more likely to say they got information about sex from their friends and partners." Less than half of parents with daughters under 18 talk to their girls about how to say no to boys, and about half talk to them about contraception.
Adolescents whose parents talked to them at a young age felt more comfortable as they grew and were more likely to make personal decisions about sexual behavior that reflects the parental values and morals.
Studies have suggested that fathers generally tend to avoid sexual conversations with their children. Many fathers have uncertainties on how to start to the conversation. Other times they simply put the initiative on their daughters to come to them with questions or issues. Even when the conversation is launched fathers tend to be judgmental or only talk about abstinence. Fathers are more likely to forbid daughters from having sex when they are talking. Wilson et al. (2010) found that some fathers felt that talking about the potential consequences of sex was easier than talking about sex itself. Fathers overall tend to apply more orders when talking to their daughters than giving them unbiased information or simply listening and trying to give them their best advice.
Hutchinson and Cederbaum (2011) studied father-daughter communication and found that increased father-daughter communication delayed sexual debut and decreased the frequency of engagement in sexual intercourse. They also found that responsible sexual behavior among adolescent females was associated with positive father-daughter communication regarding men, dating, sex, and marriage. On the other hand, fathers who were absent had been linked to higher rates of sexual activity and teen pregnancy among female adolescents. Fathers have a greater impact on daughters than they think, but fail to recognize it because they don’t believe they should be discussing sex with their daughters or simply leave it to the mothers.
Girls who participate in athletics, artistic, or academic extracurricular activities are less likely to be sexually active than girls who don't participate in any. Female athletes have "significantly fewer sex partners, engaged in less frequent intercourse ... and began having sex at a later age." For boys, those who participate in sports are slightly more likely to be sexually active, and those who are in artistic activities are considerably less likely.
Religious adolescents lose their virginity three years later than the average American. On average, those with strong religious backgrounds become sexually active at age 21.
According to a study based on a sampling of teenagers in Massachusetts, sexual minority youth—that is, those who identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual or had any same-sex sexual contact in their lifetimes—were significantly more likely than other students to report lifetime sexual intercourse (72% vs. 44%). The same study found that sexual minority youth were more likely to report sexual intercourse before age 13 (18% vs. 4%), sexual intercourse with four or more partners in their lifetimes (32% vs. 11%), and recent sexual intercourse (55% vs. 33%).
Among students in the Massachusetts study who ever had sexual intercourse in their lifetimes, sexual minority youth were significantly more likely than other students to report "having been or gotten someone pregnant (15% vs. 4%) and having been diagnosed with HIV or another STI (10% vs. 5%)." Several studies have found that gay youths are represented disproportionately among adolescents who drop out of school, run away from home, abuse alcohol and other drugs, engage in prostitution, or attempt, contemplate and successfully commit suicide.
- Adolescent sexuality
- Adolescent sexuality in Canada
- Rates of teenage pregnancy
- Teenage pregnancy
- Teenage pregnancy and sexual health in the United Kingdom
- Although STD has been the term used the longest (for sexually transmitted disease), the preferred term now is STI, for sexually transmitted infection, reflecting the fact that it is possible to become infected but not display any symptoms
- "Trends in the Prevalence of Sexual Behaviors" (PDF). The National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) 1991–2007. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2007. Retrieved 2011-03-01.
- Doyle, Rodger (January 2007). "By the Numbers: Teen Sex in America". Scientific American Magazine. p. 30.
- "U.S. Teen Sexual Activity" (PDF). Kaiser Family Foundation. January 2005. Archived from the original on 17 March 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-11.
- UNICEF (2001). "Teenage Births in Rich Nations" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-10-09.
- "About Teen Pregnancy, 2014". Retrieved 2014-06-30.
- "Sex Education in the U.S.: Policy and Politics" (PDF). Issue Update. Kaiser Family Foundation. October 2002. Retrieved 2007-05-23.
- Ott, MA; Santelli, JS (October 2007). "Abstinence and abstinence-only education". Current opinion in obstetrics & gynecology 19 (5): 446–52. doi:10.1097/GCO.0b013e3282efdc0b. PMID 17885460.
- Kirby, D. (2007). "Emerging Answers 2007: Research Findings on Programs to Reduce Teen Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Diseases". National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. 
- Wendy D. Manning, Peggy C. Giordano, Monica A. Longmore (2006). "Hooking Up: The Relationship Contexts of "Nonrelationship" Sex". Journal of Adolescent Research 21 (5).
- "Abstinence Is Not the Radical Solution to Hookup Culture". Retrieved 2014-06-30.
- "Coverage of Nonexistent Hookup Culture Makes Students Feel Left Out of Nonexistent Hookup Culture". Retrieved 2014-06-30.
- Laura Sessions Stepp (September 16, 2005). "Study: Half of All Teens Have Had Oral Sex". Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-04-28.
- Teens believe oral sex is safer, more acceptable to peers, Medical News Today, 2005-04-04
- Sonya S. Brady and Bonnie L. Halpern-Felsher (2007). "Adolescents' Reported Consequences of Having Oral Sex Versus Vaginal Sex". Pediatrics 119 (2): 229–236. doi:10.1542/peds.2006-1727. PMID 17272611.
- Lelchuk, Ilene (2007-02-15). "UCSF explores teens' post-sex emotions". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on 16 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-08.
- "Gender Roles Summary" (PDF). Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved 2007-04-13.
- "Seventeen Is the Average Age at First Sexual Intercourse" (PDF). American Sexual Behavior. newstrategist.com. Retrieved 2012-03-07.
- "Frequently Asked Sexuality Questions to the Kinsey Institute". Kinsey Institute. Retrieved 2013-05-27.
- "www.guttmacher.org" (pdf). Guttmacher Institute. June 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-14.
- Garcia, Justin R.; Reiber, Chris; Massey, Sean G.; Merriwether, Ann M. (2012), "Sexual Hookup Culture: A Review", Review of General Psychology 16 (2): 161–176, doi:10.1037/a0027911, retrieved 2013-06-25
- "Beginning Too Soon: Adolescent Sexual Behavior, Pregnancy And Parenthood". U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2001. Archived from the original on 29 March 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-11.
- R. MacLean (2004). "Norms That Encourage Young Adolescents Not to Have Sex Tied to Reduced Odds of Becoming Sexually Active". Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 36 (4).
- Renee E. Sieving; Jennifer A. Oliphant; Robert Wm. Blum (2002). "Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Sexual Health". Pediatrics in Review 23 (12): 407–416. Retrieved 2012-10-09.
- Teen birth rate falls, as does percentage of high schoolers having sex, Associated Press, 7/13/07
- Abma, J. C.; Martinez, G. M.; Copen, C. E. (2010). "Teenagers in the United States: Sexual activity, contraceptive use, and childbearing, national survey of family growth 2006-2008". Vital and health statistics. Series 23, Data from the National Survey of Family Growth (30): 1–47. PMID 21548441.
- "Sexual Health Statistics for Teenagers and Young Adults in the United States" (PDF). Kaiser Family Foundation. September 2006. Retrieved 2008-07-02.
- Nicholas Bakalar (2011-11-14). "Teenagers Having Sex Are a Minority". New York Times. Retrieved 2012-03-07.
- T. Tamkins. "Teenagers Who Abstain from Sex Cite Similar Reasons Regardless of Whether They Have Ever Had Intercourse". Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 36 (4): 174–175.
- Gray, Joe (December 30, 2007). "DISCOVERIES". HealthDay News (Chicago Tribune). Archived from the original on February 16, 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-05.[dead link]
- Loewenson PR, Ireland M and Resnick MD (2004). "Primary and secondary sexual abstinence in high school students". Journal of Adolescent Health 34 (3): 209–215. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2003.05.002. PMID 14967344.
- Bersamin, M.M.; Fisher, D.A.; Walker, S.; Hill, D.L.; and Grube, J.W. "Defining virginity and abstinence: Adolescents' interpretations of sexual behaviors", Journal of Adolescent Health, 41:182–188, 2007.
- Freitas, Donna (2013). The End of Sex: How Hookup Culture is Leaving a Generation Unhappy, Sexually Unfulfilled, and Confused About Intimacy. New York: Basic Books.
- American Academy Of Pediatrics. Committee On Public Education, American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (January 2001). "Sexuality, Contraception, and the Media". Pediatrics 107 (1): 191–1994. doi:10.1542/peds.107.1.191. PMID 11134460.
- Lescano CM et al. (2006). "Condom use with "casual" and "main" partners: what's in a name?". J Adolesc Health 39 (3): e1–e7. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2006.01.003.
- "Close Parental Relationships Could Delay Adolescent Sex". Medical College of Wisconsin. Archived from the original on 2007-10-09. Retrieved 2012-03-08.
- Timothy W. Martin (2011). "Birth Rate Continues to Slide Among Teens". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2012-03-07.
- "WHO - Adolescent Pregnancy". World Health Organization. May 2012. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
- Anthony Paik (2011). "Adolescent Sexuality and the Risk of Marital Dissolution". Journal of Marriage and Family 73 (2): 472. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2010.00819.x.
- "Policy Brief: Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Teen Pregnancy" (PDF). The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. July 2008. Archived from the original on 29 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-13.
- Whitbeck, Les, et al. (1999). "Early adolescent sexual activity : A developmental study". Journal of marriage and the family 61 (4): 934. doi:10.2307/354014. JSTOR 354014.
- Sabo, Donald, et al. (1999). "High school athletic participation, sexual behavior and adolescent pregnancy: a regional study". Journal of Adolescent Health 25 (3): 207–16. doi:10.1016/S1054-139X(99)00070-1. PMID 10475497.
- "National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 14 and Younger: The Sexual Behavior of Adolescents, 2003" (PDF). Archived from the original on 7 April 2005. Retrieved 2005-05-11.
- "Abortion Surveillance - United States, 2009". CDC. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
- Jonathan Klick, Thomas Stratmann (October 5, 2005). "Abortion Access and Risky Sex Among Teens: Parental Involvement Laws and Sexually Transmitted Diseases". FSU College of Law, Public Law Research Paper No. 175.
- "InBrief Facts_Induced Abortion WW". World Health Organization. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
- "Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2006". Archived from the original on November 17, 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-05.
- Anna Mulrine. "Risky Business". U.S. News & World Report (May 27, 2002).
- Christine E. Kaestle, Carolyn T. Halpern, William C. Miller and Carol A. Ford (2005). "Young Age at First Sexual Intercourse and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Adolescents and Young Adults". American Journal of Epidemiology 161 (8): 774–780. doi:10.1093/aje/kwi095. PMID 15800270.
- Maggie Fox (16 August 2012). "Fewer teen girls having oral sex, study shows". NBC News. Retrieved 2013-01-13.
- Dunne EF, Unger ER, Sternberg M, et al. (2007). "Prevalence of HPV infection among females in the United States". JAMA 297 (8): 813–9. doi:10.1001/jama.297.8.813. PMID 17327523.
- Stephanie Desmon (March 12, 2008). "1 in 4 U.S. teen girls infected with STD". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 2008-03-12.
- Weinstock H et al. (2004). "Sexually transmitted diseases among American youth: incidence and prevalence estimates, 2000". Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 36 (1): 6–10. doi:10.1363/3600604. PMID 14982671.
- Tanner, Lindsey (2008-03-11). "Nearly 1 in 4 Teen Girls Has STD, CDC Says". ABC News. Retrieved 2008-04-15.
- "Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance 2011 (pdf)". CDC. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
- Nicole Blades (June 24, 2008). "56 Reasons to Have Sex". HealthNewsDigest.com. Retrieved 2008-06-30.
- Jayson, Sharon (2005-10-19). "Teens define sex in new ways". USA Today. Retrieved 2007-12-08.
- Ponton, Lynn (2000). The Sex Lives of Teenagers. New York: Dutton. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-452-28260-5.
- Garn, SM. Physical growth and development. In: Friedman SB, Fisher M, Schonberg SK. , editors. Comprehensive Adolescent Health Care. St Louis: Quality Medical Publishing; 1992. Retrieved on 2009-02-20
- (Caspi et al.1993: Lanza and Collins, 2002)[full citation needed]
- (Stattin & Magnussion, 1990).[full citation needed]
- Denise D. Hallfors, Martha W. Waller, Carol A. Ford, Carolyn T. Halpern, Paul H. Brodish, Bonita Iritani (2004). "Adolescent Depression and Suicide Risk: Association with Sex and Drug Behavior". American Journal of Preventive Medicine 27 (3): 224–231. doi:10.1016/S0749-3797(04)00124-2. PMID 15450635.
- Carrie Lukas, Director of Policy, Independent Women's Forum (2005). "Friends with Benefits" (Windows Media). National Public Radio. Retrieved 2008-04-15.
- Anderson, Kristen (2001). The Truth about Sex by High School Senior Girls. Kristen Anderson. ISBN 978-0-9708831-0-0.
- Denise D. Hallfors, Martha W. Waller, Daniel Bauer, Carol A. Ford, and Carolyn T. Halpern (2005). "Which Comes First in Adolescence—Sex and Drugs or Depression?" (PDF). American Journal of Preventive Medicine 29 (3): 163–170. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2005.06.002. PMID 16168864.(registration required)
- Joseph J. Sabiaa, and Daniel I. Rees (2008). "The effect of adolescent virginity status on psychological well-being". Journal of Health Economics 27 (5): 1368–1381. doi:10.1016/j.jhealeco.2008.05.008. PMID 18635278.
- Bogart, Laura M., Collins, Rebecca L., Ellickson, Phyllis L., Klein, David J., (2007). "Association of Sexual Abstinence in Adolescence with Mental Health in Adulthood". Journal of Sex Research 44 (3): 290–8. doi:10.1080/00224490701444005. PMID 17879172.
- Finger, R., Thelen, T., Vessey, J. T., Mohm, J. K., & Mann, J. R. (2004). "Association of virginity at age 18 with educational, economic, social, and health outcomes in middle adulthood". Adolescent and Family Health 3: 164–170.
- Sax, Leonard (2005). Why Gender Matters. Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-51073-8.
- Benoit Denizet-Lewis (2005). "Friends with Benefits" (Windows Media). National Public Radio. Retrieved 2008-04-15.
- Jerry Large (June 8, 2009). "Shedding light on the teen brain". Seattle Times. Archived from the original on 12 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-15.
- "CDC - Teen Dating Violence - Intimate Partner Violence - Violence Prevention - Injury". CDC. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
- Jay G. Silverman, Anita Raj, and Karen Clements (2004). "Dating Violence and Associated Sexual Risk and Pregnancy Among Adolescent Girls in the United States". Pediatrics 114 (2): 220–225. doi:10.1542/peds.114.2.e220. PMID 15286260.
- "Sexual Assault - FAQs". Womenshealth.gov. January 2005. Archived from the original on 24 Oct 2008.
- Roberts, Albert R.; Ann Wolbert Bergess; CHERYL REGEHR (2009). Victimology: Theories and Applications. Sudbury, Mass: Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 228. ISBN 978-0-7637-7210-9.
- Krantz G, Garcia-Moreno C (October 2005). "Violence against women". J Epidemiol Community Health 59 (10): 818–21. doi:10.1136/jech.2004.022756. PMC 1732916. PMID 16166351.
- "Statistics - Rape Treatment Center". Rape Treatment Center, Santa Monica, UCLA Medical Center. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
- "February Director's Message - Teen Dating Violence Awareness & Prevention Month". US Department of Justice. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
- Date Rape Drugs. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Women's Health
- Date Rape Drugs. Men Against Sexual Assault. University of Rochester
- "Perspectives on Acquantaince Rape". American Academy of Experts in Traumatic Stress. Retrieved 7 November 2013.
- Dr. Claire McCarthy (2013-02-20). "Why Snapchat is dangerous (it's not just because of sexting)". Boston.com. Retrieved 2013-05-27.
- "Editorial: 'Sexting' overkill". philly.com. April 6, 2009. Archived from the original on 9 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-07.
- "A.H., a child, Appellant, v. STATE OF FLORIDA, Appellee.". http://politechbot.com. 2007. Archived from the original on 23 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-28.
- SUSAN DONALDSON JAMES (May 28, 2008). "Child Porn Charge for MySpace Revenge Pics". ABC News. Retrieved 2010-02-22.
- "Teen Sexting Linked to Psychological Distress". firstcoastnews.com. 2011. Retrieved 2012-03-07.
- Kaitlin Keane (2009). "Experts warn teens, parents to take sexting dangers seriously". Retrieved 2009-04-07.
- Maureen Boyle (April 6, 2009). "‘Sexting’ can ruin teens' lives". Retrieved 2009-04-07.
- "Statutory Rape Known to Law Enforcement" (PDF). U.S. Department of Justice - Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Retrieved 2008-03-24.
- "State Legislators’ Handbook for Statutory Rape Issues" (PDF). U.S Department of Justice - Office for Victims of Crime. Retrieved 2008-03-24.
- Manson, Pamela (2006-12-06). "Girl, 13, charged as sex offender and victim". Denver Post.
- "Media Literacy". University of Washington. Retrieved 2012-03-07.
- Victor C. Strasburger, MD (2005). "Adolescents, Sex, and the Media: Ooooo, Baby, Baby – a Q & A". Adolesc Med 16 (2): 269–288. doi:10.1016/j.admecli.2005.02.009. PMID 16111618.
- Steinberg, L., & Monahan, K. 2010. Developmental Psychology.
- Jennifer Stevens Aubrey (2004). "Sex and Punishment: An Examination of Sexual Consequences and the Sexual Double Standard in Teen Programming". Sex Roles 50 (7–8): 505–514. doi:10.1023/B:SERS.0000023070.87195.07.
- Anita Chandra, DrPH, Steven C. Martino, Rebecca L. Collins, Marc N. Elliott, Sandra H. Berry, David E. Kanouse and Angela Miu (November 2008). "Does Watching Sex on Television Predict Teen Pregnancy? Findings From a National Longitudinal Survey of Youth". Pediatrics 122 (5): 1047–1054. doi:10.1542/peds.2007-3066.(registration required)
- Michele Ybarra and Kimberly Mitchell (2005). "Exposure to Internet Pornography among Children and Adolescents". Cyber Psychology 8 (5).
- Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Meade, Christina S.; Cohen, Geoffrey L. (June 2003). "Adolescent Oral Sex, Peer Popularity, and Perceptions of Best Friends' Sexual Behavior". Journal of Pediatric Psychology 28 (4): 243–249. doi:10.1093/jpepsy/jsg012. PMID 12730281.
- Amy M. Fasula, Kim Miller (2006). "African-American and Hispanic adolescents' intentions to delay first intercourse: parental communication as a buffer for sexually active peers". Journal of Adolescent Health 38 (3): 193–200. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2004.12.009. PMID 16488815.
- Dailard, Cynthia (February 2001). "Sex Education: Politicians, Parents, Teachers and Teens". The Guttmacher Report on Public Policy. Guttmacher Institute. Archived from the original on 24 May 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-23.
- "On Our Side: Public Support for Comprehensive Sexuality Education" (PDF). SIECUS. Archived from the original on July 15, 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-23.
- "NAEA Executive Summary of Key Findings". National Abstinence Education Association. 2007-05-03. Archived from the original on 17 May 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-24.
- Parents Prefer Abstinence Education 2 to 1, National Abstinence Education Association
- "Position Statement on Sexuality Education". NASP. 2003. Retrieved 2012-03-07.
- Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health and Committee on Adolescence (2001). "Sexuality Education for Children and Adolescents". PEDIATRICS 108 (2): 498–502.
- "Abstinence and U.S. Abstinence-Only Education Policies: Ethical and Human Rights Concerns". American Public Health Association. 2006. Retrieved 2012-03-07.
- "Abstinence-only education policies and programs" (PDF). Journal of Adolescent Health. 2006. Archived from the original on 6 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-31.
- "Emerging Answers 2007". The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. 2007. Retrieved 2012-03-07.
- Katie Couric (2005). "Nearly 3 in 10 young teens 'sexually active'". MSNBC. Archived from the original on 20 January 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-21.
- Geasler M. J., Dannison L. L., Edlund C. J. (1995). "Sexuality education of young children: parental concerns". Family Relations 44 (2): 184–188.
- Heisler J. M. (2005). "Family communication about sex: parents and college-aged offspring recall discussion topics, satisfaction, and parental involvement". The Journal of Family Communication 5 (4): 295–312.
- Wilson E. K., Dalberth B. T., Koo H.P., Gard J. C. (2010). "Parents' perspectives on talking to preteenage children about sex". Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 42 (1): 56–63.
- Wilson E. K., Dalberth B. T., Koo H. P. (2010). "We're the heroes!": fathers' perspectives on their role in protecting their preteenage children from sexual risk". Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 42 (2): 117–124.
- Hitchinson K. M., Cederbaum J. A. (2011). "Talking to daddy's little girl about sex: daughters' reports of sexual communication and support from fathers". Journal of Family Issues 32 (4): 5550–572.
- Hitchinson K. M., Cederbaum J. A. (2011). "Talking to daddy's little girl about sex: daughters' reports of sexual communication and support from fathers". Journal of Family Issues 32 (4): 5550–572.
- Yiannakis, Andrew; Merrill J. Melnick (2001). Contemporary Issues in Sociology of Sport. Human Kinetics. pp. 109–123. ISBN 978-0-7360-3710-5.
- "Study: Religious Teens More Likely to Abstain from Sex". FoxNews. January 2, 2009. Archived from the original on 5 January 2009. Retrieved 2014-04-25.
- Rebekah Levine Coley, Bethany L. Medeiros, Holly S. Schindler, (2008). "Using Sibling Differences to Estimate Effects of Parenting on Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviors". Journal of Adolescent Health 43 (2): 133–140. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.12.012. PMID 18639786.
- Sally Law (May 15, 2009). "Involved Dads Lower Their Kids' Sex Risks". US News. Archived from the original on 18 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-17.
- Massachusetts Department of Education (June 2006). "2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey". Massachusetts Department of Education Website.
- Ethan Jacobs (June 21, 2007). "Surprising results from health risk survey for LGB youth". Bay Windows.
- Johnson, Cheri C., Johnson, Kirk A. (2000). "High Risk Behavior Among Gay Adolescents". Adolescence 35 (140).
- "Sexual and Reproductive Health of Persons Aged 10-24 Years, United States, 2002-2007 (full document, PDF)". Center for Disease Control. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
- "National Health Statistics Reports, Number 60 October 18, 2012". CDC. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
- "The International Encyclopedia of Sexuality: United States of America" (sections 4B, 5B, and 6A cover adolescent sexuality).
- Birth Control: MedlinePlus Gives directions on how to use various birth control methods, for teens