Religious views of Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler was raised by a sceptic, anti-clerical father and a devout Catholic mother; he ceased to participate in the sacraments after childhood. Contradictory accounts exist about Adolf Hitler's adult religious views, including his relationship to Christianity and the Catholic church. According to Hitler's chief architect, Albert Speer, Hitler remained a formal member of the Catholic church until his death, and even ordered his chief associates to remain members; however, it was Speer's opinion that "he had no real attachment to it." Biographer John Toland wrote that Hitler was still "a member in good standing of the Church of Rome despite his detestation of its hierarchy" and drew links between Hitler's Catholic background and his antisemitism. Conversely, the Encyclopedia Britannica states that Hitler intended to replace Christianity with a "racist form of warrior paganism" and shared his deputy Martin Bormann's view that Christianity and Nazism were "incompatible". Additionally, biographer Alan Bullock wrote that, though raised Catholic, Hitler was a rationalist and materialist, who saw Christianity as a religion "fit for slaves", and against the natural law of selection and survival of the fittest. Though Hitler had respect for the 'great position' of the Catholic church, Bullock wrote he became hostile to its teachings. According to the biographer Kershaw, while Hitler was secretive and able to disguise his inner beliefs, he held radical instincts on the "Church Question" in Germany, evidenced by "frequent outbursts of hostility" towards them.
Many historians say that Hitler had a general covert plan, which some say existed even before the Nazis' rise to power, to destroy Christianity within the Reich, which was to be accomplished through control and subversion of the churches and to be completed after the war. Prior to the March 1933 vote for the Enabling Act, Hitler promised the Weimar Parliament that he would not interfere with the rights of the churches. With power secured in Germany, Hitler quickly broke this promise. He dishonoured a concordat signed with the Vatican and permitted a persecution of the Catholic Church in Germany. He attempted to Nazify German Protestants in a Reich Church, under the anti-Semite Ludwig Muller and the Deutsche Christens. The attempt backfired with the formation of the anti-Nazi Confessing Church. He instigated an aggressive persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses because of their religious objection to military service and pledges of allegiance to the state. He relentlessly attacked the Jewish population, of Germany first and then Europe.
In his book Mein Kampf and in public speeches he often made statements that affirmed a belief in Christianity. Prior to World War II Hitler had promoted "positive Christianity", a movement which purged Christianity of its Jewish elements and instilled it with Nazi philosophy. According to the controversial collection of transcripts edited by his private secretary Martin Bormann, titled Hitler's Table Talk, as well as the testimony of some intimates, Hitler had privately negative views of Christianity. Others reported he was a committed believer.
The young Adolf Hitler 
Reliable historical details on the childhood of Adolf Hitler are scarce. According to the biographer Ian Kershaw, the reflections Hitler himself provided in Mein Kampf are "inaccurate in detail and coloured in interpretation", information that was given during the Nazi period is "dubious", as can be the post-war recollections of family and acquaintances.
Hitler was born in 1889, in Braunau, Austria. Hitler's father Alois, though nominally a Catholic, was somewhat religiously skeptical and anticlerical, while his mother Klara was a practicing Catholic. As a child, Hitler was baptised a Catholic. His father was an authoritarian presence in the home and died in 1903. His mother, a gentler influence, died in 1907.
The Hitler family moved home several times in Adolf's young days and he attended several primary schools. According to Toland, after selling their farm, the Hitler family lived for six months opposite an imposing Benedictine Monastery at Lambach, and on some afternoons, Hitler attended the choir school at the monastery. Around this time, Hitler is said to have dreamed of taking holy orders.
After completing his Volksschule (primary) schooling, Adolf's father overruled his son's preference for enrollment at a classically focused Gymnasium school and sent him to a more scientific and technically focused Realschule in Linz in 1900. Hitler developed a fascination with German mythology and the Teutons. According to historian Michael Rissmann, young Hitler was influenced in school by Pan-Germanism, and began to reject the Catholic Church, receiving confirmation only unwillingly. He was confirmed on 22 May 1904. Toland wrote of the 1904 ceremony at Linz Cathedral, that Hitler's confirmation sponsor said he nearly had to "drag the words out of him... almost as though the whole confirmation was repugnant to him".
According to an interview with a British correspondent years after the First World War, Hitler claimed a mysterious voice told him to leave a section of a crowded trench during a minor barrage. Moments after he left the trench, a shell fell on that particular spot. Hitler saw this experience as a message that he was a uniquely illuminated individual who had a special task to fulfill. This story did not, however, appear in Mein Kampf.
After completing his schooling at 16, Hitler sought a career as an artist. In 1909 he moved to Vienna. There his intellectual interests vacillated - according to Alan Bullock, in the public library his reading was indiscriminate and unsystematic, but included: "Ancient Rome, the Eastern religions, Yoga, Occultism, Hypnotism, Astrology, Protestantism, each in turn excited his interest for a moment... He struck people as unbalanced. He gave rein to his hatreds - against the Jews, the priests, the Social Democrats, the Hapsburgs - without restraint".
Views as an adult 
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Religious views of Adolf Hitler|
Hitler's public and private statements on religion were often in conflict. The biographer Kershaw wrote that few people could really claim to "know" Hitler - "he was by temperament a very private, even secretive individual", unwilling to confide in others.
Many private statements attributed to him remain disputed. In public, as in private, he was unequivocal in his disdain for Judaism.
Scholarly opinion 
In Hitler: A Study in Tyranny Alan Bullock, wrote that Hitler was a rationalist and a materialist with no feeling for the spiritual or emotional side of human existence: a "man who believed neither in God nor in conscience ('a Jewish invention, a blemish like circumcission')". Bullock wrote: "From political considerations he restrained his anti-clericalism, seeing clearly the dangers of strengthening the Church by persecution. Once the war was over he promised himself, he would root out and destroy the influence of the Christian Churches". According to Bullock, Hitler had some regard for the organisational power of Catholicism, but utter contempt for its central teachings, which he said, if taken to their conclusion, "would mean the systematic cultivation of the human failure". German conservative elements, such as the officer corps opposed Nazi efforts against the churches and, in office, Hitler restrained his anticlerical instincts out of political considerations. Bullock wrote that "once the war was over, [Hitler] promised himself, he would root out and destroy the influence of the Christian churches, but until then he would be circumspect":
Hitler had been brought up a Catholic and was impressed by the organization and power of the Church. For Protestant clergy he felt only contempt: 'They are insignificant little people, submissive as dogs...[-] They have neither a religion you can take seriously nor a great position to defend like Rome'. It was the 'great position' of the Church that he respected; towards its teaching he showed only the sharpest hostility. In Hitler's eyes, Christianity was a religion fit only for slaves; he detested its ethics in particular. Its teaching, he declared, was a rebellion against the natural law of selection by struggle and the survival of the fittest.
The biographer Ian Kershaw wrote that in 1937, Hitler told his inner circle that he "did not want a 'Church struggle" at this juncture", he expected "the great world struggle in a few years' time". Nevertheless, wrote Kershaw, inflammatory remarks by Hitler gave his underlings license to intensify their church struggle - and Goebells's noted his approval of anti-Christian propaganda and the show trials of clergy. Hitler's impatience with the churches, wrote Kershaw, "prompted frequent outbursts of hostility. In early 1937 he was declaring that 'Christianity was ripe for destruction', and that the Churches must yield to the "primacy of the state", railing against any compromise with "the most horrible institution imaginable".
According to Max Domarus Hitler promoted the idea of God as the creator of Germany, but Hitler "was not a Christian in any accepted meaning of that word." Domarus also points out that Hitler did not believe in organized religion and did not see himself as a religious reformer. According to historian Laurence Rees, "Hitler did not believe in the afterlife, but he did believe he would have a life after death because of what he had achieved." Historian Richard Overy maintains that Hitler was not a "practising Christian," nor was he a "thorough atheist." According to Robert S. Wistrich Hitler thought Christianity was finished but he did not want any direct confrontation for strategic reasons. Samuel Koehne, a Research Fellow at the Alfred Deakin Research Institute, working on the official Nazi views on religion, answers the question Was Hitler a Christian? thus: "Emphatically not, if we consider Christianity in its traditional or orthodox form: Jesus as the son of God, dying for the redemption of the sins of all humankind. It is a nonsense to state that Hitler (or any of the Nazis) adhered to Christianity of this form." Koehne says Hitler was probably not an atheist and refers to the fact that recent works have asserted that he was a deist. Richard Evans concluded his statements on Hitler's religious views by suggesting that the gap between Hitler's public and private pronouncements was due to a desire not to cause a quarrel with the churches that might undermine national unity.
Richard Steigmann-Gall argues that even after a rupture with institutional Christianity (which Steigmann-Gall dated to around 1937) Hitler continued to hold Jesus in high esteem, considering him to have been an Aryan fighter who struggled against Jewry. In Hitler's view, Jesus' true Christian teachings had been corrupted by the Apostle Paul, who had transformed them into a kind of Jewish Bolshevism, which Hitler believed preached "the equality of all men amongst themselves, and their obedience to an only god. This is what caused the death of the Roman Empire." Steigmann-Gall concluded Hitler was religious at least in the 1920s and early 1930s, citing him expressing a belief in God, divine providence, and Jesus as an Aryan opponent of the Jews. However, he admits that by holding this position he "argues against the consensus that Nazism as a whole was either unrelated to Christianity or actively opposed to it."
The biographer John Toland, noted that, in the aftermath of a 1939 assassination, Hitler told dinner guests that Pope Pius XII would rather have seen the "plot succeed" and "was no friend of mine". Later in his biography, Toland wrote that, in 1941, Hitler was still "a member in good standing of the Church of Rome despite his detestation of its hierarchy, he carried within himself its teaching that the Jew was the killer of God. The extermination, therefore, could be done without a twinge of conscience since he was merely acting as the avenging hand of God — so long as it was done impersonally, without cruelty." (for the official Catholic position against Nazi racism in the 1930s see Mit brennender Sorge). Derek Hastings sees Hitler's commitment to Christianity as more tenuous. He considers it "eminently plausible" that Hitler was a believing Catholic as late as his trial in 1924, but writes that "there is little doubt that Hitler was a staunch opponent of Christianity throughout the duration of the Third Reich."
Public statements 
In reading Hitlers speeches one must read between the lines because they were propaganda, meant to reeducate to a specific viewpoint. The propaganda machinery of the Nazi party actively promoted Hitler as a savior of Christianity, and Nazi propaganda supported the German Christians in their formation of a single national church that could be controlled and manipulated. In public statements, especially at the beginning of his rule, Hitler frequently spoke positively about a Nazi vision of "Christian" German culture, and his belief in an Aryan Christ. Before his ascension to power, Hitler stated before a crowd in Munich: "My feeling as a Christian points me to my Lord and Savior as a fighter. It points me to the man who once in loneliness, surrounded only by a few followers, recognized these Jews for what they were and summoned men to fight against them and who, God's truth! was greatest not as a sufferer but as a fighter. In boundless love as a Christian and as a man I read through the passage which tells us how the Lord at last rose in His might and seized the scourge to drive out of the Temple the brood of vipers and adders. How terrific was his fight against the Jewish poison. Today, after two thousand years, with deepest emotion I recognize more profoundly than ever before the fact that it was for this that He had to shed his blood upon the Cross. As a Christian, I have no duty to allow myself to be cheated, but I have the duty to be a fighter for truth and justice."
From 1931 to 1933, Hitler, having obtained a significant Nazi presence in the Reichstag, sought to obtain power with the "appearance of legality". Key voting blocks which Hitler needed to persuade to drop their opposition to a Nazi Government were the Catholic Centre Party and German conservatives. He pursued this policy with a mix of intimidation, negotiation and conciliation. In a proclamation to the German Nation February 1, 1933, Hitler stated, "The National Government will regard it as its first and foremost duty to revive in the nation the spirit of unity and co-operation. It will preserve and defend those basic principles on which our nation has been built. It regards Christianity as the foundation of our national morality, and the family as the basis of national life."
Historian Joachim Fest wrote, "Hitler knew, through the constant invocation of the God the Lord (German: Herrgott) or of providence (German: Vorsehung), to make the impression of a godly way of thought." He used his "ability to simulate, even to potentially critical Church leaders, an image of a leader keen to uphold and protect Christianity," according to biographer Ian Kershaw. Kershaw adds that Hitler's ability also succeeded in appeasing possible Church resistance to anti-Christian Nazi Party radicals. For example, on March 23, 1933, he addressed the Reichstag: "The National Government regards the two Christian confessions [i.e. Catholicism and Protestantism] as factors essential to the soul of the German people. ... We hold the spiritual forces of Christianity to be indispensable elements in the moral uplift of most of the German people." The speech came in the context of Hitler seeking a two thirds majority of the Reichstag vote to pass the Enabling Act, under which he was to gain dictatorial powers. In the speech he promised that the Act would not threaten the Reichstag, the President, the States or the Churches. Hitler secured passage of the Act, but did not honour these promises.
Hitler's own words from Mein Kampf seem to conflict with the idea that his antisemitism was religiously motivated, stating: "In the Jew I still saw only a man who was of a different religion, and therefore, on grounds of human tolerance, I was against the idea that he should be attacked because he had a different faith."
In his book Mein Kampf Hitler made numerous religious pronouncements. In its pages, historian Richard Steigmann-Gall notes, "Hitler gave no indication of being an atheist or agnostic or of believing in only a remote, rationalist divinity. Indeed, he referred continually to a providential, active deity."
"Hence today I believe that I am acting in accordance with the will of the Almighty Creator: by defending myself against the Jew, I am fighting for the work of the Lord."
"The individual may establish with pain today that with the appearance of Christianity the first spiritual terror entered into the far freer ancient world, but he will not be able to contest the fact that since then the world has been afflicted and dominated by this coercion, and that coercion is broken only by coercion, and terror only by terror. Only then can a new state of affairs be constructively created. Political parties are inclined to compromises; philosophies never. Political parties even reckon with opponents; philosophies proclaim their infallibility."
Elsewhere in Mein Kampf Hitler speaks of the "creator of the universe" and "eternal Providence." He also states his belief that the Aryan race was created by God, and that it would be a sin to dilute it through racial intermixing:
"The völkisch-minded man, in particular, has the sacred duty, each in his own denomination, of making people stop just talking superficially of God's will, and actually fulfill God's will, and not let God's word be desecrated. For God's will gave men their form, their essence and their abilities. Anyone who destroys His work is declaring war on the Lord's creation, the divine will."
According to Steigmann-Gall, Hitler's references to Jesus, God as the "Lord of Creation" and the necessity of obeying "His will" reveals that Christianity was fused into his thinking. "What Christianity achieves is not dogma, it does not seek the outward ecclesiastical form, but rather ethical principles.... There is not religion and no philosophy that equals it in its moral content; no philosophical ethics is better able to diffuse the tension between this life and the hereafter, from which Christianity and its ethic were born," Hitler stated.
Private statements 
Hitler typically tailored his message to his audience's perceived sensibilities. As in other matters, his private statements on religion were often conflicting. According to Kershaw, Hitler could "pull the wool over the eyes of even hardened critics", thus, following a meeting in 1936, Cardinal Faulhaber, a man who had "courageously criticized the Nazi attacks on the Catholic Church - went away convinced that Hitler was deeply religious". Hitler's intimates, such as Joseph Goebbels, Albert Speer, and Martin Bormann suggest that Hitler had negative opinions of Christianity, while Gen. Gerhard Engel was convinced that he was a believer.
According to Hitler's chief architect, Albert Speer, Hitler remained a formal member of the Catholic Church until his death, and even ordered his chief associates to remain members, however it was Speer's opinion that "he had no real attachment to it." It was Goebbels' opinion that Hitler was "deeply religious but entirely anti-Christian." In his diary Goebbels reported that Hitler believed Jesus "also wanted to act against the Jewish world domination. Jewry had him crucified. But Paul falsified his doctrine and undermined ancient Rome." Albert Speer quotes Hitler stating, "You see, it's been our misfortune to have the wrong religion. Why didn't we have the religion of the Japanese, who regard sacrifice for the Fatherland as the highest good? The Mohammedan religion too would have been much more compatible to us than Christianity. Why did it have to be Christianity with its meekness and flabbiness?"
Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber wrote in a confidential report that Hitler "undoubtedly lives in belief in God" and that he "recognizes Christianity as the builder of western culture." Historian Ian Kershaw believes that Hitler had deceived Faulhaber, noting his "evident ability to simulate, even to potentially critical church leaders, an image of a leader keen to uphold and protect Christianity". Nazi General Gerhard Engel reported in his diary that in 1941 Hitler stated, "I am now as before a Catholic and will always remain so."
In the Table Talk, Hitler praised Julian the Apostate's Three Books Against the Galilaeans, an anti-Christian tract from AD 362. In the entry dated 21 October 1941 Hitler stated, "When one thinks of the opinions held concerning Christianity by our best minds a hundred, two hundred years ago, one is ashamed to realise how little we have since evolved. I didn't know that Julian the Apostate had passed judgment with such clear-sightedness on Christianity and Christians.... the Galilean, who later was called the Christ, intended something quite different. He must be regarded as a popular leader who took up His position against Jewry... and it's certain that Jesus was not a Jew. The Jews, by the way, regarded Him as the son of a whore—of a whore and a Roman soldier. The decisive falsification of Jesus's doctrine was the work of St. Paul.... Paul of Tarsus (his name was Saul, before the road to Damascus) was one of those who persecuted Jesus most savagely." And author Konrad Heiden has quoted Hitler as stating, "We do not want any other god than Germany itself. It is essential to have fanatical faith and hope and love in and for Germany."
Hitler's Table Talk 
The historical validity of remarks in the translations of Hitler's Table Talk, the source of many of the statements Hitler made about Christianity, has been challenged by Richard Carrier, who went so far as to call it 'entirely untrustworthy'. However, the widespread consensus among historians, sustained over a long period of time since the initial work of William L. Shirer in the 1960s, is that Hitler was undoubtedly anti-clerical and that the views expressed in Trevor-Roper's translation of Table Talk, are credible and reliable, although as with all historical sources, a high level of critical awareness about its origins and purpose are advisable in using it.
The remarks from Table Talk accepted as genuine include such quotes as 'Christianity is the prototype of Bolshevism: the mobillization by the Jew of the masses of slaves with the object of undermining society.' Michael Burleigh contrasted Hitler's public pronouncements on Christianity with those in Table Talk, suggesting that Hitler's real religious views were 'a mixture of materialist biology, a faux-Nietzschean contempt for core, as distinct from secondary, Christian values, and a visceral anti-clericalism.' Richard Evans also reiterated the view that Nazism was secular, scientific and anti-religious in outlook in the last volume of his trilogy on Nazi Germany, writing, 'Hitler's hostility to Christianity reached new heights, or depths, during the war;' his source for this was the 1953 English translation of Table Talk.
Christianity and "Positive Christianity" 
Positive Christianity 
Article 24 of the 1920 Nazi Party platform promised to combat the "Jewish-materialistic spirit" but offered a qualified statement of support for freedom for religious confessions "in so far as they do not jeopardize the state's existence or conflict with the manners and moral sentiments of the Germanic race". It further expounded the notion of an acceptable, non-denominational "positive Christianity" which the party would uphold: "The Party as such upholds the point of view of a positive Christianity without tying itself confessionally to any one confession." Nazi ideology conflicted with traditional Christianity in various respects - in particular, according to the Encyclopedia Britannica, Nazis criticized Christian ideals of "meekness and guilt" on the basis that they "repressed the violent instincts necessary to prevent inferior races from dominating Aryans". Key Nazi ideologues like Martin Bormann argued for an incompatibility of Christianity and Nazism largely based on the Semitic origins of the Christian religion - a view shared by Hitler. Positive Christianity was a militant, non-denominational Nazified version of Christianity which emphasized Jesus as an active preacher, organizer, and fighter who opposed the institutionalized Judaism of his day. It purged or deemphasized the Jewish aspects of Christianity and was infused with aspects of nationalism and racial antisemitism.
In the early 1930s, the Nazis promoted the so-called "German Christians", who attempted to subordinate the church to the politics of the Nazi Party. This pro-Hitler movement within the Lutheran church in Germany pronounced that Jesus had been a blond-haired, blue-eyed Aryan. In 1932, the German Christians’ Faith Movement was formed. It was nationalistic and anti-Semitic to the extent that it accepted the Nazi definition of a "Jew" as based on the religion of their grandparents. Some of its radicals called for repudiation of the Old Testament (the Hebrew Scriptures) and the Pauline epistles of the New Testament - because of their Jewish authorship.
In July 1933, Germany's Protestant churches were merged to form the German Evangelical Church and in September, the Nazi Ludwig Müller was appointed Reich Bishop of the new Church. According to Kershaw, Hitler had chosen the former naval chaplain with no "obvious qualifications for the position" other than strong loyalty to the the Hitler movement. In Kershaw's assessment however, soon after the Nazis came to power, Muller proved a "disastrous choice" and supporting the "German Christians" was quickly seen as counterproductive. They caused outrage among traditional Christians with proclamations "attacking the Old Testament and the theology of the 'Rabbi Paul', and preaching the need for depictions of a more 'heroic' Jesus..." Amid the division, Hitler "lost whatever interest he had in Protestant Church", and only seldom intervened in its affairs after that.
Many Protestants who were not persuaded to join the movement were arrested and their property and funds confiscated. Not all the Protestant churches submitted to the state, which Hitler said in Mein Kampf was important in forming a political movement. The Confessing Church formed under the leadership of Martin Niemöller, who resisted Muller's efforts to make the Protestant churches an instrument of Nazi policy. By 1940 it was public knowledge that Hitler had abandoned advocating for Germans even the syncretist idea of a positive Christianity.
According to Steigmann-Gall, Hitler never directed his attacks on Jesus himself, whom Hitler regarded as an Aryan opponent of the Jews. Hitler viewed traditional Christianity as a corruption of the original ideas of Jesus by the Apostle Paul. In Mein Kampf Hitler had written that Jesus "made no secret of his attitude toward the Jewish people, and when necessary he even took the whip to drive from the temple of the Lord this adversary of all humanity, who then as always saw in religion nothing but an instrument for his business existence. In return, Christ was nailed to the cross." In a speech 26 June 1934, Hitler stated:
The National Socialist State professes its allegiance to positive Christianity. It will be its honest endeavour to protect both the great Christian Confessions in their rights, to secure them from interference with their doctrines (Lehren), and in their duties to constitute a harmony with the views and the exigencies of the State of today.
Former Prime Minister of Bavaria, Count von Lerchenfeld-Köfering stated in a speech before the Landtag of Bavaria, that his beliefs "as a man and a Christian" prevented him from being an anti-Semite or from pursuing anti-Semitic public policies. Hitler while speaking the Bürgerbräukeller turned Lerchenfeld's perspective of Jesus on its head:
I would like here to appeal to a greater than I, Count Lerchenfeld. He said in the last session of the Landtag that his feeling 'as a man and a Christian' prevented him from being an anti-Semite. I say: My feelings as a Christian points me to my Lord and Savior as a fighter. It points me to the man who once in loneliness, surrounded only by a few followers, recognized these Jews for what they were and summoned men to fight against them and who, God's truth! was greatest not as a sufferer but as a fighter. .. How terrific was His fight for the world against the Jewish poison.
Historian Steigmann-Gall argues that Hitler demonstrated a preference for Protestantism over Catholicism, as Protestantism was more liable to reinterpretation and a non-traditional readings, more receptive to positive Christianity, and because some of its liberal branches had held similar views. These views were supported by the German Christians movement, but rejected by the Confessing Church. According to Steigmann-Gall, Hitler regretted that "the churches had failed to back him and his movement as he had hoped." Hitler stated to Albert Speer, "Through me the Protestant Church could become the established church, as in England."
Nazi persecution of Christian Churches 
Prior to the vote for the Enabling Act, Hitler promised the Reichstag on 23 March 1933, that he would not interfere with the rights of the churches. With power secured in Germany, Hitler quickly broke these promises He dishonoured a concordat signed with the Vatican and permitted a persecution of the Catholic Church in Germany. He divided the Lutheran Church (Germany's main Protestant denomination) and instigated a brutal persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses. A special Priests Barracks was established at Dachau Concentration Camp for clergy who had opposed the Hitler regime.
Many historians say that Hitler had a general covert plan, which some say existed even before the Nazis' rise to power, to destroy Christianity within the Reich, which was to be accomplished through control and subversion of the churches and to be completed after the war.<ref="Concise" /> According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, Hitler believed Christianity and Nazism were "incompatible" and intended to replace Christianity with a "racist form of warrior paganism".
Catholic Church 
German Catholics met the Nazi takeover with apprehension, as leading clergymen had been warning against Nazism for years. A threatening, though initially mainly sporadic persecution of the Catholic Church in Germany commenced.
Hitler moved quickly to eliminate Political Catholicism. 2000 functionaries of the Bavarian People's Party were rounded up by police in late June 1933, and it, along with the national Catholic Centre Party, ceased to exist in early July. Vice Chancellor Papen meanwhile negotiated a Reich Concordat with the Vatican, which banned political activities by clergy in Germany. Kershaw wrote that the Vatican was anxious to reach agreement with the new government, despite "continuing molestation of Catholic clergy, and other outrages committed by Nazi radicals against the Church and its organisations". In Hitler's bloody night of the long knives purge of 1934, Erich Klausener, the head of Catholic Action, was assassinated by the Gestapo.
The Catholic Church was particularly suppressed in Poland: between 1939 and 1945, an estimated 3,000 members (18%) of the Polish clergy, were murdered; of these, 1,992 died in concentration camps. In the annexed territory of Reichsgau Wartheland (German-controlled Greater Poland) the persecution of Catholics was most severe: churches were systematically closed and most priests were either killed, imprisoned, or deported to the General Government. Eighty per cent of the Catholic clergy and five bishops of Warthegau were sent to concentration camps in 1939; 108 of them are regarded as blessed martyrs. Religious persecution was not confined to this region: in Dachau concentration camp alone, 2,600 Catholic priests from 24 different countries were killed.
Protestant Churches 
Consensus among historians who treat the matter of Christianity in prewar Nazi Germany is that the Nazi-backed "positivist" or "German Christian" church was endeavoring to make the evangelical churches of Germany an instrument of Nazi policy. According to Bullock, Hitler considered the Protestant clergy to be "insignificant" and "submissive" and lacking in a religion to be taken seriously. Kershaw wrote that the subjugation of the Protestant churches proved more difficult than Hitler had envisaged however. With 28 separate regional churches, his bid to create a unified Reich Church through Gleichschaltung ultimately failed, and Hitler became disinterested in seeking supporting the so-called "German Christians" Nazi aligned movement. Hitler initially lent support to Ludwig Muller, a Nazi and former naval chaplain, to serve as Reich Bishop, but his heretical views against St Paul and the Semitic origins of Christ and the Bible quickly alienated sections of the Protestant church. Pastor Martin Neimoller responded with the Pastors Emergency League which re-affirmed the Bible. The movement grew into the Confessing Church, from which some clergymen opposed the Nazi regime. Neimoller was arrested by the Gestapo in 1937, and sent to the Concentration Camps. The Confessing Church seminary was banned. Dietrich Bonhoeffer, another leading spokesman for the Confessing Church, was from the outset a critic of the Hitler regime's racism and became active in the German Resistance - calling for Christians to speak out against Nazi attrocities. Arrested in 1943, he was implicated in the 1944 July Plot to assassinate Hitler and executed.
Although ideas about racial superiority and the destiny of their race which animated the German Christian movement had been present in German religious circles as early as 1930, the movement was not formally established until 1932 when it officially became known as the German Christians with backing from Hitler himself. The pretension of the Nazi regime and of its Fuhrer that all Protestant churches in Germany should be subsumed under the leadership of the German Christians served as an impulse to action for other Christian leaders who saw the racist, ultra-nationalistic, and totalitarian emphases of the German Christian church as incompatible with the Gospel of Jesus Christ. When those not in agreement organized their opposition and, calling themselves the Confessing Church, publicly proclaimed articles of faith that denied the position of the German Christians, they eventually came under severe persecution by the State. About the end of March 1935 six hundred of the principal leaders of the Confessing Church were arrested and many others received visits from the Gestapo to emphasize the government's point of view concerning these matters. Later, there were new arrests, and it began to be known that those who had been taken away were ending up in concentration camps. Given the totalitarian atmosphere of Nazi Germany at that time, it would be ingenuous to believe that these measures against the Confessing Church and in support of the policies of the German Christians might have been taken without Adolph Hitler's consent. Hitler made it clear that there would be no place for the Christian churches in his vision of the future for the east.
Jehovah's Witnesses 
Jehovah's Witnesses were a small Christian minority, numbering around 30,000 at the start of Hitler's rule in Germany. For refusing to declare loyalty to the Reich, and refusing conscription into the army, they were declared to be enemies of Germany and persecuted. About 6000 were sent to the concentration camps.
Long term plans 
In 1999 Julie Seltzer Mandel, while researching documents for the "Nuremberg Project", discovered 150 bound volumes collected by Gen. William Donovan as part of his work on documenting Nazi war crimes. Donovan was a senior member of the U.S. prosecution team and had compiled large amounts of evidence that Nazis persecuted Christian Churches. In a 108-page outline titled "The Nazi Master Plan" Office of Strategic Services investigators argued that the Nazi regime had a plan to reduce the influence of Christian churches through a campaign of systematic persecutions. "Important leaders of the National Socialist party would have liked to meet this situation [of church influence] by complete extirpation of Christianity and the substitution of a purely racial religion," said the report. The most persuasive evidence came from "the systematic nature of the persecution itself."
Kershaw wrote that, in Hitler's scheme for the Germanization of Eastern Europe, "There would, he made clear, be no place in this utopia for the Christian Churches. For the time being, he ordered slow progress on the 'Church Question'. 'But is clear', noted Goebells, himself among the most aggressive anti-Church radicals, 'that after the war it has to be solved... There is, namely, an insoluble opposition between the Christian and a Germanic-heroic world-view".
Statements against atheism 
Hitler courted and benefited from fear among German Christians of militant Communist atheism. Through 1933 and into 1934, Hitler required the support of German conservatives and the Catholic Centre Party in the Reichstag to achieve his takeover of power with the "appearance of legality". During this period, he gave a number of undertakings not to threaten the German churches and reassured them of his opposition to atheist communism. Hitler often associated atheism with Bolshevism, Communism, and Jewish materialism. Hitler stated in a speech to the people of Stuttgart on February 15, 1933: "Today they say that Christianity is in danger, that the Catholic faith is threatened. My reply to them is: for the time being, Christians and not international atheists are now standing at Germany’s fore. I am not merely talking about Christianity; I confess that I will never ally myself with the parties which aim to destroy Christianity. Fourteen years they have gone arm in arm with atheism. At no time was greater damage ever done to Christianity than in those years when the Christian parties ruled side by side with those who denied the very existence of God. Germany's entire cultural life was shattered and contaminated in this period. It shall be our task to burn out these manifestations of degeneracy in literature, theater, schools, and the press—that is, in our entire culture—and to eliminate the poison which has been permeating every facet of our lives for these past fourteen years."
On 21 March 1933, the Reichstag assembled in the Potsdam Garrison Church, to show the "unity" of National Socialism with the old conservative Germany of President von Hindenburg. Two days later, the Nazis secured passage of the Enabling Bill, granting Hitler dictatorial powers. Less than three months later all non-Nazi parties and organizations, including the Catholic Centre Party had ceased to exist, and a Concordat was reached with the Vatican in July. During negotiations leading to the Nazi-Vatican Concordat of July 20, 1933, and ratified on September 10 of the same year; Hitler argued that "Secular schools can never be tolerated because such schools have no religious instruction, and a general moral instruction without a religious foundation is built on air; consequently, all character training and religion must be derived from faith." Once Hitler had obtained full power, he sometimes allowed pressure to be placed on German parents to remove children from religious classes to be given ideological instruction in its place, while in elite Nazi schools, Christian prayers were replaced with Teutonic rituals and sun-worship.
During the Concord talks, which lasted for lasted three and half months; Hitler pretended support of Christianity, he wanted the Catholics to end their support for the Center Party which was a potential source of opposition.
In a radio address October 14, 1933 Hitler stated, "For eight months we have been waging a heroic battle against the Communist threat to our Volk, the decomposition of our culture, the subversion of our art, and the poisoning of our public morality. We have put an end to denial of God and abuse of religion. We owe Providence humble gratitude for not allowing us to lose our battle against the misery of unemployment and for the salvation of the German peasant." Once Hitler had obtained full power, particularly following the death of President von Hindenberg in 1934, he routinely dishonoured the concordat.
In a speech delivered in Berlin, October 24, 1933, Hitler stated: "We were convinced that the people needs and requires this faith. We have therefore undertaken the fight against the atheistic movement, and that not merely with a few theoretical declarations: we have stamped it out."
In a speech delivered at Koblenz, August 26, 1934 Hitler states: "There may have been a time when even parties founded on the ecclesiastical basis were a necessity. At that time Liberalism was opposed to the Church, while Marxism was anti-religious. But that time is past. National Socialism neither opposes the Church nor is it anti-religious, but on the contrary, it stands on the ground of a real Christianity. The Church's interests cannot fail to coincide with ours alike in our fight against the symptoms of degeneracy in the world of today, in our fight against the Bolshevist culture, against an atheistic movement, against criminality, and in our struggle for the consciousness of a community in our national life, for the conquest of hatred and disunion between the classes, for the conquest of civil war and unrest, of strife and discord. These are not anti-Christian, these are Christian principles."
Statements in favour of atheism 
Hitler biographer Bullock concluded that Hitler did not believe in God. The historian of Christianity Blainey wrote that Hitler was an "atheist". Transcripts contained in Hitler's Table Talk contain a great deal of discussion of Hitler's views on religion, including statements suggestive of an atheist outlook. Hitler describes it as "not opportune to hurl ourselves now into a struggle with the churches", and scorns Christianity as "founded on nonsense", while "science", he says "cannot lie".
The dogma of Christianity gets worn away before the advances of science. Religion will have to make more and more concessions. Gradually the myths crumble. All that's left is to prove that in nature there is no frontier between the organic and the inorganic. When understanding of the universe has become widespread, when the majority of men know that the stars are not sources of light but worlds, perhaps inhabited worlds like ours, then the Christian doctrine will be convicted of absurdity.
— Adolf Hitler, from Hitler's Table Talk (1941-1944)
Islam and eastern religions 
Among eastern religions, Hitler described religious leaders such as "Confucius, Buddha, and Mohammed" as providers of "spiritual sustenance". In this context, Hitler's connection to Mohammad Amin al-Husseini, the Mufti of Jerusalem — which included asylum in 1941, the honorary rank of an SS Major-General, and a "respected racial genealogy" — has been interpreted more as a sign of respect than political expedience. Hitler expressed admiration for the Muslim military tradition and directed Himmler to initiate Muslim SS Divisions as a matter of policy. However, Nazi-era Minister of Armaments and War Production Albert Speer acknowledged that Hitler was only cooperating with Muslim figures, such as al-Husseini, because he felt the antisemitic views they shared would eventually help him win power and influence over the Middle East in the long run. According to Speer, Hitler stated in private, "The Mohammedan religion too would have been much more compatible to us than Christianity. Why did it have to be Christianity with its meekness and flabbiness?" Speer also stated that when he was discussing with Hitler events which might have occurred had Islam absorbed Europe:
- "Hitler said that the conquering Arabs, because of their racial inferiority, would in the long run have been unable to contend with the harsher climate and conditions of the country. They could not have kept down the more vigorous natives, so that ultimately not Arabs but Islamized Germans could have stood at the head of this Mohammedan Empire."
Hitler's choice of the Swastika as the Nazis' main and official symbol was linked to the belief in the Aryan cultural descent of the German people. They considered the early Aryans of India to be the prototypical white invaders and the sign as a symbol of the Aryan master race. The theory was inspired by the German archaeologist Gustaf Kossinna, who argued that the ancient Aryans were a superior Nordic race from northern Germany who expanded into the steppes of Eurasia, and from there into India, where they established the Vedic religion.
Mysticism and occultism 
Some scholars maintain that, in contrast to a few other Nazi leaders, Hitler did not adhere to esoteric ideas, occultism, or mysticism (see also Nazism and occultism) and even ridiculed such beliefs in private and possibly in public. Hitler stated: "We will not allow mystically-minded occult folk with a passion for exploring the secrets of the world beyond to steal into our Movement. Such folk are not National Socialists, but something else—in any case something which has nothing to do with us." Other scholars believe the young Hitler was strongly influenced, particularly in his racial views, by an abundance of occult works on the mystical superiority of the Germans, like the occult and anti-Semitic magazine Ostara, and give credence to the claim of its publisher Lanz von Liebenfels that Hitler visited him in 1909 and praised his work. Indeed, evidence indicates Hitler was a regular reader of Ostara.
Hitler's contact to Lanz von Liebenfels makes it necessary to examine how far his religious views were influenced by Ariosophy, an esoteric movement in Germany and Austria that flourished from the 1890s to the 1920s. (Whether Ariosophy is to be classified as Germanic paganism or Occultism is a different question.) The seminal work on Ariosophy, The Occult Roots of Nazism by Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, devotes its last chapter the topic of Ariosophy and Adolf Hitler. Not at least due to the difficulty of sources, historians disagree about the importance of Ariosophy for Hitler's religious views. As noted in the foreword of The Occult Roots of Nazism by Rohan Butler, Goodrick-Clarke is more cautious in assessing the influence of Lanz von Liebenfels on Hitler than Joachim Fest in his biography of Hitler. A Hitler biography by John Toland that appeared in 1992 reprints a poem that Hitler allegedly wrote while serving in the German Army on the Western Front in 1915. This poem includes references to magical runes and the pre-Christian Germanic deity Wotan (Odin), but it is mentioned neither by Goodrick-Clarke nor by Fest.
While he was in power, Hitler was definitely less interested in the occult or the esoteric than other Nazi leaders. Unlike Heinrich Himmler and Rudolf Hess, for example, Hitler had no interest in astrology. Nevertheless, Hitler is the most important figure in the Modern Mythology of Nazi occultism. There are teledocumentaries about this topic, with the titles Hitler and the Occult and Hitler's Search for the Holy Grail. In fact, the latter is all about Himmler's search for the Grail, and probably only had "Hitler" in the title because he's the more well-known Nazi.
Comparing him to Erich von Ludendorff, Fest writes: "Hitler had detached himself from such affections, in which he encountered the obscurantism of his early years, Lanz v. Liebenfels and the Thule Society, again, long ago and had, in Mein Kampf, formulated his scathing contempt for that völkish romanticism, which however his own cosmos of imagination preserved rudimentarily." Fest refers to the following passage from Mein Kampf:
"The characteristic thing about these people [modern-day followers of the early Germanic religion] is that they rave about the old Germanic heroism, about dim prehistory, stone axes, spear and shield, but in reality are the greatest cowards that can be imagined. For the same people who brandish scholarly imitations of old German tin swords, and wear a dressed bearskin with bull's horns over their heads, preach for the present nothing but struggle with spiritual weapons, and run away as fast as they can from every Communist blackjack.
It is not clear if this statement is an attack at anyone specific. It could have been aimed at Karl Harrer or at the Strasser group. According to Goodrick-Clarke, "In any case, the outburst clearly implies Hitler's contempt for conspiratorial circles and occult-racist studies and his preference for direct activism." Hitler also said something similar in public speeches. Although, the quote is really just criticizing German romanticists for lack of action, not necessarily their spiritual or cultural beliefs. Hitler, himself, was very much into the culture he refers to here, especially in the case of Wagner operas.
Older literature states that Hitler had no intention of instituting worship of the ancient Germanic gods in contrast to the beliefs of some other Nazi officials. In Hitler's Table Talk one can find this quote:
"It seems to me that nothing would be more foolish than to re-establish the worship of Wotan. Our old mythology ceased to be viable when Christianity implanted itself. Nothing dies unless it is moribund.
Jackson Spielvogel and David Redles in an article published by the Simon Wiesenthal Center assert that the influence of the anti-Judaic, Gnostic and root race teachings of H.P. Blavatsky, the founder of The Theosophical Society with doctrines as expounded by her book "The Secret Doctrine", and the adaptations of her ideas by her followers, through Ariosophy, the Germanenorden and the Thule Society, constituted a popularly unacknowledged but decisive influence over the developing mind of Hitler. The scholars state that Hitler himself may be responsible for turning historians from investigating his occult influences. While he publicly condemned and even persecuted occultists, Freemasons, and astrologers, his nightly private talks disclosed his belief in the ideas of these competing occult groups - demonstrated by his discussion of reincarnation, Atlantis, world ice theory, and his belief that esoteric myths and legends of cataclysm and battles between gods and titans were a vague collective memory of monumental early events.
Bullock wrote that "there is no evidence to support the once popular belief that Hitler resorted to astrology."
Role of religion in the Nazi state 
In Hitler's political relations dealing with religion he readily adopted a strategy "that suited his immediate political purposes." According to Marshall Dill, one of the greatest challenges the Nazi state faced in its effort to "eradicate Christianity in Germany or at least subjugate it to their general world outlook" was that the Nazis could not justifiably connect German faith communities to the corruption of the old regime, Weimar having no close connection to the churches. Because of the long history of Christianity in Germany, Hitler could not attack Christianity as openly as he did Judaism, Communism or other political opponents. The list of Nazi affronts to and attacks on the Catholic Church is long. The attacks tended not to be overt, but were still dangerous; believers were made to feel that they were not good Germans and their leaders were painted as treasonous and contemptible. The state removed crucifixes from the walls of Catholic classrooms and replaced it with a photo of the Führer.
Hitler issued a statement saying that he wished to avoid factional disputes in Germany's churches. He feared the political power that the churches had, and did not want to openly antagonize that political base until he had securely gained control of the country. Once in power Hitler showed his contempt for non-Aryan religion and sought to eliminate it from areas under his rule. Within Hitler's Nazi Party some atheists were quite vocal, especially Martin Bormann. During negotiations relating to the Concordat with the Catholic Church and the Nazis state in 1933, Hitler expressed his view on the relationship between race and religion to Bishop Wilhelm Berning:
- I have been attacked because of my handling of the Jewish question. The Catholic Church considered the Jews pestilent for fifteen hundred years, put them in ghettos, etc, because it recognised the Jews for what they were. In the epoch of liberalism the danger was no longer recognised. I am moving back toward the time in which a fifteen-hundred-year-long tradition was implemented. I do not set race over religion, but I recognise the representatives of this race as pestilant for the state and for the church and perhaps I am thereby doing Christianity a great service by pushing them out of schools and public functions
Hitler often used religious speech and symbolism to promote Nazism to those that he feared would be disposed to act against him. He also called upon religion as a pretext in diplomacies. The Soviet Union feared that if they commenced a programme of persecution against religion in the western regions, Hitler would use that as a pretext for war.
In 1985 the Austrian author Wilfried Daim published a photograph of an alleged document signed by Hitler in 1943, which proposed the:
- "Immediate and unconditional abolition of all religions after the final victory ('Endsieg') not only for the territory of Greater Germany but also for all released, occupied and annexed countries ..., proclaiming at the same time Hitler as the new messiah. Out of political considerations the Muslim, Buddhist and Shintoist religion will be spared for the present. The 'Führer' has to be presented as an intermediate between a redeemer and a liberator, yet surely as one sent by God, who has to get godly honour. The existing churches, chapels, temples and cult places of the different religions have to be changed into 'Adolf-Hitler-consecration places'. The theological faculties of the universities have to be transformed into the new faith. Special emphasis has to be laid on the education of missionaries and wandering preachers, who have to proclaim the teaching in Greater Germany and in the rest of the world and have to form religious bodies, which can be used as centres for further extension. (With this the problems with the abolition of monogamy will disappear, because polygamy can be included into the new teaching as one of the statements of faith.)"
In his childhood, Hitler had admired the pomp of Catholic ritual and the hierarchical organisation of the clergy. Later he drew on these elements, organizing his party along hierarchical lines and including liturgical forms into events or using phraseology taken from hymns. Because of these liturgical elements, Hitler's Messiah-like status and the ideology's all-encompassing nature, the Nazi movement, like Communism, is sometimes termed a "political religion".
God, racism and anti-Semitism 
According to Hitler's personal photographer Heinrich Hoffmann, the strongly anti-Semitic Catholic priest Bernhard Stempfle was a member of Hitler's inner circle in the early 1920s and frequently advised him on religious issues. He was killed by the SS in the 1934 purge.
To the extent he believed in a divinity, Hitler did not believe in a "remote, rationalist divinity" but in an "active deity," which he frequently referred to as "Creator" or "Providence". In Hitler's belief God created a world in which different races fought each other for survival as depicted by Arthur de Gobineau. The "Aryan race," supposedly the bearer of civilization, is allocated a special place:
"What we must fight for is to safeguard the existence and the reproduction of our race ... so that our people may mature for the fulfilment of the mission allotted it by the creator of the universe. ... Peoples that bastardize themselves, or let themselves be bastardized, sin against the will of eternal Providence."
In November 1936 the Roman Catholic prelate Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber met Hitler at Berghof for a three hour meeting. He left the meeting convinced that "Hitler was deeply religious" and that "The Reich Chancellor undoubtedly lives in belief in God. He recognises Christianity as the builder of Western culture".
Hitler viewed the Jews as enemies of all civilization and as materialistic, unspiritual beings, writing in Mein Kampf: "His life is only of this world, and his spirit is inwardly as alien to true Christianity as his nature two thousand years previous was to the great founder of the new doctrine." Hitler described his supposedly divine mandate for his anti-Semitism: "Hence today I believe that I am acting in accordance with the will of the Almighty Creator: by defending myself against the Jew, I am fighting for the work of the Lord."
In his rhetoric Hitler also fed on the old accusation of Jewish Deicide. Because of this it has been speculated that Christian anti-Semitism influenced Hitler's ideas, especially such works as Martin Luther's essay On the Jews and Their Lies and the writings of Paul de Lagarde. Others disagree with this view. In support of this view, Hitler biographer John Toland opines that Hitler "carried within him its teaching that the Jew was the killer of God. The extermination, therefore, could be done without a twinge of conscience since he was merely acting as the avenging hand of God..." Nevertheless, in Mein Kampf Hitler writes of an upbringing in which no particular anti-Semitic prejudice prevailed.
According to historian Lucy Dawidowicz, anti-Semitism has a long history within Christianity, and that the line of "anti-Semitic descent" from Luther to Hitler is "easy to draw." In her The War Against the Jews, 1933-1945, she writes that Luther and Hitler were obsessed by the "demonologized universe" inhabited by Jews. Dawidowicz states that the similarities between Luther's anti-Jewish writings and modern anti-Semitism are no coincidence, because they derived from a common history of Judenhass, which can be traced to Haman's advice to Ahasuerus, although modern German anti-Semitism also has its roots in German nationalism. Catholic historian José Sánchez argues that Hitler's anti-Semitism was explicitly rooted in Christianity.
Hitler simplified Arthur de Gobineau's elaborate ideas of struggle for survival among the different races, from which the Aryan race, guided by providence, was supposed to be the torchbearers of civilization. In Hitler's conception, Jews were enemies of all civilization, especially the Volk. Although Hitler has been called a "Social Darwinist, he was not such in the usual sense of the word. Whereas Social Darwinism stressed struggle, change, the survival of the strongest, and a ceaseless battle of competition, Hitler, through the use of modern industrial technology and impersonal bureaucratic methods ended all competition by the ruthless suppression of all opponents." His understanding of Darwinism was incomplete and based loosely on the theory of "survival of the fittest" in a social context, as popularly misunderstood at the time.
In the Führerbunker on April 29, 1945, a day before their suicide, Hitler and Eva Braun married in front of a civil servant in a cramped map room without a religious service or blessing ceremony. This was due to the difficulty of finding an official who could conduct the marriage legally. The problem was solved by Goebbels, who knew of a registrar named Walter Wagner who was fighting with the depleted Volkssturm.
See also 
- Susannah Heschel, The Aryan Jesus: Christian Theologians and the Bible in Nazi Germany, Princeton University Press, 2008. pp 1-10
- Albert Speer. (1997). Inside the Third Reich: Memoirs. New York: Simon and Schuster, p. 96.
- John Toland, Adolf Hitler. New York: Anchor Publishing, 1992, p. 507.
- Encyclopedia Online - Fascism - Identification with Christianity web 20 Apr 2013
- Alan Bullock; Hitler, a Study in Tyranny; HarperPerennial Edition 1991; p219"
- Sharkey, Word for Word/The Case Against the Nazis; How Hitler's Forces Planned To Destroy German Christianity, New York Times, 13 January 2002
- The Nazi Master Plan: The Persecution of the Christian Churches, Rutgers Journal of Law and Religion, Winter 2001, publishing evidence compiled by the O.S.S. for the Nuremberg war-crimes trials of 1945 and 1946
- Griffin, Roger Fascism's relation to religion in Blamires, Cyprian, World fascism: a historical encyclopedia, Volume 1, p. 10, ABC-CLIO, 2006: “There is no doubt that in the long run Nazi leaders such as Hitler and Himmler intended to eradicate Christianity just as ruthlessly as any other rival ideology, even if in the short term they had to be content to make compromises with it.”
- Mosse, George Lachmann, Nazi culture: intellectual, cultural and social life in the Third Reich, p. 240, Univ of Wisconsin Press, 2003: "Had the Nazis won the war their ecclesiastical policies would have gone beyond those of the German Christians, to the utter destruction of both the Protestant and the Catholic Church."
- Shirer, William L., Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany, p. p 240, Simon and Schuster, 1990: “And even fewer paused to reflect that under the leadership of Rosenberg, Bormann and Himmler, who were backed by Hitler, the Nazi regime intended eventually to destroy Christianity in Germany, if it could, and substitute the old paganism of the early tribal Germanic gods and the new paganism of the Nazi extremists.”
- Fischel, Jack R., Historical Dictionary of the Holocaust , p. 123, Scarecrow Press, 2010: “The objective was to either destroy Christianity and restore the German gods of antiquity or to turn Jesus into an Aryan.”
- Dill, Marshall, Germany: a modern history , p. 365, University of Michigan Press, 1970: “It seems no exaggeration to insist that the greatest challenge the Nazis had to face was their effort to eradicate Christianity in Germany or at least to subjugate it to their general world outlook.”
- Wheaton, Eliot Barculo The Nazi revolution, 1933–1935: prelude to calamity:with a background survey of the Weimar era, p. 290, 363, Doubleday 1968: The Nazis sought to "to eradicate Christianity in Germany root and branch."
- Bendersky, Joseph W., A concise history of Nazi Germany, p. 147, Rowman & Littlefield, 2007: “Consequently, it was Hitler’s long range goal to eliminate the churches once he had consolidated control over his European empire.”
- Ian Kershaw; Hitler a Biography; 2008 Edn; WW Norton & Company; London; p.281-283
- Alan Bullock; Hitler: a Study in Tyranny; HarperPerennial Edition 1991; p146-149
- Ian Kershaw; Hitler a Biography; 2008 Edn; WW Norton & Company; London p.295
- Ian Kershaw; Hitler a Biography; W. W. Notron & Co; 2008 Edn; pp.295-297
- Geoffrey Blainey; A Short History of Christianity; Viking; 2011; pp.495-6
- Hitler, Adolf (1999). Mein Kampf. Ralph Mannheim, ed., New York: Mariner Books, pp. 65, 119, 152, 161, 214, 375, 383, 403, 436, 562, 565, 622, 632-633.
- Baynes, Norman H., ed. (1969). The Speeches of Adolf Hitler: April 1922-August 1939. New York: Howard Fertig. pp. 19-20, 37, 240, 370, 371, 375, 378, 382, 383, 385-388, 390-392, 398-399, 402, 405-407, 410, 1018, 1544, 1594.
- Steigmann-Gall, Richard (2003). The Holy Reich. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 13-50, p. 252.
- Michael, Robert (2008). A history of Catholic antisemitism. New York: Macmillan, p. 111.
- Ian Kershaw; Hitler a Biography; 2008 Edn; WW Norton & Company; London; p.3
- Encyclopedia Online - Adolf Hitler
- Smith, Bradley (1967). Adolf Hitler: His Family, Childhood and Youth. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, p. 27. "Closely related to his support of education was his tolerant skepticism concerning religion. He looked upon religion as a series of conventions and as a crutch for human weakness, but, like most of his neighbors, he insisted that the women of his household fulfill all religious obligations. He restricted his own participation to donning his uniform to take his proper place in festivals and processions. As he grew older Alois shifted from relative passivity in his attitude toward the power and influence of the institutional Church to a firm opposition to "clericalism," especially when the position of the Church came into conflict with his views on education."
- Smith, Bradley (1967). Adolf Hitler: His Family, Childhood and Youth. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, p. 42. "Alois insisted she attend regularly as an expression of his belief that the woman's place was in the kitchen and in church....Happily, Klara really enjoyed attending services and was completely devoted to the faith and teachings of Catholicism, so her husband's requirements worked to her advantage."
- John Toland; Hitler; Worsworth Editions; 1997 Edn; p 16
- Ian Kershaw; Hitler a Biography; 2008 Edn; WW Norton & Company; London; p. 3
- Ian Kershaw; Hitler a Biography; 2008 Edn; WW Norton & Company; London; p. 5
- John Toland; Hitler; Worsworth Editions; 1997 Edn; p 9
- William L. Shirer (1990). Rise And Fall Of The Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany. Simon & Schuster. pp. 11–. ISBN 978-0-671-72868-7. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- Adolf Hitler (1940). Mein Kampf. ZHINGOORA BOOKS. pp. 10–. ISBN 978-1-105-25334-8. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- Toland chapter 1; Kershaw chapter 1. By his account in Mein Kampf (which is often an unreliable source), he loved the "solemn splendor of the brilliant Church festivals." He held the Abbot in very high regard, and later told Helene Hanfstaengl that one time as a small boy he had once ardently wished to become a priest. His flirtation with the idea apparently ended as suddenly as it began, however. (Ibid.)
- John Toland; Hitler; Worsworth Editions; 1997 Edn; pp. 13-15 & 17
- Ian Kershaw; Hitler a Biography; 2008 Edn; WW Norton & Company; London; p. 8
- Rissmann, Michael (2001). Hitlers Gott: Vorsehungsglaube und Sendungsbewußtsein des deutschen Diktators. Zürich München: Pendo, pp. 94-96; ISBN 978-3-85842-421-1.
- John Toland; Hitler; Worsworth Editions; 1997 Edn; pp. 18
- Rees, Simon (2003-10-25). "A Slow Fuse — Hitler's World War One Experience". FirstWorldWar.com. Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-28.. See Toland, p. 64.
- Alan Bullock; Hitler: a Study in Tyranny; HarperPerennial Edition 1991; p11
- Ian Kershaw; Hitler a Biography; W. W. Notron & Co; 2008 Edn; p. 373
- Carrier, R.C. (2003). "'Hitler's Table Talk': Troubling Finds." German Studies Review 26 (3): 561-576.
- Alan Bullock; Hitler: a Study in Tyranny; HarperPerennial Edition 1991; p216
- Alan Bullock; Hitler: a Study in Tyranny; HarperPerennial Edition 1991; p218"
- Alan Bullock; Hitler: a Study in Tyranny; HarperPerennial Edition 1991; p236
- Adolf Hitler; Max Domarus (1 April 2007). The Essential Hitler: Speeches and Commentary. Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers. pp. 137–. ISBN 978-0-86516-627-1. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
- Kelly, Jon (2001) "Osama Bin Laden: The power of shrines" BBC News Magazine (4 May).
- Overy, R. J. (2004). The Dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Russia. New York: W. W. Norton, pp. 280-282.
- Robert S. Wistrich (1 May 2007). Laboratory for World Destruction: Germans and Jews in Central Europe. U of Nebraska Press. pp. 375–. ISBN 978-0-8032-1134-6. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
- Koehne, Samuel, Hitler's faith: The debate over Nazism and religion, ABC Religion and Ethics, 18 Apr. 2012
- Evans, Richard J. (2008). The Third Reich at War: How the Nazis led Germany from conquest to disaster. London: Penguin. pp. 547–8. ISBN 978-0-141-01548-4.
- Steigmann-Gall, Richard (2003). The Holy Reich: Nazi Conceptions of Christianity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 118–20, 155–6. ISBN 0521823714.
- Trevor-Roper, H.R. (2000). Hitler's Table Talk 1941-1944. New York: Enigma Books, pp. 721-722; Night of 29–30 November 1944.
- Steigmann-Gall, Richard (2003). The Holy Reich: Nazi Conceptions of Christianity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 26–7. ISBN 0521823714.
- Steigmann-Gall, Richard (2003). The Holy Reich: Nazi Conceptions of Christianity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. abstract. ISBN 0521823714.
- John Toland; Hitler; Wordsworth Editions; 1997 Edn, p.589
- John Toland. (1976). Adolf Hitler: The Definitive Biography. New York: Anchor Books, p. 703.
- Hastings, Derek (2010). Catholicism and the Roots of Nazism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 181.
- Randall L. Bytwerk (2008). Landmark Speeches of National Socialism. Texas A&M University Press. pp. 11–. ISBN 978-1-60344-441-5. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- David Nicholls (2000). Adolf Hitler: A Biographical Companion. ABC-CLIO. pp. 203–. ISBN 978-0-87436-965-6. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- John S. Conway (1997). The Nazi Persecution of the Churches, 1933-45. Regent College Publishing. pp. 42–. ISBN 978-1-57383-080-5. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- The 'Hitler Myth': Image and Reality in the Third Reich. Oxford University Press. 1987. pp. 50–. ISBN 978-0-19-280206-4. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- Ian Kershaw (2000). Hitler, 1889-1936: Hubris. W W Norton & Company Incorporated. pp. 489–. ISBN 978-0-393-32035-0. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- Heschel, Susannah (2008). The Aryan Jesus: Christian theologians and the Bible in Nazi Germany. Princeton: Princeton University Press, p. 8.
- Speech delivered at Munich 12 April, 1922; from Norman H. Baynes, ed. (1942). The Speeches of Adolf Hitler: April 1922-August 1939. Vol. 1. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 19.
- Alan Bullock; Hitler: A Study in Tyranny; Harper Perennial 1991; ch The Months of Opportunity
- Adolf Hitler. (1941). My New Order. New York: Reynal & Hitchcock, p. 144.
- "Hitler wusste selber durch die ständige Anrufung des Herrgotts oder der Vorsehung den Eindruck gottesfürchtiger Denkart zu machen." J.C. Fest. Hitler. (German edition), p. 581.
- Kershaw 1987, p. 109
"Hitler’s evident ability to simulate, even to potentially critical Church leaders, an image of a leader keen to uphold and protect Christianity was crucial to the mediation of such an image to the church-going public by influential members of both major denominations. It was the reason why church-going Christians, so often encouraged by their 'opinion-leaders' in the Church hierarchies, were frequently able to exclude Hitler from their condemnation of the anti-Christian Party radicals, continuing to see in him the last hope of protecting Christianity from Bolshevism."
- Dennis Barton. (2006). Hitler's Rise to Power. www.churchinhistory.org.
- Alan Bullock; Hitler: A Study in Tyranny; Harper Perennial 1991; ch Revolution After Power
- Hitler, Adolf (1999) Mein Kampf. Trans. Ralph Manheim. New York: Mariner Books, p. 52.
- Richard Steigmann-Gall. (2003). The Holy Reich. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 26.
- Hitler, Adolf (1999) Mein Kampf. Trans. Ralph Manheim. New York: Mariner Books, p. 65.
- Hitler, Adolf (1969). Mein Kampf. McLeod, MN: Hutchinson, p. 562.
- Hitler, Adolf (1999). Mein Kampf. Trans. Ralph Manheim. New York: Mariner Books, p. 562.
- Steigmann-Gall, Richard (2003). The Holy Reich. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 46.
- Anthony Court (2008). Hannah Arendt's Response to the Crisis of Her Times. Rozenberg Publishers. pp. 97–. ISBN 978-90-361-0100-4. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- Albert Speer. (1997). Inside the Third Reich: Memoirs. New York: Simon and Schuster, p. 96.
- Bonney, Richard (2009). Confronting the Nazi war on Christianity: the Kulturkampf newsletters, 1936-1939 Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang Pub., p. 20.
- Lang, Peter (2009). Adolf Hitler: The Definitive Biography. New York: Anchor Books, p. 703.
- Friedländer, Saul (2009). Nazi Germany and the Jews, 1933-1945. New York: HarperCollins, p. 61.
- Speer, Albert (1971). Inside the Third Reich. Trans. Richard Winston, Clara Winston, Eugene Davidson. New York: Macmillan, p. 143; Reprinted in 1997. Inside the Third Reich: Memoirs. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-684-82949-4.
- Kershaw, Ian (2001). The "Hitler Myth": Image and reality in the Third Reich. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 109.
- Trevor-Roper, Hugh, ed. (2000). Hitler's Table Talk 1941-1944. Trans. Norman Cameron and R. H. Stevens. New York: Engima Books, p. 76.
- Heiden, Konrad (1935). A History of National Socialism. A.A. Knopf, p. 100.
- Carrier, Richard. ""Was Catholic Hitler "Anti-Christian"? On the Trail of Bogus Quotes.".
- "'Hitler's Table Talk': Troubling Finds." German Studies Review 26 (3): 561-576.
- Piper, Ernst (January 2007). "Steigmann-Gall, The Holy Reich (extended review)". Journal of Contemporary History 42 (1): 47–57, esp. 49–51. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
- Shirer, William (1960, 1998). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. London: Arrow Books. pp. 234–240. ISBN 978-0-09-942176-4.
- Kershaw, Ian (2001). Hitler 1889-1936: Hubris. London: Penguin. pp. xiv. ISBN 978-0140133639.
- Evans, Richard J. (2008). The Third Reich at War: How the Nazis led Germany from conquest to disaster. London: Penguin. pp. 547 (546–9). ISBN 978-0-141-01548-4.
- Burleigh, Michael (2001). The Third Reich - A New History. London: Pan Books. pp. 716–717. ISBN 978-0-330-48757-3.
- United States Holocaust Memorial Museum; The German Churches and the Nazi State; web 25 Apr 2013
- Encyclopedia Britannica Online - Fascism - Identification with Christianity; web 24 April 2013
- Stackelberg, Roderick (2007). The Routledge companion to Nazi Germany. New York: Routledge, p. 136.
- Encyclopedia Britannica Online - German Christian; web 25 Apr 2013
- Ian Kershaw; Hitler a Biography; 2008 Edn; WW Norton & Company; London; p.296
- Ian Kershaw; Hitler a Biography; 2008 Edn; WW Norton & Company; London; p.295-296
- "Churchmen to Hitler". Time Magazine. 1936-08-10. Retrieved 2008-04-28.
- Poewe, Karla (2006). New Religions and the Nazis. Routledge, p. 30.
- Steigmann-Gall 2003, p. 255
- Steigmann-Gall 2003, pp. 257–260
- Trevor-Roper, Hugh (2007) Hitler's table talk, 1941-1944. New York: Enigma Books, p. 76.
- Hitler, Adolf (1998). Mein Kampf. Trans. Ralph Manheim. New York: Houghton Mifflin, p. 307.
- Baynes, Norman H. ed. (1969). The Speeches of Adolf Hitler: April 1922-August 1939. Vol. 1. New York: Howard Fertig. p. 385.
- Speech 12 April 1922; Baynes 1942, pp. 19–20
- Steigmann-Gall 2003, p. 84
- Steigmann-Gall, Richard (2007-06-01). "The Nazis' 'Positive Christianity': a Variety of 'Clerical Fascism'?". Kent State University. Retrieved 2008-04-28.
- Steigmann-Gall 2003, p. 260
- Speer, Albert (1970). Inside the Third Reich. New York: p. 95.
- Ian Kershaw; Hitler a Biography; 2008 Edn; W.W. Norton & Company; London; p.261
- Ian Kershaw; Hitler a Biography; 2008 Edn; W.W. Norton & Company; London; p.332
- Ian Kershaw; Hitler a Biography; 2008 Edn; W.W. Norton & Company; London; p.290
- Ian Kershaw; Hitler a Biography; 2008 Edn; WW Norton & Company; London; p.295
- Ian Kershaw; Hitler a Biography; 2008 Edn; W.W. Norton & Company; London; p.315
- Craughwell, Thomas J., The Gentile Holocaust Catholic Culture, Accessed July 18, 2008
- "Confessing Church" in Dictionary of the Christian Church, F. L. Cross and E. A. Livingston, eds.; William L. Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1960), pp. 235 f.
- Alan Bullock; Hitler: a Study in Tyranny; HarperPerennial Edition 1991; p219"
- Ian Kershaw; Hitler a Biography; 2008 Edn; WW Norton & Company; London; p.295-297
- Encyclopedia Britannica Online - Martin Niemöller; web 24 April 2013
- Encyclopedia Britannica Online - Dietrich Bonhoeffer; web 25 April 2013
- Miguel Power, La persecución Nazi contra el cristianismo (Buenos Aires: Editorial Difusión, 1941), pp. 99-102. This book is a Spanish translation corresoponding to Michael Power, Religion in the Reich: the Nazi Persecution of Christianity, an Eye Witness Report (n.p.: Longman´s Green and Co. Ltd., 1939).
- Miguel Power, La persecución Nazi contra el cristianismo (Buenos Aires: Editorial Difusión, 1941), p. 103.
- Kenneth Scott Latourette, Christianity in a Revolutionary Age vol. IV The Twentieth Century in Europe (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1961), pp. 259 f.
- Miguel Power, La persecución Nazi contra el cristianismo (Buenos Aires: Editorial Difusión, 1941), p. 127.
- Miguel Power, La persecución Nazi contra el cristianismo (Buenos Aires: Editorial Difusión, 1941), p. 128.
- Geoffrey Blainey; A Short History of Christianity; Viking; 2011; pp.496
- Claire, Hulme; Salter, Michael. "The Nazi's persecution of religion as a war crime: The OSS's response within the Nuremberg Trials Process" (PDF). Rutgers University.
- Sharkey, Joe (13 January 2002). "Word for Word/The Case Against the Nazis; How Hitler's Forces Planned To Destroy German Christianity". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 June 2011.
- Bonney, Richard ed. (2001). "The Nazi Master Plan: The Persecution of the Christian Churches" Rutgers Journal of Law and Religion (Winter): 1-4.
- Office of Strategic Services (1945). The Nazi Master Plan. Annex 4. Ithaca NY: Cornell Law Library, p. 9.
- Ian Kershaw; Hitler a Biography; 2008 Edn; WW Norton & Company; London p.661
- Geoffrey Blainey; A Short History of Christianity; Viking; 2011; pp.495-6
- Alan Bullock; Hitler: a Study in Tyranny; HarperPerennial Edition 1991
- Norman H. Baynes, ed., The Speeches of Adolf Hitler, April 1922-August 1939. Vol. 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1942, pp. 240, 378, 386.
- Norman H. Baynes, ed., The Speeches of Adolf Hitler, April 1922-August 1939. Vol. 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1942, p. 240.
- Encyclopedia Britannica Online - Adolf Hitler; web 20 Apr 2013
- Ernst Helmreich, The German Churches Under Hitler. Detroit: Wayne State Univ. Press, 1979, p. 241.
- Gerhard L. Weinberg (18 May 2012). Hitler's Foreign Policy 1933-1939: The Road to World War II. Enigma Books. pp. 44–. ISBN 978-1-936274-84-0. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
- Norman H. Baynes, ed., The Speeches of Adolf Hitler, April 1922-August 1939. Vol. 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1942, p. 369-370.
- Norman H. Baynes, ed., The Speeches of Adolf Hitler, April 1922-August 1939. Vol. 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1942, p. 378.
- Norman H. Baynes, ed., The Speeches of Adolf Hitler, April 1922-August 1939. Vol. 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1942, p. 386.
- Alan Bullock; Hitler: a Study in Tyranny; HarperPerennial Edition 1991; p216"
- Hitler's Table Talk 1941-1944, Cameron & Stevens, Enigma Books p.59-61
- Angebert 1974, p. 246
- Angebert 1974, pp. 275–276 note 14
- Albert Speer (1 April 1997). Inside the Third Reich: memoirs. Simon and Schuster. pp. 96–. ISBN 978-0-684-82949-4. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
- "Origins of the swastika". BBC. 2005-01-18. Retrieved 2008-04-28.
- Who Were the Aryans? Hitler's Persistent Mythology
- Speech in Nuremberg on 6 September 1938. The Speeches of Adolf Hitler, April 1922-August 1939, Volume 1 Edited by Norman Hepburn Baynes. University of Michigan Press, p. 396.
- Rosenbaum, Ron [Explaining Hitler] p. xxxvii, p. 282 (citing Yehuda Bauer’s belief that Hitler’s racism is rooted in occult groups like Ostara), p 333, 1998 Random House
- Toland, John [Adolf Hitler] p. 45, 1976 Anchor Books.
- Goodrick-Clarke 1985, p. x
- Toland 1992
- Entry for "Hitler's Search for the Holy Grail" at the Internet Movie Database
- Fest 1973, p. 320
- Hitler 1926, ch. 12
- Goodrick-Clarke 1985, p. 202
- "We will not allow mystically-minded occult folk with a passion for exploring the secrets of the world beyond to steal into our Movement. Such folk are not National Socialists, but something else—in any case something which has nothing to do with us." (Speech in Nuremberg on 6 September 1938)
- Gunther 1938, p. 10
- Jackson Spielvogel and David Redles: Hitler's Racial Ideology: Content and Occult Sources, The Simon Wiesenthal Center, 1997
- Alan Bullock; Hitler: a Study in Tyranny; HarperPerennial Edition 1991; p219
- Conway, John S. (1968). The Nazi Persecution of the Churches 1933–45. p. 3, ISBN 978-0-297-76315-4
- Dill, Marshall (1970). Germany: A Modern History. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, p. 365.
- Dill, Marshall (1970). Germany: A Modern History. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, p. 369.
- Dill, Marshall (1970). Germany: A Modern History. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, p. 363.
- Zipfel 1965, p. 226
- Miner 2003, p. 54
- Thomsett 1997, pp. 54–55
- Overy, R. J. 2004. The dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Russia. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. p. 286.
- Nazi Germany & the Jews: The Years of Persecution 1933-39, Saul Friedländer, p.47, Weidenfield & Nicolson, 1997, ISBN 978-0-297-81882-3
- Davies 1996, p. 975
- Sage 2006, pp. 154–60
- De George & Scanlan 1975, pp. 116–117
- Wilfried Daim: "Der Mann, der Hitler die Ideen Gab" (Wien: Böhlau Verlag, 1985), pp. 216-218, 299
- Rissmann, Michael (2001). Hitlers Gott. Zurich, p. 96.
- Voegelin, Eric (1986). Political Religions. New York: Edward Mellen Press. ISBN 978-0-88946-767-5. Discussion at Rissmann, p. 191-197.
- Hastings, Derek (2010). Catholicism and the roots of Nazism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 119.
- Steigmann-Gall 2003, p. 26
- Hitler, Ian Kershaw, p. 373, 2008, Penguin, ISBN 978-0-14-103588-8
- Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, Ralph Mannheim, ed., New York: Mariner Books, 1999, p. 65.
- Shirer 1960, pp. 91–236 argues that Luther's essay was influential. This view was expounded by Lucy Dawidowicz. (Dawidowicz 1986, p. 23) Uwe Siemon-Netto disputes this conclusion (Siemon-Netto 1995, pp. 17–20).
- The War Against the Jews, 1933-1945. First published 1975; this Bantam edition 1986, p.23. ISBN 978-0-553-34532-2
- José M. Sánchez, Pius XII and the Holocaust; Understanding the Controversy (Washington, D.C: Catholic University of American Press, 2002), p. 70.
- Fest, Joachim (1974). Hitler. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, pp. 56, 210.
- Zalampas, Sherree Owens. (1990). Adolf Hitler: A psychological interpretation of his views on architecture, art, and music. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green University Popular Press, p. 139..
- Ellenberger, Henri (1970). The Discovery of the Unconscious: The history and evolution of dynamic psychiatry. New York: Basic Books. p. 235.
- Sklair, Leslie (2003). The Sociology of Progress. New York: Routledge, p. 71. ISBN 978-0-415-17545-6
- Lambert, Angela (2007). The lost life of Eva Braun. New York: Macmillan, pp. 453-454.
- Angebert, Jean-Michel (1974), The Occult and the Third Reich, Macmillan, ISBN 978-0-02-502150-1.
- Baynes, Norman (1942), The Speeches of Adolf Hitler: April 1922-August 1939 1, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-598-75893-4.
- Carrier, Richard (2003), ""Hitler's Table Talk": Troubling Finds", German Studies Review 26 (3): 561–576, doi:10.2307/1432747.
- Davies, Norman (1996), Europe: A History, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-820171-7.
- Dawidowicz, Lucy (1986), The War Against the Jews: 1933-1945, Bantam, ISBN 978-0-553-34532-2.
- De George, Richard; Scanlan, James (1975), Marxism and religion in Eastern Europe: papers presented at the Banff International Slavic Conference, September 4–7, 1974, Dordrecht: D. Reidel.
- Fest, Joachim (1973), Hitler: Eine Biographie, Propyläen, ISBN 978-3-549-07301-8.
- Fest, Joachim (2002), Hitler, Harcourt, ISBN 978-0-15-602754-0.
- Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas (1985), The Occult Roots of Nazism: The Ariosophists of Austria and Germany, 1890-1935, Wellingborough, England: The Aquarian Press, ISBN 978-0-85030-402-2.
- Gunther, John (1938), Inside Europe, New York: Harper & brothers.
- Hart, Stephen; Hart, Russell; Hughes, Matthew (2000), The German soldier in World War II, Osceola, Wisconsin: MBI.
- Hitler, Adolf (1926), Mein Kampf 2.
- Irving, David (1978), The War Path: Hitler's Germany, 1933-1939, New York: Viking Press, ISBN 978-0-670-74971-3.
- Kershaw, Ian (1987), The ‘Hitler Myth': Image and Reality in the Third Reich, Oxford University Press.
- Kershaw, Ian (2000), Hitler, 1889-1936: Hubris, London: W. W. Norton & Company (published 1999), ISBN 978-0-393-32035-0.
- Miner, Steven (2003), Stalin's Holy War, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, ISBN 978-0-8078-2736-9.
- Rissmann, Michael (2001), Hitlers Gott. Vorsehungsglaube und Sendungsbewußtsein des deutschen Diktators, Zürich München: Pendo, pp. 94–96, ISBN 978-3-85842-421-1.
- Sage, Steven (2006), Ibsen and Hitler: the playwright, the plagiarist, and the plot for the Third Reich, New York: Carroll & Graf, ISBN 978-0-7867-1713-2.
- Shirer, William (1960), The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany, New York: Simon & Schuster, retrieved 2008-04-28.
- Siemon-Netto, Uwe (1995), The Fabricated Luther: The Rise and Fall of the Shirer Myth, St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, ISBN 978-0-570-04800-8.
- Speer, Albert (1997), Inside the Third Reich, Orion, ISBN 978-1-85799-218-2.
- Steigmann-Gall, Richard (2003), The Holy Reich: Nazi Conceptions of Christianity, 1919-1945, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-82371-5.
- Thomsett, Michael (1997), The German opposition to Hitler: the resistance, the underground, and assassination plots, 1938-1945, Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, ISBN 978-0-7864-0372-1.
- Toland, John (1976), Adolf Hitler, Doubleday, ISBN 978-0-385-03724-2.
- Toland, John (1992), Adolf Hitler: The Definitive Biography, New York: Anchor, ISBN 978-0-385-42053-2.
- Westerlund, David; Ingvar, Svanberg (1999), Islam outside the Arab world, New York: St. Martin's Press.
- Zipfel, Friedrich (1965), Kirchenkampf in Deutschland 1933-1945, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co..
- Mein Kampf - by Adolf Hitler
- Mein Kampf - by Adolf Hitler (published by Hurst and Blackett, 1939)
- Introduction to The Holy Reich - by Richard Steigmann-Gall
- Review of Richard Steigmann-Gall's Holy Reich - by John S. Conway