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Wallenberg was born in Preussisch Stargard. He studied at Heidelberg and Leipzig, receiving his doctorate from the latter University in 1886. From 1886 to 1888 he was assistant in the Städtisches Krankenhaus in Danzig, where he settled as a practitioner. From 1907 to 1928 he was director of the internal department of the hospital, becoming titular professor in 1910.
While working with Ludwig Edinger he described the avian brain, and examined the role of the olfactory system in the assessment, recognition, and ingestion of food.
He described the clinical manifestations (1895) and the autopsy findings (1901) in occlusions of the Arteria cerebelli posterior inferior (Wallenberg's syndrome).
With Edinger, and later alone, he published the Jahresberichte über die Leistungen auf dem Gebiete der Anatomie des Zentralnervensystems.
Wallenberg's syndrome (Synonyms: Dorsolateral medullary syndrome, Lateral bulbar syndrome, Lateral medullary infarction syndrome, Posteroinferior cerebellar artery syndrome): A complex of symptoms caused by occlusion of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery, resulting in sensory and sympathetic disturbances, cerebellar ataxy, etc.
- Marianne Wallenberg-Chermak: Adolf Wallenberg. In Kurt Kolle (Hrsg.): Große Nervenärzte, Band 3. Georg Thieme: Stuttgart - New York, 1963
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