|The Most Excellent
The Duke of Suárez
|Prime Minister of Spain|
3 July 1976 – 25 February 1981
|Monarch||Juan Carlos I|
|Deputy||Manuel Gutiérrez Mellado|
|Preceded by||Fernando de Santiago y Díaz|
|Succeeded by||Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo|
|Member of the Congress of Deputies
28 July 1977 – 26 May 1991
|Born||Adolfo Suárez González
25 September 1932
Cebreros, Castile and León Spain
|FET y de las JONS (Falange) (1961-1975)
|Spouse(s)||María Amparo Illana Elórtegui|
|Children||María Amparo (1962–2004)
Adolfo (b. 1964)
Sonsoles (b. 1967)
|Alma mater||Salamanca University|
Adolfo Suárez González, 1st Duke of Suárez, Grandee of Spain, KOGF (Spanish pronunciation: [aˈðolfo ˈswaɾeθ]; born 25 September 1932) is a Spanish lawyer and politician. Suárez was Spain's first democratically elected prime minister after the dictatorship of Francisco Franco, and the key figure in the country's transition to democracy.
Adolfo Suárez is a son of Hipólito Suárez Guerra and Herminia González Prados (Ávila, 1910 – 18 July 2006), and the brother of Doña María del Carmen Suárez González, who is married to Aurelio Delgado Martín. He was born in Cebreros. He later studied law at Salamanca University.
Suárez held several government posts during the late Francoist regime. He became the Minister Secretary General of the National Movement (Movimiento Nacional), a body that served as sole political party, for 18 years, a period that extended beyond the death of Franco in November 1975. At a rally just a month before Franco's death, Suárez was queried by the aging Caudillo on the political future of Spain and told him frankly that the Movement would not likely long survive Franco and that democratization was inevitable. Suárez was appointed as the 138th Prime Minister of Spain by the Spanish King Juan Carlos on 4 July 1976, a move opposed by leftists and some centrists given his Francoist history. As a nationalist, he was chosen by the monarch to lead the country towards a democratic, parliamentary monarchy without annoying the powerful conservative factions (especially the military) in the country. Surprising many observers and political opponents, Suárez introduced Political Reform in 1976 as a first, decisive step in the transition to democracy (La Transición).
In 1977, Suárez led the Union of the Democratic Centre (Unión de Centro Democrático, UCD) to victory in Spain's first free elections in 41 years, and became the first democratically-elected prime minister of the post-Franco regime.
Suárez's centrist government instituted democratic reforms, and his coalition won the 1979 elections under the new constitution. Less successful as a day-to-day organiser than as a crisis manager, he resigned as Prime Minister on 29 January 1981. A month later, as the Spanish parliament was taking a vote to confirm Suarez's replacement as Prime Minister Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo, parliament was disrupted by the entrance of Lieutenant Colonel Tejero and his attempted coup. The 23-F coup attempt ("El Tejerazo") shook the government, but was defeated. In 1982, Suárez founded the Democratic and Social Centre (Centro Democrático y Social, CDS) party, which never achieved the success of UCD, though Suárez and its party were important elements in the Liberal International, joining it in 1988, leading to it be renamed Liberal and Progressive International, and Suárez became President of the Liberal International in 1988. He retired from active politics in 1991, for personal reasons.
In 1981, he was raised into the Spanish nobility by King Juan Carlos of Spain and given the hereditary title of "Duque de Suárez" (Duke of Suárez), together with the title Grande de España (English: Grandee of Spain) following his resignation as Spanish Prime Minister and in recognition of his role in the Spanish transition to democracy. Suárez was awarded the Príncipe de Asturias a la Concordia in September 1996 for his role in Spain's early democracy. On 8 June 2007, during the celebration of the 30th anniversary of the first democratic elections, King Juan Carlos appointed Suárez the 1,193rd Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece. He is also a member of the Club de Madrid, an independent organization (based in Madrid) that is composed of more than 80 former democratic Prime Ministers and Presidents. The group works to strengthen democratic governance and leadership.
On 31 May 2005, Suárez's son, Adolfo Suárez Illana, announced on Spanish television that his father was suffering from Alzheimer's disease, which meant that he could no longer remember his period as Prime Minister of Spain. The announcement followed speculation about Suárez's health in the Spanish media.
Suárez's wife, María del Amparo Illana Elórtegui, and elder daughter, María del Amparo ("Marian") Suárez Illana, suffered and died from cancer (on 17 May 2001 and 7 March 2004, respectively).
His middle daughter, Laura, was born in 1962. She married, in 1998, and became the mother of two children, Alejandra Romero Suárez (b. 1990) and Fernando Romero Suárez (b. 1993). Suarez' youngest daughter, María Sonsoles Suárez Illana (born in Madrid in 1967), became a TV news anchor for Antena 3 and married José María Martínez-Bordiú y Bassó de Roviralta, born in Madrid on 22 November 1962. He was a nephew of Cristóbal Martínez-Bordiú, the son-in-law of Francisco Franco; the couple is without issue.
Suárez's eldest son, Adolfo Suárez Illana was a politician, who now practises law and is heavily involved with the world of bullfighting. Suárez had two more children, his daughter Laura and his son Javier, both unmarried.
Titles, styles, honours and arms
Titles and styles
- Mr Adolfo Suárez (1932–1976)
- The Most Excellent Adolfo Suárez, Prime Minister of Spain (1976–1981)
- The Most Excellent The Duke of Suárez, Grandee of Spain (1981–2007)
- The Most Excellent The Duke of Suárez, Grandee of Spain, KOGF (2007–present)
- Grand Cross of the Civil Order of Alfonso X, the Wise, (1 April 1970).
- Commander's Cross (1 April 1967).
- Gran Cross of the Military Merit with White Decoration, (14 September 1970).
- Adolfo Suárez González, 1. duque de Suárez, Geneall.es, at Generall.net
- Payne, S.G. The Franco Regime, 1936–1975. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1987. p 616.
- Preston, Paul, "Juan Carlos: Steering Spain from Dictatorship to Democracy", page 457. Harper Perennial, 2005. ISBN 0-00-638693-8
- Cercas, Javier, "The Anatomy of a Moment". Bloomsbury, 2011. ISBN 978-1-4088-0560-2.
- Roberts, Geoffrey K.; Hogwood, Patricia (2003), The Politics Today companion to West European politics, Manchester University Press, p. 137
- BOE 07-06-09, Spanish official journal. Retrieved 9 June 2007.
- BOE 78-06-23, Spanish Official Journal (accessed on December 23, 2011)
- Spanish: BOE 73-09-29, Spanish Official Journal (accessed on December 23, 2011)
- Spanish: BOE 69-07-18, Spanish Official Journal (accessed on December 23, 2011)
- Spanish: BOE 71-04-05, Spanish Official Journal (accessed on December 23, 2011)
- Spanish: BOE 67-04-01, Spanish Official Journal (accessed on December 23, 2011)
- Spanish: BOE 72-07-18, Spanish Official Journal (accessed on December 23, 2011)
- Spanish: BOE 75-07-04, Spanish Official Journal (accessed on December 23, 2011)
- Spanish: BOE 70-09-15, Spanish Official Journal (accessed on December 23, 2011)
- Medalla de Oro de la provincia de Segovia concedida a su Alteza Real Don Juan de Borbón y Battenberg (1991). Segovia. Provincial Council of Segovia. ISBN 84-86789-35-4.
- Ceballos-Escalera Gila, Alfonso de, Marqués de la Floresta; Mayoralgo y Lodo, José Miguel de , Conde de los Acevedos (1950-); Menéndez Pidal, Faustino (1996). La Insigne Orden del Toisón de Oro y su armorial ecuestre. Madrid: Patrimonio Nacional and Ed. Toisón ISBN 13: 978-84-922198-0-3
- (Spanish) Suarez arms, Albakits.
- (Spanish) Suárez family branch from La Coruña, Galicia (Spain) Geneall.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Adolfo Suárez.|
Jesús Aparicio-Bernal Sánchez
|Director General of RTVE
Fernando de Santiago y Díaz
|Prime Minister of Spain
Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo
|Party political offices|
|President of the Liberal International
Otto Graf Lambsdorff
|New creation||Duke of Suárez