The Adreno series of graphics processing units (GPUs) are semiconductor intellectual property cores developed by Qualcomm and used in a variety of their SoCs. The core was initially developed under the Imageon brand name by ATI Technologies, which was acquired by AMD in 2006. After the buyout in 2008, Qualcomm renamed the Imageon products to Adreno. Adreno is an anagram of Radeon.
The company offers the chip in various flavors as component of their Snapdragon SoCs:
|Name||Architecture [note 1]||Fab (nm)||Clock (MHz)||Fillrate||API (version)||Video codecs||References||GFLOPS||Usage|
|MPolygons/s||Pixel (GP/s)||Texture (GT/s)||OpenGL ES||OpenVG||OpenCL||OpenGL||DirectX||MPEG-2||H.264||HEVC||VP8||VP9||Daala|
|Adreno 130||fixed function pipeline||1.1||1.1||N/A||Direct3D Mobile
DirectDraw & GDI
|Adreno 200 (AMD Z430)||unified shader architecture (2xALU)||65||133||2.0||1.1||-||2.4||MSM7x27, QSD8x50, Freescale i.MX51, i.MX53|
|Adreno 200 'enhanced'||unified shader architecture (2xALU)||45||245||-||4.4||MSM7x25A, MSM7x27A|
|Adreno 203||unified shader architecture (4xALU)||45||245||-||8.8||S4 Play,
Snapdragon 200 (Cortex-A5: 8225Q, 8625Q)
|Adreno 205||5-way VLIW (4xALU)||45||-||2.88 to 7.2||MSM7x30, MSM8x55, APQ8055
|Adreno 220||unified shader architecture (8xALU)||45||266||9.0c||-||19.2||APQ8060, MSM8x60|
|Adreno 225||unified shader architecture (8xALU)||28||400||0.8||-||28.8||APQ8060A, MSM8x60A, MSM8960|
|Adreno 230||||MSM8225, MSM8625|
|Adreno 302||3.0||1.1||1.2e||||Snapdragon 200(Cortex-A7: 8210, 8610, 8212, 8612)|
|Adreno 305||unified shader architecture (6xALU)||28||400||0.8||||21.6||MSM8x2x, MSM8x3x, APQ8030, Snapdragon 400|
|Adreno 320||unified shader architecture (16xALU)||28||400||3.2||||51.2 (1gen-S4 pro)||S4 Pro, S4 Prime|
|Adreno 320 2nd gen||unified shader architecture (24xALU))||28||400/450||3.2||||86,4(2gen-S600)/97.2 (S600 AB)||Snapdragon 600|
|Adreno 330||unified shader architecture (32xALU)||28||450/550||3.6||-||129.6 to 158.4||Snapdragon 800|
|Adreno 420||28||4.8||1.2||11.1||||-||Snapdragon 805|
|Adreno 430||20||||-||Snapdragon 810|
- Adreno ALU = (2VEC4+TMU) = 2xVEC4 + 1xTMU = 8x Vector Unit + 1 TMU Unit = 9 MFLOP per MHz
- Direct3D Mobile, SVGT 1.2, Direct Draw and GDI
- Adreno 200 (AMD Z430) inside the QSD8x50 (1 GHz) and MSM7x27 (600 MHz A11+L2 cache). It offers a programmable function pipeline and streaming textures with support for OpenGL ES 1.0, OpenGL ES 1.1, OpenVG 1.1, EGL 1.4, Direct3D Mobile, SVGT 1.2 and DirectDraw. (22M triangles/second, 133M pixels/second, clock speed up to 128 MHz).
- Adreno 200 enhanced inside the MSM7x25A (800 MHz), MSM7x27A (1 GHz+L2 cache). It supports OpenGL ES 2.0, OpenGL ES 1.1, OpenVG 1.1, EGL 1.4, Direct3D Mobile, SVGT 1.2, Direct Draw and GDI. (40M triangles/second, 432M pixels/second, clock speed up to 200 MHz).
- Adreno 205 inside the QSD8x50A (1.3 GHz), MSM7x30 (800 MHz+L2 cache), MSM8x55 (1 GHz+L2 cache). Its improvements include Hardware-accelerated SVG and Adobe Flash and better shader-performance than the Adreno 200. It supports OpenGL ES 2.0, OpenGL ES 1.1, OpenVG 1.1, EGL 1.4, Direct3D Mobile, SVGT 1.2, Direct Draw and GDI. (57M triangles/second, 539M pixels/second, clock speed up to 245 MHz)
- Adreno 220 inside the MSM8660 or MSM8260 (1.2 GHz–1.5 GHz+1 MB L2 Cache) with single channel memory. It supports OpenGL ES 2.0, OpenGL ES 1.1, OpenVG 1.1, EGL 1.4, Direct3D Mobile, DirectX 9.0c, SVGT 1.2, Direct Draw and GDI. (88M triangles/second, 2.4 Gpixels/second, standard clock speed up to 266 MHz, overclock up to 400 MHz).
- Adreno 225 inside the MSM8960 (1.5 GHz–1.7 GHz+1 MB L2 cache), with unified shader architecture and dual channel memory. It supports Direct3D feature level 9_3 in addition to OpenGL ES 2.0, OpenGL ES 1.1, OpenVG 1.1, EGL 1.4, Direct3D Mobile, SVGT 1.2, Direct Draw and GDI.
- Adreno 320 inside the Qualcomm S4 Pro & Prime Series, with unified shader architecture and dual channel memory. It supports Direct3D feature level 9_3 in addition to OpenGL ES 3.0, OpenGL ES 2.0, OpenGL ES 1.1, OpenVG 1.1, EGL 1.4, Direct3D Mobile, SVGT 1.2
- Adreno 330 inside the Amazon Kindle HDX series tablets, Nokia Lumia 2520 tablet, Sony Xperia Z1 smartphone and Sony Xperia Z Ultra smartphone.
Operating system support
There are proprietary drivers for the Linux-based mobile operating system Android available from Qualcomm themselves. There are no drivers available for any other Linux-based operating systems, but through libhybris, it became possible to use the Android drivers. Especially mer-based systems such as the Sailfish OS rely on this solution.
There is an ongoing endeavor of writing free and open-source device drivers for the Adreno series of GPUs called
freedreno. The project utilizes Gallium3D, but the code can of course be ported to Mesa as well.
As of September 2013, freedreno has been adopted into mainline Linux, and will be part of Linux 3.12.
The Imageon (previously ATI Imageon) is a line of media processors developed by ATI providing graphics acceleration and other multimedia features for handheld devices such as mobile phones and Personal Digital Assistants (PDA).
Designed as system-on-a-chip (SoC), the Imageon line of media processors was introduced in 2002 to bring integrated graphics (from 2D in 2002 to 3D in latest products) to handheld devices, cellphones and tablet PCs.
The system-on-a-chip design incorporates an embedded CPU core, baseband sub-system CPU interface, memory controller, power management (ATI PowerPlay), internal RAM and stacked RAM with memory buffer, two display engines (for dual monitors on cellphones), imaging engine, image/video/audio capture engine, TV and audio output, dual digital signal processors for audio and video, and video acceleration engine.
The Imageon line was rebranded under AMD, after AMD acquired ATI in Q3 2006, as AMD Imageon, with official claims to have shipped nearly 250 million Imageon units to customers since 2003. However as a result of company restructuring, AMD divested the handheld chipset business starting from the second quarter of 2008, thus the line is deemed officially discontinued.
At the end of 2008, the handheld branch was sold off to Qualcomm, following an earlier sale of the Xilleon branch to Broadcom. AMD retained the Imageon name and will provide support for existing customers, although no future Imageon products will be introduced.
|This section requires expansion. (April 2007)|
- Imageon 100, the first product of the Imageon line.
- Imageon 3200.
- Imageon 2200/2250. Integrated a 2D graphics engine, a MPEG decoder, JPEG decoding and encoding capabilities, with embedded SRAM on-die as frame buffer.
- Imageon 2240.
- Imageon 2260/2262.
- Imageon 2300. Included 2D and 3D graphics engine (3D S/W), MPEG-4 video decoder, JPEG encoding/decoding, and 2-megapixel camera sub-system processing engine.
- Imageon 2182.
- Imageon 2282.
- Imageon 2388/2380. Featuring industry first OpenGL for embedded systems (OpenGL ES) 1.1+ extensions support, for 3D acceleration.
- Imageon 2192. For mainstream devices with support for 3.1-megapixel camera sensor.
- Imageon 2294/2298, renamed Imageon M100 series. Current top-of-line product, processor includes DVD quality recording and playback, HD TV output, and supports up to a 12-megapixel camera sensor. Products include Imageon M180.
- Imageon TV. Announced in February 2006, as the first Imageon product in the line featuring Digital Video Broadcasting - Handheld (DVB-H) signal receiving support, allowing handhelds devices to receive digital broadcast TV (DVB-H) signals and enables watching TV programs on these devices, the chipset includes tuner, demodulator, decoder, and a full software stack.
Newest Brazilian Tectoy Console called Zeebo uses the ATI Imageon Chip to deliver fast and reliable graphics plus 3G access to download updates and new games for the console.
Announced in 2008 Mobile World Congress in Barcelona, AMD renews the Imageon line with the following products:
- Imageon A250 application processor
- Imageon D160 mobile TV solution
- Free-to-air DVB-T and DVB-H reception
- quality of service and Doppler compensation for DVB signals for high speed mobility
- Complete DVB-T/H receiver module
- Multi-channel decode with PiP, fast channel change, and video recording
- AMD software stack (including Middleware) and 3rd party support
- Energy efficiency
In addition to the application processor and the mobile TV solution chip, AMD also licenses several technologies to other firms and partners, such technologies include audio and graphics processors, as listed below:
- Imageon M210 audio processor
- Multi-band equalizer
- Automatic gain control
- 99 db signal-to-noise ratio
- Supporting over 30 codecs including
- MP3, AAC, AAC+, WMA, AC3, DTS, MIDI with SMAF support, 3D audio, MPEG-4 SLS, FLAC
- support for 3rd party codecs and other codecs through downloading
- Standalone audio playback
- Energy efficiency of about 33 mW allowing 100 hours of audio playback with integrated power management
- Integrated memory
- Integrated analog audio codec
- USB 2.0, NAND, SD and Bluetooth support
- Imageon Z460 3D graphics core - this is an IP core synthesized in for example Freescale's i.MX5x series of application processors
- Imageon Z180 vector graphics core
Future developments to be present on or before 2009 by, including embedded x86 microprocessor, support for OpenVG, OpenGL for Embedded Systems 2.1 with unified shaders (VS/PS 4.0/4.1), support for higher resolution of camera sensors (5 Megapixels for mainstream and more than 12 Megapixels for high-end products), display resolution support for WVGA (800×480), SVGA (800×600) and XVGA (1024×768) resolutions, H.264 encoding for video recording, AEC, voice recognition and 3D audio.
- Graphics hardware and FOSS#Qualcomm The open source freedreno driver for the Adreno GPU
- Nvidia GoForce media co-processor, a former competitor, and Nvidia Tegra, an entire SoC that uses GeForce derived graphics
- BitBoys Gxx series media co-processors, previous competitor, acquired by ATI
- Mali series media co-processors formerly Falanx, now become ARM Norway
- Imagination Technologies PowerVR MBX and SGX media co-processors, IP license-based products, current competitor
- Mitsubishi Z3D family media co-processors
- Toshiba T4G media co-processor
- Snapdragon (system on chip) is a family of mobile system on chips by Qualcomm.
- "The Freedreno driver". Rob Clark @ FOSDEM2013.
- Qualcomm - Snapdragon S4 Product Specs
- Snapdragon (system on chip)
- AnandTech - Adreno 320 performance preview
- Snapdragon (system on chip)
- "Pull-Request for the mainline Linux kernel 3.12". Retrieved 2013-10-02.
- AMD sells handheld graphics unit to Qualcomm for $65M
- Qualcomm grabs AMD handheld, graphics tech
- "AMD Handheld Multimedia Technology – Unleash The Ultimate Mobile Entertainment Experience" (PDF). AMD. 2008-02-12. p. 17. Retrieved 2008-02-15. "~32mW Audio Subsystem for playing from SD/NAND (900mAh/3.7V battery; 150mVrms into 16 Ω headphones)."[dead link]
- "Product fact sheet for Imagon Z460 ans Z180" (PDF). AMD. 2008-02-12. p. 17. Retrieved 2008-02-15. "[baseline performance] measured on ARM9 Versatile (ARM926EJ-S) at 210 MHz using a commercially available software rasterizer."[dead link]