Advanced Stirling radioisotope generator
The advanced Stirling radioisotope generator (ASRG) was a radioisotope power system under development for NASA. It would have used a Stirling power conversion technology, to convert radioactive-decay heat into electricity for use on spacecraft. Development was undertaken under joint sponsorship by the United States Department of Energy and NASA for potential future space missions. The development was cancelled in 2013 after the cost had risen to over 260 million US dollars, 110 million more than originally expected.
The higher conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle compared with that of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) used in previous missions (Viking, Pioneer, Voyager, Galileo, Ulysses, Cassini, New Horizons, and Mars Science Laboratory) would have offered an advantage of a fourfold reduction in PuO2 fuel, at half the mass of an RTG.
The prototype generator was to have these specifications:
- ≥14 year lifetime
- Nominal power : 140 We
- Mass ~ 20 kg
- System efficiency: ~ 30%
- 2 General Purpose Heat Source (“Pu238 Bricks”) modules
- Uses 0.8 kg plutonium-238
NASA got a final design for the ASRG, plus a partially completed qualification unit, which was shipped to NASA’s Glenn Research Center. Glenn Research Center will continue development and testing of Stirling technology for potential use by future space exploration missions.
A spacecraft proposed to use this generator was the TiME lander mission to Titan, the largest moon of the planet Saturn, with a launch intended for January 2015. In February 2009 it was announced that NASA/ESA had given Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM/Laplace) mission priority ahead of the Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM), which could have included TiME. In August 2012, TiME also lost the 2016 Discovery class competition to the InSight Mars lander.
- The ASRG Cancellation in Context Future Planetary Exploration
- NASA's Planetary Science Division Update (June 23, 2008).
- Stirling Converter Technology. NASA, 2014
- Closing out the ASRG program. Author: Casey Dreier. 23 January 2014.
- Stofan, Ellen (25 August 2009). "Titan Mare Explorer (TiME): The First Exploration of an Extra-Terrestrial Sea". Archived from the original on 24 October 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-03.
- Titan Mare Explorer (TiME): The First Exploration of an Extra-Terrestrial Sea
- "NASA and ESA Prioritize Outer Planet Missions". NASA. February 18, 2009.
- Rincon, Paul (February 18, 2009). "Jupiter in space agencies' sights". BBC News.
- Vastag, Brian (August 20, 2012). "NASA will send robot drill to Mars in 2016". Washington Post.
- Smith, R.M.; Yozwiak, A.W.; Lederer, A.P.; Turtle, E.P. (2010). "HORUS—Herschel Orbital Reconnaissance of the Uranian System". 41st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference: 2471. Bibcode:2010LPI....41.2471S.
- NASA Radioisotope Power Systems website – ASRG page
- DOE ASRG Factsheet (Jan 2011)
- NASA ASRG Factsheet (Feb 2010)
- Advanced Stirling Technology Development at NASA Glenn Research Center
- Development of Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator for Space Exploration at the Wayback Machine (archived July 21, 2011)