|Republic of Adygea|
|Республика Адыгея (Russian)
Адыгэ Республик (Adyghe)
|— Republic —|
|Anthem: Anthem of the Republic of Adygea|
|Economic region||North Caucasus|
|Established||July 27, 1922|
|Government (as of March 2010)|
|- Head||Aslan Tkhakushinov|
|- Legislature||State Council (Khase)|
|Area (as of the 2002 Census)|
|- Total||7,600 km2 (2,934.4 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|- Density||57.89 /km2 (149.9 /sq mi)|
|Time zone(s)||MSK (UTC+04:00)|
|Official languages||Russian; Adyghe|
The Republic of Adygea (//; Russian: Респу́блика Адыге́я, tr. Respublika Adygeya; IPA: [ɐdɨˈɡʲejə]; Adyghe: Адыгэ Республик, Adıge Respublik) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) enclaved within Krasnodar Krai. Its area is 7,600 square kilometers (2,900 sq mi) with a population of 439,996 (2010 Census). Its capital is the city of Maykop.
Adygea lies in southeastern Europe in the northern foothills of the Caucasus Mountains, with plains in the north and mountains in the south. Forests cover almost 40% of its territory.
- Area: 7,600 km2 (2,900 sq mi)
- Borders: Adygea is entirely surrounded by Krasnodar Krai
- Highest point: Chugush Mountain 3,238 m (10,623 ft)
- Belaya River
- Chokhrak River
- Dakh River
- Fars River
- Khodz River
- Kisha River
- Bolshaya Laba River (forming part of the eastern border between Adygea and Krasnodar Krai)
- Psekups River
- Pshish River
- Sakhray River
- Sukhoy Kurdzhips River, which flows near the archaeological site at Mezmaiskaya cave
The republic has no large lakes. However, the several large reservoirs include:
The republic's major mountains range in height from 2,000 to 3,238 m and include:
- Chugush Mountain 3,238 m (10,623 ft)
- Mount Fisht 2,868 m (9,409 ft)
- Oshten Mountain
- Pseashkho Mountain
- Shepsi Mountain
Natural resources 
- Average January temperature: −0.5 °C (31.1 °F)
- Average July temperature: +23 °C (73 °F)
- Average annual precipitation: 70 centimeters (28 in)
Cherkess (Adyghe) Autonomous Oblast was established within the Russian SFSR on July 27, 1922, on the territories of Kuban-Black Sea Oblast, primarily settled by the Adyghe people. At that time, Krasnodar was the administrative center. It was renamed Adyghe (Cherkess) Autonomous Oblast on August 24, 1922, soon after its creation. In the first two years of its existence the autonomous oblast was a part of the Russian SFSR, but on October 17, 1924, it was transferred to the jurisdiction of the newly created North Caucasus Krai within the RSFSR.
It was renamed Adyghe Autonomous Oblast (AO) in July 1928. On January 10, 1934, the autonomous oblast became part of new Azov-Black Sea Krai, which was removed from North Caucasus Krai. Maykop was made the administrative center of the autonomous oblast in 1936. Adyghe AO became part of Krasnodar Krai when it was established on September 13, 1937.
On July 3, 1991, the oblast was elevated to the status of a republic under the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation. The first President of the republic was Aslan Aliyevich Dzharimov, elected in January 1992. From 2002 to 2007, Hazret Sovmen was President. He, and most of the rest of the political elite in Adygea, are Adyghes. As a reaction to that, an organization calling itself the Union of Slavs was established, claiming that ethnic Russians are discriminated against in Adygea. They advocate the merger of Adygea with Krasnodar Krai, but have so far have had little support for that proposition from the Russian government.
Relations between Adygs and ethnic Russians in Adyghe are currently on good terms. Russians make up two-thirds the population within Adygea and the current Head, Aslan Tkhakushinov is an ethnic Adyghe and was elected largely on the support of Russian votes.
The Republic of Adygea is administratively divided into seven districts (raions), two cities/towns, and five urban-type settlements. Municipally, the republic is divided into two urban okrugs, five urban settlements, and 46 rural settlements.
Vital statistics 
|Average population (x 1000)||Live births||Deaths||Natural change||Crude birth rate (per 1000)||Crude death rate (per 1000)||Natural change (per 1000)||Fertility rates|
Ethnic groups 
According to the 2010 Census, ethnic Russians make up 63.6% of the republic's total population, while the ethnic Adyghe are 25.2%. Other groups include Armenians (3.7%), Ukrainians (1.4%), Kurds (1.1%), Tatars (0.6%).
|1926 Census||1939 Census||1959 Census||1970 Census||1979 Census||1989 Census||2002 Census||2010 Census1|
|1 14,610 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.|
According to a 2012 official survey 35.4% of the population of Adygea adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 13% to Islam, 3% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% adheres to other Orthodox Churches. In addition, 30% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 9% is atheist and 8.6% follows other religions or did not answer to the question.
The chief executive of the government of Adygea is the Head (called "President" until May 2011), who is appointed for a five-year term. Proficiency in the Adyghe language is a prerequisite for the candidate.
The current Head, Aslan Tkhakushinov (since January 13, 2007), succeeded Hazret Sovmen, appointed by Vladimir Putin, although he received only 2% of the vote in 2002. There is also a directly elected State Council (Khase or Xase—not to be confused with the Adyghe Khase, a union of Adyghe who supported Sovmen for a second term), which comprises the Council of Representatives and the Council of the Republic. Both councils are elected every five years and have 27 deputies each.
The Constitution of the Republic of Adygea was adopted on May 14, 1995.
Even though it is now one of the poorest parts of Russia, the republic has abundant forests and rich soil. The region is famous for producing grain, sunflowers, tea, tobacco, and other produce. Hog and sheep breeding are also developed.
Food, timber, woodworking, pulp and paper, heavy engineering, and metal-working are the most developed industries.
There are 8 state and 23 public museums in the republic. The largest museum is the National Museum of the Republic of Adygea in Maykop.
Notable people 
- Anatoly Berezovoy (born April 11, 1942), Pilot-Cosmonaut of the USSR.
- Aslan Dzharimov (born May 17, 1936), 1st President of the Republic of Adygea.
- Iar Elterrus (born March 4, 1966), writer.
- Anna Kareyeva (born 10 May 1977), handball player.
- Mukharby Kirzhinov (born 1 January 1949), weightlifter.
- Andrei Kobenko (born June 25, 1982), footballer.
- Nikita Kucherov (born June 17, 1993), ice hockey player.
- Aidamir Mugu (born 17 April 1990), singer.
- Vladimir Nevzorov (born October 5, 1952), judoka.
- Hazret Sovmen (born May 1, 1937), 2nd President of the Republic of Adygea.
- Aslan Tkhakushinov (born July 12, 1947), 3rd President of the Republic of Adygea.
- Aslan Tlebzu (born 24 February 1981), Adyghe folk musician.
- Konstantin Vasilyev (September 3, 1942 — October 29, 1976), illustrator.
See also 
- Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
- Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
- Azarenkova et al., p. 154
- Constitution, Article 7.4.
- Official website of the Republic of Adygea. Aslan Kitovich Tkhakushinov
- Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
- "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
- Official the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
- Constitution of Adygea, Article 5
- "Adygeya at merriam-webster.com". m-w.com. Retrieved 2009-09-23.
- Baryshnikova, Gennady; John F. Hoffeckerb, Robin L. Burgess (May 1996). "Palaeontology and Zooarchaeology of Mezmaiskaya Cave (Northwestern Caucasus, Russia)". Abstract. Journal of Archaeological Science Volume 23, Issue 3, 1996. pp. 313–335. doi:10.1006/jasc.1996.0030. Retrieved 3 March 2011. "Over 6000 large mammal and numerous small vertebrate remains have been recovered from preliminary excavations at Mezmaiskaya Cave"
- под ред. М. Макфола и Н. Петрова (1998). ""Политический альманах России 1997. Том 2. Социально-политические портреты регионов" (Political Almanac of Russia 1997. Vol. 2. Social and Political Portraits of the Regions), online edition" (in Russian). Московский Центр Карнеги. Archived from the original on 2007-06-30. Retrieved 2007-04-17.
- Arutiunov, S.A. "Ethnicity in the Caucasus: Ethnic Relations and Quasi-Ethnic Conflicts". Circassian World. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
- "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
- 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012.
- Казенин, Константин (2009). "Тихие" конфликты на Северном Кавказе (in Russian). Moscow: Regnum. p. 17. ISBN 978-5-91150-030-6.
- Tsvetkov, Oleg. "Transitions Online: Friends in High Places". CZ: Tol. Retrieved 2010-08-20.
- Государственный Совет — Хасэ Республики Адыгея. 10 марта 1995 г. «Конституция Республики Адыгея», в ред. Конституционного закона №1 от 20 апреля 2011 г «О поправках в Конституцию Республики Адыгея». Опубликован: "Ведомости ЗС (Хасэ) — Парламента РА", №16, 6–10 марта 1995 г. (State Council of the Republic of Adygea. March 10, 1995 Constitution of the Republic of Adygea, as amended by the Constitutional Law #1 of April 20, 2011 On Amending the Constitution of the Republic of Adygea. ).
- Азаренкова, А. С.; И. Ю. Бондарь, Н. С. Вертышева (1986) . Основные административно-территориальные преобразования на Кубани (1793–1985 гг.) (in Russian). Краснодарское книжное издательство. p. 394.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Adygea|
- Адыгэ Республикэм и Лъэпкъ театр (in Adyghe)
- The Voice of Circassians(Adyghe Language)
- (Russian) Official website of the Republic of Adygea
- Overview of the Republic of Adygea (Kommersant newspaper)
- Official Website of the Adyghe State University
- (Russian) Official Website of the Adyghe State University
- (Russian) Official Website of the National Museum of the Republic of Adygea