Adyghe grammar

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Adyghe is a Northwest Caucasian language with an ergative, verb-final clause structure.

Contents

Noun[edit]

Noun cases[edit]

In addition to distinguishing between singular and plural nouns by marking the latter with the suffix '-хэ' /-xa/

  • кIалэ [t͡ʃaːla] ('boy') becomes кIалэхэ [t͡ʃaːlaxa] ('boys').
  • лъы [ɬə] ('blood') becomes лъыхэ [ɬəxa] ('blood' [pl.]).

Adyghe also declines nouns into four different cases, each with corresponding suffixes: absolutive, ergative, instrumental, and invertive.

Case Suffix example
Cyrillic IPA
Absolutive р /r/ кIалэр [t͡ʃaːlar] ('the boy')
Ergative м /m/ кIалэм [t͡ʃaːlam] ('the boy's')
Instrumental (м)кIэ /(m)t͡ʃa/ къэлэмкIэ [qalamt͡ʃa] ('with the pencil')
Invertive ыу /əw/ кIалыу [t͡ʃaləw] ('boy')

Absolutive case[edit]

Has the suffix - р /r/ (e.g. кIалэр [t͡ʃaːlar] 'the boy', кIалэхэр [t͡ʃaːlaxar] ('the boys'), лъэр [ɬar] 'the blood'). This case has two main functions:

кIалэр елъэгъу
[t͡ʃaːlar jaɬaʁʷə]
the boy (abs.) (s)he is seeing
"(s)he is seeing the boy"
  • Marking the subject of intransitive verbs
кIалэр еджапIэм мэкIуагъ
[t͡ʃaːlar jad͡ʒaːpʼam makʷʼaːʁ]
the boy (abs.) the school (erg.) he went
"the boy goes to the school"
  • Marking the direct object of connecting verbs
бзылфыгъэм джанэр екъобзы
[bzəlfəʁam d͡ʒaːnar jaqʷabzə]
the woman (erg.) the shirt (abs.) (s)he cleans
"the woman cleans the shirt"

Ergative case[edit]

Has the suffix -м /-m/ (e.g. кIалэм [t͡ʃaːlam] 'the boy's', кIалэхэмэ [t͡ʃaːlaxama] 'the boys'', лъым [ɬəm] 'the blood's'). When it's plural it has the suffix -мэ (-ma). This case has several functions:

кIалэм елъэгъу
[t͡ʃaːlam jaɬaʁʷə]
the boy (erg.) (s)he is seeing
"the boy is seeing him/her"
  • Marking the subject of connecting verbs
бзылфыгъэм джанэр екъобзы
[bzəlfəʁam d͡ʒaːnar jaqʷabzə]
the woman (erg.) the shirt (abs.) (s)he cleans
"the woman cleans the shirt"
  • Marking the direct object of intransitive verbs
кIалэр тхылъэм еджэ
[t͡ʃaːlar txəɬam jad͡ʒa]
the boy (abs.) the book (erg.) (s)he reads
"the boy reads the book"
  • Marking circumstance of action, e.g. feature of place, time of action
Тыгъуасэ Коим сыщыIэгъагъ
[təʁʷaːsa kʷajəm cəɕəʔaʁaːʁ]
yesterday the village (erg.) I was there
"Yesterday I was in the village"

Instrumental case[edit]

Has the suffix -мкIэ /mt͡ʃa/ or -кIэ /t͡ʃa/ (e.g. кIалэмкIэ [t͡ʃaːlamt͡ʃa] 'with the boy', кIалэкIэ [t͡ʃaːlat͡ʃa] 'with a boy', кIалэхэмкIэ [t͡ʃaːlaxamt͡ʃa] 'with the boys', кIалэхэкIэ [t͡ʃaːlaxat͡ʃa] 'with boys', лъымкIэ [ɬəmt͡ʃa] 'with the blood'), лъыкIэ [ɬət͡ʃa] 'with a blood'); in the Shapsug dialects, it has the suffix -мгьэ /mɡʲa/ or -гьэ /ɡʲa/. This case has several functions:

кIалэкIэ елъэгъу
[t͡ʃaːlamt͡ʃa jaɬaʁʷə]
with the boy (ins.) (s)he is seeing
"(s)he is seeing with (using) a boy'"
  • Marking the instrument of action:
ЫцIэр къэлэмымкIэ къитхэгъ
Ы-цIэ-эр къэлэм-мкIэ къи-тхы-эгъ
[ət͡sʼar qalaməmt͡ʃa qitxaʁ]
his name (abs.) with the pencil (ins.) he wrote
"he wrote his name with the pencil"
  • Marking the direction of action:
ХымкIэ жьыбгъэр къэкIышъут
[xəmt͡ʃa ʑəbʁar qakʼəʂʷət]
sea (ins.) the wind (abs.) could come
"the wind could blow from the sea."

Invertive[edit]

Has the suffix -ыу /əw/ or, in some dialects -эу /aw/ (e.g. кIалыу [t͡ʃaːləw] 'boy'), лъыу [ɬəw] 'blood'). This case has a number of functions:

кIалыу елъэгъу
[t͡ʃaːləw jaɬaʁʷə]
boy (inv.) (s)he is seeing
"(s)he is seeing it as a boy'"
  • Marking the reception of another quality by the subject: кIалу - boy (t͡ʃaːlu); кIалэху - boys (t͡ʃaːlaxu), лъу - blood (ɬu).
Нахь байыу мэхъогъ
[naːħ baːjəw maχʷaʁ]
more rich (inv.) he became
"he became richer"
  • Indicating people belonging to certain professions:
силӏ кIэлэегъаджыу мэлажьэ
[siɬʼ t͡ʃalajaʁad͡ʒəw malaːʑa]
my husband teacher (inv.) he works
"my husband works as a teacher"
пшъэшъэ айэр нэущы дахыу мэхъот
[pʂaʂa aːjar nawɕə daːxəw maχʷat]
the ugly girl tomorrow pretty (inv.) he will turn
"Tomorrow, the ugly girl will turn to pretty"

Attribute[edit]

The nouns in Adyghe are different by their accessory signs[clarification needed], which are broken down into the natural attribute and the property attribute. The natural attribute is for body parts and kin relationships (e.g. 'son', 'sister'). All other words belong to the property attribute.

  • Natural attributes are expressed with the following prefixes:
Prefix meaning example
Cyrillic IPA
Singular 1st person с- or сы- /s-/ or /sə-/ "my" сыгу - my heart (səɡʷ); сшыпхъу - my sister (sʃəpχʷ)
2nd person п- or у- /p-/ or /w-/ "your" плъакъо - your leg (pɬaːqʷa); угу - your heart (wɡʷ)
3rd person ы- (ə-) /ə-/ "his" ылъакъо - his leg (əɬaːqʷa); ышыпхъу - his sister (əʃəpχʷ)
Plural 1st person тэ- or т- /ta-/ or /t-/ "our" тIэхэр - our hands (tʔaxar); тлъакъохэр - our legs (tɬaːqʷaxar)
2nd person шъо- or шъу- /ʂʷa-/ or /ʂʷə-/ "your" шъулъакъохэр - your legs (ʂʷəɬaːqʷaxar); шъошыпхъу - your sister (ʂʷaʃəpχʷ)
3rd person a- /aː-/ "their" алъакъо - their legs (aːɬaːqʷa); ашыпхъу - their sister (aːʃəpχʷ)
  • Property attributes are expressed by a different set of prefixes:
Prefix meaning example
Cyrillic IPA
Singular 1st person си- /si-/ "my" сигу - my heart (siɡʷ); ситхылъ - my book (sitxəɬ)
2nd person уи- /wi-/ "your" уилъакъо - your leg (wiɬaːqʷa); уитхылъ - your book (witxəɬ)
3rd person и- /jə-/ "his" итхылъ - his book (jətxəɬ); ишыпхъу - his sister (jəʃəpχʷ); илIы - her husband (jəɬʼə)
Plural 1st person ти- /ti-/ "our" титхылъ - our book (titxəɬ); тинысэ - our daughter-in-law (tinəsa)
2nd person шъуи- /ʂʷi-/ "your" шъуитхылъ - your book (ʂʷitxəɬ); шъуиунэ - your house (ʂʷiwna)
3rd person я- /jaː-/ "their" ятхылъ - their book (jaːtxəɬ); яшыпхъу - their sister (jaːʃəpχʷ)

Noun and adjective[edit]

In Adyghe, if a noun is accompanied by an adjective, the adjective always placed right after the noun and also gets the suffixes that indicate the noun cases.

  • Absolutive case
пшъэшъэ дахэр макӏо
[pʂaʂa daːxar maːkʷʼa]
girl the pretty (abs.) (s)he is going
"the pretty girl is going"
  • Ergative case
кIалэ кIэхьым ещхы бэнанэр
[t͡ʃaːla t͡ʃaħəm jaɕxə banaːnar]
boy the long (erg.) he is eating a/the the banana (abs.)
"the long boy is eating the banana"
  • Instrumental case
къэлэм папцIэмкIэ сэтхэ
[qalam papt͡ʃʼamt͡ʃa satxa]
pencil sharp (ins.) I am writing
"I am writing with (using) the sharp pencil"
  • Invertive case
пшъашъэр пшъэшъэ дахыу мэхъут
pʂaʂar] [pʂaʂa daxəw maχʷət]
the girl (abs.) pretty girl (inv.) (s)he will turn
"the girl will become a pretty girl"

In case the whole sentence consists of only a noun and an adjective, the adjective can also be placed before the noun. In this case the adjective does not get the suffix either when placed after the noun or before it.

дахэ пшъашъэр
[daːxa pʂaːʂa]
pretty the girl (abs.)
"The girl is pretty"

Creating nouns from verbs[edit]

In Adyghe any verb can be turned into a noun by adding the suffix -э (a) (for present tense -рэ (-ra)). For example:

  • макIо /maːkʷ'a/ - he is going → макIорэ /maːkʷ'ara/ - the person that's going
  • мащхэх /maːɕxax/ - they are eating → мащхэхэрэ /maːɕxaxara/ - the people that are eating.
  • мэлэжагъ /malaʒaːʁ/ - he worked → мэлэжагъэ /malaʒaːʁa/ - the person that worked.
дыу кIалэхэмкIэ макIорэм еплъ
дыу кIалэ-хэ-мкIэ макIо-рэм еплъ
[dəw t͡ʃaːləxamt͡ʃʼa maːkʷʼaram japɬ]
that (over there) boys (ins.) the person that is going (erg.) look
"among those boys look at the boy that is going"
макIорэр сиш
макIо-рэр си-шы
[maːkʷʼarar siʃ]
the person that is going (abs.) my brother
"the person that is going is my brother"
мэлажэхэрэмэ къысаIуагъ ар
мэлажэ-хэ-рэ-мэ къы-са-Iуагъ ар
[malaːʒaxarama qəsaːʔʷaːʁ aːr]
the people that are working (erg.) they told me that
"the people that are working told me that"

Creating nouns from adjective[edit]

In Adyghe any adjective can be turned into a noun by adding a case suffix (absolutive, ergative, etc.), for example:

  • дахэ /daːxa/ - pretty → дахэр /daːxar/ - the pretty person (absolutive case).
  • ашӏу /aːʃʷʼə/ - tasty → ашӏухэр /aːʃʷʼəxar/ - the tasty ones (absolutive case).
  • мэзахэ /mazaːxa/ - dark → мэзахэм /mazaːxam/ - in the dark (ergative case).
  • чъыӏэ /t͡ʂəʔa/ - cold → чъыӏэм /t͡ʂəʔam/ - in the cold (ergative case).
кӏуачӏэхэр тиунэ къэгъакӏох
кӏуачӏэ-хэ-р ти-унэ къэ-гъа-кӏо-х
[kʷʼaːt͡ʃʼaxar təjwna qaʁaːkʷʼax]
the strong ones (abs.) our house make them come
"bring the strong ones to our house"
унэм шъукъихьэжь чъыӏэм шъуигъэсмэджэт
унэ-м шъу-къ-ихьэ-жь чъыӏэ-м шъуи-гъэ-смэджэ-т
[wənam ʃʷəqiħaʑ t͡ʂəʔam ʃʷiʁasmad͡ʒat]
house (erg.) get inside (to plural) the cold (erg.) it will make you (plural) sick
"get inside the house, the cold will make you sick (said to plural)"
аемкӏэ цӏыфхэр есэгъэджэжьых
ае-мкӏэ цӏыф-хэ-р е-сэ-гъэ-джэжьы-х
[aːjamt͡ʃa t͡sʼəfxar jasaʁad͡ʒaʑəx]
with (using) the ugly one (ins.) the people (abs.) I make them run
"using the ugly one I make the people run"

Verbs[edit]

In Adyghe, like all Northwest Caucasian languages, the verb is the most inflected part of speech. Verbs are typically placed at the end of a sentence and are conjugated for tense, person, number, etc..

There are two kind of verbs. Intransitive verbs and transitive verbs.

Verbs that can be done by nouns in the absolutive case are usually intransitive verbs. With intransitive verbs in a sentence there is, usually, no direct object, and the real subject is usually expressed by a noun in the nominative case. For example:

томэр мащхэ тиунэкӏэ
том-эр мащхэ ти-унэ-кӏэ
[tomar maːɕxa tiwnat͡ʃʼa]
Tom (abs.) he is eating In our house (Ins.) / with our house (Ins.)
"Tom is eating in our house"
томэр къакӏо тиунэ
том-эр къа-кӏо ти-унэ
[tomar qaːkʷʼa tiwna]
Tom (abs.) he is coming our house
"Tom is coming to our house"
томэр маплъэ тиунэ пакӏэ
том-эр маплъэ ти-унэ пакӏэ
[tomar maːpɬa tiwna pakʲʼa]
Tom (abs.) he is looking our house direction
"Tom is looking at our house direction"

Verbs that can be done by an Ergative nouns are always transitive. Transitive verbs combine with nouns in the nominative grammatical case that play role of direct object in a sentence. In the sentences of this type the noun in the subject's position is in the ergative case:

томэм ещхы бэнанэ
том-эм е-щхы бэнанэ
[tomam jaɕxə banaːna]
Tom (erg.) he is eating banana
"Tom is eating a banana"
томэм егъакӏо пшъашъэр тиунэ
том-эм е-гъа-кӏо пшъашъэ-эр ти-унэ
[tomam jaʁaːkʷʼa pʂaːʂar tiwna]
Tom (erg.) he is making him to go the girl (abs.) our house
"Tom is making the girl to go to our house"
"Tom is forcing the girl to go to our house"
"Tom is allowing the girl to go to our house"
томэм еплъы пшъашъэр
том-эр еплъы ти-унэ
[tomam japɬə pʂaːʂar]
Tom (erg.) he is looking at the girl (abs.)
"The girl is looking at Tom"

Conjugation[edit]

Here is the positional conjugation of some verbs, showing how the root changes indicate position:

stands sits lies
Body position/Pose щыт (ɕət) щыс (ɕəs) щылъ (ɕəɬ)
On тэт (tat) тэс (tas) тэлъ (taɬ)
Under чIэт (t͡ʃʼat) чIэс (t͡ʃʼas) чIэлъ (t͡ʃʼaɬ)
Among хэт (xat) хэс (xas) хэлъ (xaɬ)
Within some area дэт (dat) дэс (das) дэлъ (daɬ)
Behind or near or around ӏут (ʔʷət) ӏyc (ʔʷəs) ӏулъ (ʔʷəɬ)
Inside ит (jət) иc (jəs) илъ (jəɬ)
Hanging or attached пыт (pət) пыc (pəs) пылъ (pəɬ)
On body гот (ɡʷat) гоc (ɡʷas) голъ (ɡʷaɬ)
Corner къот (qʷat) къоc (qʷas) къолъ (qʷaɬ)
Side бгъодэт (bʁʷadat) бгъодэc (bʁʷadas) бгъодэлъ (bʁʷadaɬ)

Other examples :

he throws he died/he was murdered getting stuck/he remains go in/enters jumps looking at fits/falls/hits takes off leaves/moves from/getting away
Body position/Pose щедзы (ɕed͡zə) - - - щапкӏэ (ɕaːpkʲʼa) щаплъэ (ɕaːpɬa) щэфэ (ɕafa) щых (ɕəx) -
On тедзэ (ted͡za) тэукӀэхьагъ (tawkʲaħaːʁ) танэ (taːna) тахьэ (taːħa) тапкӀэ (taːpkʲʼa) таплъэ (taːpɬa) тафэ (taːfa) тэх (tax) тэкӀ (takʲ)
Under чIедзэ (t͡ʃʼed͡za) чIэукӀэхьагъ (t͡ʃʼawkʲaħaːʁ) чӏанэ (t͡ʃʼaːna) чIахьэ (t͡ʃʼaːħa) чIапкӀэ (t͡ʃʼaːpkʲʼa) чIаплъэ (t͡ʃʼaːpɬa) чIафэ (t͡ʃʼaːfa) чIэх (t͡ʃʼax) чIэкӏ (t͡ʃʼakʲ)
Among хедзэ (xed͡za) хэукӏэхьагъ (xawkʲaħaːʁ) ханэ (xaːna) хахьэ (xaːħa) хапкӏэ (xaːpkʲʼa) хаплъэ (xaːpɬa) хафэ (xaːfa) хэх (xax) хэкӏ (xakʲ)
Within some area дедзэ (ded͡za) дэукӏэхьагъ (dawkʲaħaːʁ) данэ (daːna) дахьэ (daːħa) дапкӏэ (daːpkʲʼa) даплъэ (daːpɬa) дафэ (daːfa) дэх (dax) дэкӏ (dakʲ)
Behind or near or around ӏуедзэ (ʔʷed͡za) ӏyукӏэхьагъ (ʔʷəwkʲaħaːʁ) ӏуанэ (ʔʷaːna) ӏуахьэ (ʔʷaːħa) ӏуапкӏэ (ʔʷaːapkʲʼa) ӏуаплъэ (ʔʷaːpɬa) ӏофэ (ʔʷafa) ӏух (ʔʷəx) ӏукӏ (ʔʷəkʲ)
Inside редзэ (red͡za) иукӏэхьагъ (jəwkʲaħaːʁ) енэ (jana) ехьэ (jeːħa) епкӏэ (japkʲʼa) еплъы (jeːpɬə) ефэ (jafa) их (jəx) икӏ (jəkʲ)
Hanging or attached педзэ (ped͡za) пыукӏэхьагъ (pəwkʲaħaːʁ) пэнэ (pana) пэхьэ (paħa) пэпкӏэ (papkʲʼa) пэплъэ (papɬa) пэфэ (pafa) пых (pəx) пыкӏ (pəkʲ)
On body гуедзэ (ɡʷed͡za) гоукӏэхьагъ (ɡʷawkʲaħaːʁ) гуанэ (ɡʷaːna) гуахьэ (ɡʷaːħa) гуапкӏэ (ɡʷaːpkʲʼa) гоплъэ (ɡʷaapɬa) гуафэ (ɡʷaːfa) гох (ɡʷax) гокӏ (ɡʷakʲ)
Corner къуедзэ (qʷed͡za) къоукӏэхьагъ (qʷawkʲaħaːʁ) къуанэ (qʷaːna) къуахьэ (qʷaːħa) къуапкӏэ (qʷaːpkʲʼa) къоплъэ (qʷapɬa) къуафэ (qʷaːfa) къох (qʷax) къокӏ (qʷakʲ)
Side бгъодедзэ (bʁʷaded͡za) бгъодэукӏэхьагъ (bʁʷadawkʲaħaːʁ) бгъоданэ (bʁʷadaːna) бгъодахьэ (bʁʷadaːħa) бгъодапкӏэ (bʁʷadaːpkʲʼa) бгъодэплъэ (bʁʷadapɬa) бгъодафэ (bʁʷadaːfa) бгъодэх (bʁʷadax) бгъодэкӏ (bʁʷadakʲ)

Body position/Pose[edit]

Examples:

  • кӏалэр щыт, пшъашъэр щыс, лӏэр щылъ - The boy stands, the girl sits and the man lies.
  • кӏалэм ичуакъо ежь щэфэ - The boy's shoe fits him. (щэфэ = fits)
  • кӏалэм ичуакъо щэхы - The boy is taking off his shoe.

On[edit]

Verbs that are done or noun that are on something like a roof, a chair, a mountain, a table, or a bed. Examples:

  • кӏалэр унашъхьэм тэт - The boy is standing on the roof.
  • дэшхынэр анэм тэлъ - The food is on the table.
  • кӏалэр пӏэм тапкӀэ - The boy jumps on the bed.
  • телевижынэр анэм тафэ - The television fits on the table.
  • анэм кӏалэр тэкӀы - The boy gets down from the table.

Under[edit]

Verbs that are done or nouns that are under something like a tree, cave or table. For example:

  • кӀалэр унэчIэгъым чIэт - The boy is standing under the house.
  • машинэр гьэраджым чIэт - The car is under the garage.
  • кӀалэр чъыгым чIэлъ, пшъашъэр чъыгым чIэс - The boy lies under the tree and the girl sits under the tree.
  • машинэр гьэраджым чIафэ - The car fits under the garage.
  • пшъашъэр гьэраджым чIахьэ - The girl enters the garage.
  • кӀалэр анэм чIэкӀы - The boy is getting out from under the table.

Among[edit]

Verbs that are done or noun that are among other people or among other objects like people, sea, water, forest, graveyard. Examples:

  • кӀалэр хым хэт, пшъашъэр рсым хэт - The boy is in the sea, the girl is in the water.
  • кӀалэр хым хапкӀэ, пшъашъэр хым хэхьэ - The boy is jumps into the sea, the girl is going into the sea.
  • кӀалэр хым хаплъэ, пшъашъэр хым хэплъы - The boy is looking into the sea, and the girl is looking (from the sea).
  • кӀалэр мэзым хэт - The boy is in the forest.
  • кӀалэр дыухэмэ яхэт - The boy is among those.
  • кӀалэр дыу цӀыфхэмэ яхафэ - The boy is fitting among those people.
  • кӀалэр хэхалъэм хэлъ - The boy lies in the graveyard.
  • кӀалэр къещхырэм хэкӀы - The boy is getting away from the rain.

Within some area[edit]

Verbs that are done or noun that are in within some area like someone's yard, village, city. Examples:

  • кӀалэр койым дэс - The boy is in the village.
  • кӀалэр къалэм дэлъыт - The boy will lie in the town - The boy will stay in the town.
  • кӀалэр сишау дахьэ - The boy enters my yard.
  • машинэр койым дэт - The car is in the village.
  • кӀалэр шауым дэкӀы - The boy is leaving the yard.

Behind or near or around[edit]

Verbs that are done or noun that are near something. For example:

  • кӀалэр чъыгым идэжь Ӏут - The boy is around the tree (идэжь = Near him).
  • о Ӏус гьэу - you sit there.
  • цӀыфхэр чъыгым Iофэх - The people are fitting around the tree.
  • кӀалэр чъыгым Iуахьэ - The boy is going near the tree.
  • кӀалэр чъыгым ӀокӀы - The boy is going away from the tree.

Inside[edit]

Verbs that are done or noun that are inside something like buildings, houses, cars, closet, box, room, pocket. For example:

  • кӀалэр унэм ис - The boy is sitting inside the house - The boy is inside the house.
  • тхьапэхэ машинэм илъых - The papers are inside the car.
  • кӀалэр унэм ехьэ - The boy enters the house.
  • кӀалэр унэм епкӀэ - The boy jumps into the house.
  • цӀыфхэр унэм ефэтых - The people will fit inside the house.
  • кӀалэр унэм екӀы - The boy is leaving the house.

Hanging or attached[edit]

Verbs that are done or noun that are hanging on something or someone like trees, clothes, closet. For example:

  • кӀалэр къуамэм пыс - The boy is sitting on the branch.
  • мыехэр чъыгым пытых - The apples are (hanging) on the tree.
  • машинэм гъурджэхэ пытых - The car have mirrors.
  • кӀалэр чъыгым пэпкӀэ, пшъашъэр чъыгым пэплъэ - The boy jumps on the tree, the girl looking into the tree.
  • хъэзаным джанэр пылъ - The shirt is on the closet.
  • кӀалэм иджанэ Ӏашэхэ пылъых - The boy's shirt have on it weapons.
  • кӀалэр пекӀы бэнанэ - The boy is picking a banana.

On body[edit]

Verbs that are done or noun that are connected to something or someone's body like humans, animals, plants. For example:

  • уцым къэсхэ готых - The plant have a thorns.
  • чум бжъэхэ готых - The ox have horns.
  • кӀалэм Ӏэ гот - The boy have an arm.
  • кӀалэр шым гос - The boy is sitting on the horse.
  • кӀалэр шым гозы - The boy is falling from the horse.
  • кӀалэр гокӀы шым - The boy getting off the horse.
  • кӀалэр чум ибжъэхэ гуекӀы - The boy ripping off the ox's horn.

Corner[edit]

Examples:

  • кӀалэр удэ къот - The boy is standing there (Corner).
  • кӀалэр къурнэм къохьэ - The boy is going near the corner.
  • кӀалэр къурнэм къот - The boy is standing in the corner.
  • кӀалэр къурнэм къокӀы - The boy is moves from the corner.

Side[edit]

Examples:

  • кӀалэм бгъодэт пшъашъэр- The girl is standing aside the boy.
  • унэхэ зыбгъодэтых - The houses are standing aside each other.
  • машинэм къыбгъодахь - Enter from the car's side.
  • кӀалэм бгъодэкӀ - Get away from the kid's side - Separate from the boy.

Tense[edit]

Past tense[edit]

The past tense is created with the suffixes -гъ (~ʁ) (close to present perfect), -ыущтэгъ (əwɕtaʁ) (close to simple past or past continuous), -гъагъ (ʁaːʁ) (distant past, close to past perfect or past perfect continuous): стхагъ "I have written", стхыщтэгъ "I was writing", стхыгъагъэ "I had been writing (then)".

More examples: кIо - go (kʷa), скIогъ - i went (skʷaːʁ), укIогъ - you went (wkʷaːʁ), мэкIогъ - he went (makʷaːʁ), макIогъэх - they went (maːkʷaːʁax), Iо - say (ʔʷa), сIуагъ - i said (sʔʷaːʁ), иIуагъ - he said (jʔʷaːʁ), яIуагъ - they said (jaːʔʷaːʁ).

Suffix -гъ (~ʁ) examples:

Сиунэ сщыщхагъ
[siwna sɕəɕxaːʁ]
my house I have eaten (in)
"I have eaten in my house"

Suffix -гъагъ (ʁaːʁ) examples:

Сиунэ сщыщхэгъагъ
[siwna sɕəɕxaʁaːʁ]
my house I had eaten (then) in
"I had eaten (then) in my house"

Suffix -ыущтэгъ (əwɕtaʁ) examples:

Сиунэ сщыщхыущтэгъ
[siwna sɕəɕxəwɕtaʁ]
my house i was eating in
"I was eating in my house"

Present tense[edit]

For example: сэкIо - I'm going (sakʷa), окIо - you're going (wakʷa), шъокIо - you're going (plural) (ʂʷakʷa), макIо - he's going (maːkʷa), макIох - they're going (maːkʷax), сэIо - I'm saying (saʔʷa), уIо - you're saying (waʔʷa), еIо - they're saying (jaʔʷa), яIо - they're saying (plural) (jaːʔʷa).

Suffix -ыущэты (-əwɕatə), for example макIуыущэты - he is being going.

Example:

Сиунэ сщэщхэ
[siwna sɕaɕxa]
my house I am eating in
"I am eating in my house"

Suffix -ыущэты (-əwɕatə) examples:

Сиунэ сщыщхыущэты
[siwna sɕəɕxəwɕatə]
my house I am eating in
"I am eating in my house"

Future tense Suffix ~эт (~at)[edit]

The future tense has the Suffix ~эт (~at) and in some cases ~ыт (~ət) (close to future simple). Some dialects such as the Bzhedug dialect have the Suffix ~щт (~ɕt). For example: скIот - i will go (səkʷat), укIот - you will go (wəkʷat), шъукIот - you will go (plural) (ʂʷəkʷat), мэкIот - he will go (makʷat), макIотых - they will go (maːkʷatəx), сIот - i will say (səʔʷat), уIот or пIот - you will say (wəʔʷat) or (pʔʷat), иIот - they will say (jəʔʷat), яIот - they will say (plural) (jaːʔʷat).

Suffix -ыущтыт (əwɕtət) (close to future progressive), for example макIуыущтыт - he will be going.

Suffix Suffix ~эт (~at) example:

Сиунэ сщыщхэт
[siwna sɕəɕxat]
my house i will eat in
"i will eat in my house"

Suffix -ыущтыт (-əwɕtət) examples:

Сиунэ сщыщхыущтыт
[siwna sɕəɕxəwɕtət]
my house i will be eating in
"i will be eating in my house"

Tense examples[edit]

Root Tense Forms
Negative Positive (want) Positive Negative (don't want) Possible (Capable) If Even if
мэкIуагъ Past мэкIуагъэп мэкIорэгъуагъ мэкIорэгъуагъэп мэкIошъутэгъ мэкIуагъэмэ мэкIуагъэми
макIо Present макIорэп мэкIорагъу мэкIорагъоп мэкIошъу макIомэ макIоми
мэкIот Future мэкIотэп мэкIорэгъот мэкIорэгъотэп мэкIошъут мэкIотьмэ мэкIотьми
мэкIогъагъ Fourth мэкIогъагъэп мэкIорэгъуэгъагъ мэкIорэгъуэгъагъэп мэкIошъутыгъагъ мэкIогъагъэмэ мэкIогъагъэми

Imperative mood[edit]

The imperative mood of the second person singular has no additional affixes:

  • штэ /ʃta/ "take"
  • кӀо /kʷʼa/ "go"
  • тхы /txə/ "write"
  • щхэ /ɕxa/ "eat"

When addressing to several people, The prefix шъу- /ʂʷə-/ is added:

  • шъушт /ʂʷəʃt/ "take"
  • шъукӀу /ʂʷəkʷʼ/ "go"
  • шъутх /ʂʷətx/ "write"
  • шъущх /ʂʷəɕx/ "eat"

Optative mood[edit]

Optative mood is expressed with the complex suffix -гъо-т: у-к1уа-гъо́-т "would you go", п-тхы-гъа-гъо́-т "would you write".

Affirmative form[edit]

Affirmative form is expressed with the affix -ба: ма-т1э-ба́ "in fact he is digging", мэ-гык1э-ба́ "in fact he is washing".

Interrogative form[edit]

Interrogative form is expressed with the affix -а:

  • макӀо "he is going" >>> макӀуа? /maːkʷʼaː/ "is he going?"
  • матхагъ "he wrote" >>> матхагъа? /maːtxaːʁaː/ "did he write?"
  • кӀалэр мащхэ "the boy is eating" >>> кӀалэр мащха? /t͡ʃaːlar maːɕxaː/ "is the boy eating?"
  • шъокӀуа? /ʂʷakʷʼaː/ "are you (plural) going?"
  • отхэ "you are writing" >>> отха? /watxaː/ "are you writing?"
  • мащхэх "they are eating" >>> мащхэха? /maːɕxaxaː/ "are they eating?"

Adverbial participle[edit]

Adverbial participles are formed from verbs with the suffixes -зэ (-za), -эу (aw): еджэ-зэ́ "reading", щыт-э́у "standing", гущы1э-зэ́ "speaking". Adverbial participles have different forms for different person:

  • сыгущы1эзэ́ - сы-гущы1э-зэ́ "I, speaking (to you, felt uncomfortable)",
  • угущы1эзэ́ - у-гущы1э-зэ́ "You, speaking ...",
  • гущы1эзэ - гущы1э-зэ "He, speaking ...".

Participle[edit]

Present participles in Adyghe are formed from the appropriate dynamic verbs with the suffix -рэ (-ra):

  • к1орэ́р - к1о-рэ́-р "walking",
  • чъэрэ́р - чъэ-рэ́-р "running".

Participles can also be created from static verbs. In this case no additional morphological modifications are required. For example: щысы́р "sitting", щылъы́р "lying". In the past and future tenses participles have no special morphological attributes, in other words, their form is identical to the main form of the verb. The forms of participles in different grammatical cases are equal to the forms of the appropriate verbs. The same is also true for their time-tenses.

Dynamic and steady-state verbs[edit]

Dynamic verbs express (process of) actions that are taking place (natural role of verbs in English). Dynamic verbs are usually transitive verbs or intransitive verbs :

  • Сэ сэчъэ /sa sat͡ʂa/ "I am running";
  • Сэ сэцуахъо /sa sat͡sʷaːχʷa/ "I am crawling",
  • Сэ сэт1э /sa satʼa/ "I am digging",
  • Сэ сэ1о /sa saʔʷa/ "I am speaking".

Steady-state verbs express the condition, they express states or results of actions. Also past, future and fourth tense verbs are usually Steady-state verbs.

  • Сэ сыщыт /sa səɕət/ "I am standing",
  • Сэ сыщылъ /sa səɕəɬ/ "I am lying.",
  • Сэ сыпхъаш1 /sa səpχaːʃʼ/ "I am a carpenter",
  • Сэ сытракторист /sa sətraːktorict/ "I am a tractor-driver".

Discrete and opposite prefix къэ~ (qa~)[edit]

For dynamic verbs: къэ~ (qa~), and for steady-state verbs: къы~ (qə~).

The doscrete prefix indicates that a process is terminated or occurs only once.

  • еӏо /jaʔʷa/ "he talks" - къеӏо /qajʔʷa/
  • мэлажэ /maɬaːʒa/ "he works" - къэлажэ /qalaːʒa/
  • ишӏагъ /jəʃʼaːʁ/ "he done it" - къишӏагъ /qəjʃʼaːʁ/
  • етӏэрэхы /jatʼaraxən/ "(s)he/it falls down" - кетӏэрэхы /qajtʼaraxən/

This prefix is also used when the verb was done in an opposite way. for example :

  • кӏо /kʷ'a/ "go" - къакӏу /qaːkʷ'/ "come"
  • плъэ /pɬa/ "look" (over there) - къаплъ /qaːpɬ/ "look (over here)"
  • о /wa/ "hit" (that) - къау /qaːw/ "hit (me)"
  • Ӏух /ʔʷəx/ "open" (from outside) - къыӀух /qəʔʷəx/ "open (from inside)"
  • кӏых /t͡ʃəx/ "carry it up there" - къыкӏых /qəʔʷəx/ "carry it up here (mostly said by people that are in a higher spot)"
  • хьы /ħə/ "take it" - къэхь /qaħ/ "bring it"

Other cases:

  • есаӀо /jasaːʔʷa/ "I am saying to him" - къысеӀо /qəsajʔʷa/ "he is saying to me"
  • теот /tajwat/ "we will hit him" - къытэот /qətawat/ "he will hit us"
  • талъежьэт /taːɬajʑat/ "we will chase them" - къэтлъежьэтых /qatɬajʑatəx/ "they will chase us"
  • естыт /jastət/ "I will give him" - къыситыт /qəsitət/ "he will give me"
уиунэ тыкъакIо
[wiwna təqakʷʼa]
your house we are coming
"we are coming to your house"
кӏалэм сеплъэ ау ежь къысэплъыжьрэп
[t͡ʃaːlam sepɬə aːʷ jaʑ qəsapɬəʑrap]
the boy (erg.) I am looking at him but (s)he doesn't look at me back
"I look at the boy, but he doesn't look at me back."
кӏалэхэмэ тауагъэп анахь ежьхэрары къытэуагъэхэр
[t͡ʃaːlaxama taːwaːʁap aːnaːħ jaʑxaraːrə qətawaːʁaxar]
the boys (erg.) we didn't hit them rather they are indeed the ones that hit us
"We didn't hit the boys, rather they were the ones that hit us."

Personality prefix[edit]

The personality prefix is posited before or after the Discrete prefix. It indicates the agreement of a verb with more than one of its arguments. The personality prefix can occur in the past or future tenses..

Singular form:

Prefix Meaning Example
dynamic verbs steady-state verbs dynamic verbs steady-state verbs
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
1st person for intransitive verbs сэ- /sa-/ сы- /sə-/ "I" сэщхэ /saɕxa/ - i am eating, сэзао /sazaːwa/ - i am fighting, сэплъэ /sapɬa/ - i am looking сыщхагъ /səɕxaːʁ/ - i ate, сызэот /səzawat/ - i will fight, сыплъэгъагъ /səpɬaʁaːʁ/ - i looked (then), сыщыс /səɕəs/ – I sit
1st person for transitive verbs се- /saj-/ сы-, се- /sə-/, /saj-/ "I" сэщхы /saɕxə/ - i am eating it, сещхы /sajɕxə/ - he is eating me, сезао /sajzaːwa/ - i am fighting it, сеплъы /sajpɬə/ - i am looking it сыщхэгъ /səɕxaʁ/ - i ate it, сезэот /sajzawat/ - i will fight it, сеплъыгъагъ /sajpɬəʁaːʁ/ - i looked at it (then)
2nd person for intransitive verbs о- /wa-/ уы- or п- /wə-/ or /p-/ "you" ощхэ /waɕxa/ - you are eating, озао /wazaːwa/ - you are fighting, оплъэ /wapɬa/ - you are looking уыщхагъ /wəɕxaːʁ/ - you ate, уызэот /wəzawat/ - you will fight, уыплъэгъагъ /wəpɬaʁaːʁ/ - you looked (then), уыщыс /wəɕəs/ – you sit
2nd person for transitive verbs уе- /waj-/ уы-, уе- /wə-/, /waj-/ "you" ощхы /waɕxə/ - you are eating it, уещхы /wajɕxə/ - he is eating you, уезао /wajzaːwa/ - you are fighting it, уеплъы /wajpɬə/ - you are looking it уыщхэгъ /wəɕxaʁ/ - you ate it, уезэот /wajzawat/ - you will fight it, уеплъыгъагъ /wajpɬəʁaːʁ/ - you looked at it (then)
3rd person for intransitive verbs ма- /maː-/ мэ- /ma-/ "he" мащхэ /maːɕxa/ - he is eating, мэзао /mazaːwa/ - he is fighting, маплъэ /maːpɬa/ - he is looking мэщхагъ /maɕxaːʁ/ - he ate, мэзэот /mazawat/ - he will fight, мэплъэгъагъ /mapɬaʁaːʁ/ - he looked (then), щыс /ɕəs/ – he sit
3rd person for transitive verbs э- or е- /a-/ or /ja-/ ы– or и- /ə-/ or /jə-/ "he" ещхы /jaɕxə/ - he is eating it, езао /jazaːwa/ - he is fighting it, езаох /jazaːwax/ - they are fighting it, еплъы /japɬə/ - he is looking at it, еплъых /japɬəx/ - they are looking at them ищхэгъ /jəɕxaʁ/ - he ate it, езэот /jazawat/ - he will fight it, еплъыгъагъ /japɬəʁaːʁ/ - he looked at it (then)
сэ сэщхэ
[sa saɕxa]
I I eat
"I am eating."
кIалэр мащхэ
[t͡ʃalar maːɕxa]
the boy (abs.) he eats
"the boy is eating."
сэ сэщхы хъуайэ
[sa saɕxə χʷaːja]
I I eat cheese
"I am eating cheese."
кIалэм ещхы хъуайэ
[t͡ʃalam jaɕxə χʷaːja]
the boy (erg.) he eats cheese
"the boy is eating a cheese."

Plural form:

Prefix Meaning Example
dynamic verbs steady-state verbs dynamic verbs steady-state verbs
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
1st person for intransitive verbs тэ- /ta-/ ты- /tə-/ "I" тэщхэ /taɕxa/ - we are eating, тэзао /tazaːwa/ - we are fighting, тэплъэ /tapɬa/ - we are looking тыщхагъ /təɕxaːʁ/ - we ate, тызэот /təzawat/ - we will fight, тыплъэгъагъ /təpɬaʁaːʁ/ - we looked (then), тыщыс /təɕəs/ – we sit
1st person for transitive verbs те- /taj-/ ты-, те- /tə-/, /taj-/ "we" тэщхы /taɕxə/ - we are eating it, тещхы /tajɕxə/ - he is eating us, тезао /tajzaːwa/ - we are fighting it, теплъы /tajpɬə/ - we are looking it тыщхэгъ /təɕxaʁ/ - we ate it, тезэот /tajzawat/ - we will fight it, теплъэгъагъ /tajpɬaʁaːʁ/ - we looked at it (then)
2nd person for intransitive verbs шъо- /ʂʷa-/ шъу- /ʂʷə-/ "you" (plural) шъощхэ /ʂʷaɕxa/ - you are eating, шъозао /ʂʷazaːwa/ - you are fighting, шъоплъэ /ʂʷapɬa/ - you are looking шъущхагъ /ʂʷəɕxaːʁ/ - you ate, шъузэот /ʂʷəzawat/ - you will fight, шъуплъэгъагъ /ʂʷəpɬaʁaːʁ/ - you looked (then), шъущыс /ʂʷəɕəs/ – you sit
2nd person for transitive verbs шъуе- /ʂʷaj-/ шъу-, шъуе- /ʂʷə-/, /ʂʷaj-/ "you" (plural) шъощхы /ʂʷaɕxə/ - we are eating it, шъуещхы /ʂʷajɕxə/ - he is eating us, шъуезао /ʂʷajzaːwa/ - we are fighting it, шъуеплъы /ʂʷajpɬə/ - we are looking it шъущхэгъ /ʂʷəɕxaʁ/ - we ate it, шъуезэот /ʂʷajzawat/ - we will fight it, шъуеплъэгъагъ /ʂʷajpɬaʁaːʁ/ - we looked at it (then)
3rd person for intransitive verbs ма- /maː-/ мэ- /ma-/ "they" мащхэх /maːɕxax/ - they are eating, мэзаох /mazaːwax/ - they are fighting, маплъэх /maːpɬax/ - they are looking мэщхагъэх /maɕxaːʁax/ - they ate, мэзэотых /mazawatəx/ - they will fight, мэплъэгъагъэх /mapɬaʁaːʁax/ - they looked (then), щысых /ɕəsəx/ – they sit
3rd person for transitive verbs а- or я- /aː-/ or /jaː-/ а- or я- /aː-/ or /jaː-/ "they" ящхы /jaːɕxə/ - they are eating it, язао /jaːzaːwa/ - he is fighting them, язаох /jaːzaːwax/ - they are fighting them, яплъы /jaːpɬə/ - he is looking at them, яплъых /jaːpɬəx/ - they are looking at them, ящхэгъ /jaːɕxaʁ/ - they ate it, язэот /jaːzawat/ - he will fight them, язэотых /jaːzawatəx/ - they will fight them, яплъыгъагъ /jaːpɬəʁaːʁ/ - he looked at them (then), яплъыгъагъэх /jaːpɬəʁaːʁax/ - they looked at them (then)
тэ тэщхэ
[ta taɕxa]
we we eat
"we are eating."
кIалэхэр мащхэх
[t͡ʃalaxar maːɕxax]
the boys (abs.) they eats
"the boys are eating."
тэ тэщхы хъуайэ
[ta taɕxə χʷaːja]
we we eats cheese
"we are eating cheese."
кIалэхэмэ ящхы хъуайэ
[t͡ʃalaxama jaːɕxə χʷaːja]
the boys (erg.) they eats cheese
"the boys are eating cheese."

Impetative гъэ- (ʁa-)[edit]

It is posited after personality prefix. The impetative designates causation, rendered by the verbs: to force, compel, make; to order, tell; to allow, permit; to give the opportunity to do something. This also forms transitive verbs. The verb with prefix гъэ- (ʁa-) is always connecting. When the verb is in the present tense, it has the prefix гъа- (ʁaː-). When used for the past and future tenses it's гъэ- (ʁa-). Intransitive verbs can be turned into transitive with the causative affix -гъэ- (meaning "to force, to make, to allow"). For example:

Examples :

  • кӏо! /kʷʼa/ go! → гъакӏу /ʁaːkʷʼ/ make him go!
  • макӏо! /maːkʷʼa/ he is going → егъакӏо /jaʁaːkʷʼa/ he is making him go.
  • къакӏу /qaːkʷʼ/ come! → къэгъакӏу /qaʁaːkʷʼ/ make him come back!
  • ӏо /ʔʷa/ say! → гъаӏу /ʁaːʔʷ/ make him say!
  • щхэ /ɕxa/ eat! → гъащх /ʁaːɕx/ make him eat! or feed him!
  • мащхэ /maːɕxa/ he is eating → егъащхэ /jaʁaːɕxa/ he is making him eat or he is feeding him.
кIалэм иянэ къугъом къуигъэуцуагъ
кIалэ-эм и-янэ къугъэ-эм къу-и-гъэ-уцу-агъ
[t͡ʃaːlam jəjaːna qʷəʁʷam qʷiʁawt͡sʷaːʁ]
the boy (erg.) his mother the corner (erg.) he made him put it in the corner (The prefix къу- is for the corner conjugation form, и for transitive verb, гъэ- is Impetus prefix, уцу mean "stop" but when add гъэ and become гъэуцу it has a new meaning of "put it" or "made him stop", and finally the past tense suffix -агъ.)
"the boy's mother made him to stand in the corner"
"the boy's mother allowed him to stand in the corner"
"the boy's mother forced him to stand in the corner"
кIалэм иятэ дучанэм игъэкIот
[t͡ʃaːlam jəjaːta dukaːnam jəʁakʷʼat]
the boy (erg.) his father shop (erg.) he will make him walk
"the boy's father will make him go to the shop"
"the boy's father will allow him to go to the shop"
"the boy's father will force him to go to the shop"
Ныо цIыкIум игъэщхагъ пшъашъэ цIыкIор
[nəwa t͡sʼəkʷʼəm jəʁaɕxaːʁ pʂaːʂa t͡sʼəkʷʼar]
old woman the little (erg.) made to eat (past tense) girl the little (abs.)
"the old woman fed the little girl"
"the old woman allowed the little girl to eat"
"the old woman made the little girl eat"
"the old woman forced the little girl to eat"
кIалэм лӀыжъэр егъэкӀошъут
[t͡ʃaːlam jəjaːta jaʁakʷʼaʂʷət]
the boy (erg.) the old man (abs) he is capable to make him go
"the boy can make the old man go."

By adding prefix гъэ- (ʁa-), it is possible to create transitive verbs from nouns, adjectives, adverb and intransitive verbs.

Examples :

  • фабэ /faːba/ hot! → гъэфаб /ʁafaːb/ make it hot or heat it
  • дахэ /daːxa/ pretty! → гъэдах /ʁadaːx/ make him/it pretty
  • плъыжьы /pɬəʑə/ red! → гъэплъыжь /ʁapɬəʑ/ make him/it red
  • дышъэ /dəʂa/ gold! → гъэдышъ /ʁadəʂ/ make him/it gold
  • тэкӏу /takʷʼ/ few! → гъэтэкӏу /ʁatekʷʼ/ make it few
санэ псым хапкӀэмэ егъэплъыжьыт
[saːna psəm xaːpt͡ʃama jaʁapɬəʑət]
grape water (erg.) if you pour it he will make it red
"If you spill grape on water it will make it red"

A verb that one does to himself has the prefix зыгъэ- /zəʁa-/

Examples :

  • фабэ /faːba/ hot! → зыгъэфаб /zəʁafaːb/ heat yourself
  • дахэ /daːxa/ pretty! → зыгъэдах /zəʁadaːx/ make yourself pretty (usually by clothing)
  • кIо! /kʷʼa/ go! → зыгъакIу /zəʁaːkʷʼ/ make yourself go!
  • макIо! /maːkʷʼa/ he is going → зегъакIо /zeʁaːkʷʼa/ he is making himself go.
  • щхэ /ɕxa/ eat! → зыгъащх /zəʁaːɕx/ make yourself eat! or feed yourself!
  • мащхэх /maːɕxa/ they are eating → загъащхэх /zaːʁaːɕxax/ they is making them self eat or they are feeding them self.
кукунэгъэбылъымкӏэ кӏэлэцыкӏухэмэ загъэбылъы
[kʷəkʷnaʁabəɬəmt͡ʃʼa zajʁadaːxa d͡ʒaːnaxamt͡ʃa]
hide and seek (ins.) the little boys (erg.) they are hiding them self
"In hide and seek, the little boys are hiding them self."
кIалэм зегъэдахэ джанэхэмкӀэ
[t͡ʃaːlam zajʁadaːxa d͡ʒaːnaxamt͡ʃa]
the boy (erg.) he is making himself pretty with (using) the clothes (ins.)
"the boy is making himself look pretty using the clothes"

Impetative[edit]

From singular to singular:

  • кӀо /kʷʼa/ "go" → усгъэкӀуагъ /wəsʁakʷʼaːʁ/ "I made you go"
  • кӀо /kʷʼa/ "go" → осэгъакӀо /wasaʁaːkʷʼa/ "I am making you go"
  • кӀо /kʷʼa/ "go" → усгъэкӀот /wəsʁakʷʼat/ "I will make you go"
  • кӀо /kʷʼa/ "go" → сгъэкӀуагъ /sʁakʷʼaːʁ/ "I made him go"
  • кӀо /kʷʼa/ "go" → сэгъакӀо /saʁaːkʷʼa/ "I am making him go"
  • кӀо /kʷʼa/ "go" → сгъэкӀот /sʁakʷʼat/ "I will make him go"

From plural to singular:

  • кӀо /kʷʼa/ "go" → утгъэкӀуагъ /wətʁakʷʼaːʁ/ "we made you go"
  • кӀо /kʷʼa/ "go" → отэгъакӀо /wataʁaːkʷʼa/ "we are making you go"
  • кӀо /kʷʼa/ "go" → утгъэкӀот /wətʁakʷʼat/ "we will make you go"
  • кӀо /kʷʼa/ "go" → тгъэкӀуагъ /tʁakʷʼaːʁ/ "we made him go"
  • кӀо /kʷʼa/ "go" → тэгъакӀо /taʁaːkʷʼa/ "we are making him go"
  • кӀо /kʷʼa/ "go" → тгъэкӀот /tʁakʷʼat/ "we will make him go"

From singular to plural:

  • кӀо /kʷʼa/ "go" → шъусгъэкӀуагъ /ʃʷəsʁakʷʼaːʁ/ "I made you go (plural)"
  • кӀо /kʷʼa/ "go" → шъосэгъакӀо /ʃʷasaʁaːkʷʼa/ "I am making you go (plural)"
  • кӀо /kʷʼa/ "go" → шъусгъэкӀот /ʃʷəsʁakʷʼat/ "I will make you go (plural)"
  • кӀо /kʷʼa/ "go" → сгъэкӀуагъэх /sʁakʷʼaːʁax/ "I made them go (plural)"
  • кӀо /kʷʼa/ "go" → сэгъакӀох /saʁaːkʷʼax/ "I am making them go (plural)"
  • кӀо /kʷʼa/ "go" → сгъэкӀотэх /sʁakʷʼatax/ "I will make them go (plural)"

From plural to plural:

  • кӀо /kʷʼa/ "go" → шъутгъэкӀуагъ /ʃʷətʁakʷʼaːʁ/ "we made you go (plural)"
  • кӀо /kʷʼa/ "go" → шъотэгъакӀо /ʃʷataʁaːkʷʼa/ "we are making you go (plural)"
  • кӀо /kʷʼa/ "go" → шъутгъэкӀот /ʃʷətʁakʷʼat/ "we will make you go (plural)"
  • кӀо /kʷʼa/ "go" → тгъэкӀуагъэх /tʁakʷʼaːʁax/ "we made them go (plural)"
  • кӀо /kʷʼa/ "go" → тэгъакӀох /taʁaːkʷʼax/ "we are making them go (plural)"
  • кӀо /kʷʼa/ "go" → тгъэкӀотэх /tʁakʷʼatax/ "we will make them go (plural)"
Root Tense Forms
Negative Volitive (want) Volitive negative (don't want) Possible (Capable) If Even if
егъэкIуагъ Past егъэкIуагъэп егъэкIорэгъуагъ егъэкIорэгъуагъэп егъэкIошъутэгъ егъэкIуагъмэ егъэкIуагъми
егъакIо Present егъакIорэп егъэкIорагъу егъэкIорагъоп егъэкIошъу егъакIомэ егъакIоми
егъэкIот Future егъэкIотэп егъэкIорэгъот егъэкIорэгъотэп егъэкIошъут егъэкIотьмэ егъэкIотьми
егъэкIогъагъ Fourth егъэкIогъагъэп егъэкIорэгъуэгъагъ егъэкIорэгъуэгъагъэп егъэкIошъутыгъагъ егъэкIогъагъэмэ егъэкIогъагъэми

Frequentative ~жь (~ʑ)[edit]

The frequentative is used to describe a verb that will happen again or repeated times, the suffix ~жь (~ʑ) is added. It can also be used to indicate that someone that was doing a certain verb before, is now continuing it or will continue it.

Examples :

  • кIо! /kʷʼa/ go! → кIожь /kʷʼaʑ/ go back!
  • къакIу /qaːkʷʼ/ come! → къакIожь /qaːkʷʼaʑ/ come back!
  • Ӏо /ʔʷa/ say! → Ӏожь /ʔʷaʑ/ say again!
  • щхэ /ɕxa/ eat! → щхэжь /ɕxaʑ/ eat again!
  • щхы /ɕxə/ eat it! → щхыжь /ɕxəʑ/ eat it again! or continue eating it!
  • In case the verb is being continued :
уиунэ кIожьи уиIанэ лэжь
[wiwna kʷʼaʑi wiʔana laʑ]
your house go back (In order something to happen) your table color it again or continue coloring it
"go back to your house and continue coloring your table"
  • In case the verb is being repeated :
къысапIорэ лIымэ яIожь
[qəsaːpʔʷara ɬʼəma jaːʔʷaʑ]
what you are telling me the men tell them again
"'tell the men what are you telling me"
Root Meaning Tense
Past tense Present tense Future tense Fourth tense
макIо he is going мэкIожьэгъ мэкIожьы мэкIожьыт мэкIожьгъагъ
сэкIо I am going скIожьэгъ сэкIожьы скIожьыт скIожьгъагъ
еӀо he is saying иӀожьэгъ еӀожьы иӀожьыт иӀожьгъагъ
Root Tense Forms
Negative Positive (want) Positive Negative (don't want) Possible (Capable) If Even if
мэкIожьэгъ Past мэкIожьгъэп мэкIожьрэгъуагъ мэкIожьрэгъуагъэп мэкIожьышъутэгъ мэкIожьмэ мэкIожьми
мэкIожьы Present мэкIожьрэп мэкIожьрагъу мэкIожьрагъоп мэкIожьшъу мэкIожьмэ мэкIожьми
мэкIожьыт Future мэкIожьтэп мэкIожьрэгъот мэкIожьрэгъотэп мэкIожьшъут мэкIожьтьмэ мэкIожьтьми
мэкIожьгъагъ Fourth мэкIожьгъагъэп мэкIожьрэгъуэгъагъ мэкIожьрэгъуэгъагъэп мэкIожьшъутыгъагъ мэкIожьгъагъэмэ мэкIожьгъагъэми

Imperative mood[edit]

Complies with root base: КIо! - Go!, Щыс! - Sit!, Къэтэдж! - Stand up!, Къэущэжь! – Wake up!.

When addressing to several people, imperative mood gains the prefix шъо~ (шъу~): ШъукIо! - Go!, Шъощыс! - Sit!, Шъукъэтэдж! - Wake up!, Шъукъэущэжь! Awake!

Action process time connection Suffix -эу (-aw)[edit]

To indicate an event that is happening while a certain verb is done, the suffix -эу (-aw) or -ыу (-əw) is added.

Examples:

  • сэкӏо /sakʷʼa/ I am going → сыкӏоу /səkʷʼaw/ while I am going
  • сэкIуагъ /sakʷʼaːʁ/ I was going → сыкIуагъэу /səkʷʼaːʁaw/ while I was going
  • тэлажьэ /talaːʑa/ we are working → тылажьэу /talaːʑaw/ while we were working
  • мэщхэ /maɕxa/ he is eating → мэщхэу /maɕxaw/ while he was eating
сыкIуагъэу кIалэр слъэгъогъ
[səkʷʼaːʁaw t͡ʃaːlar sɬaʁʷaʁ]
while I was going the boy (erg.) I saw
"while (during the time) i was going I saw the boy"
седжэу къэлэмэр къэсэщтэ
[sed͡ʒaw [qalamar qasaɕta]
while I am studying the pencil (abs.) I am picking it up
"while (during the time) I am studying I am picking up the pencil"

After the action connection Suffix -эм (-am)[edit]

To indicate an event that happened after a certain verb, after the verb was done, the Suffix -эм (-am) is added.

  • сэкIо /sakʷʼa/ - I am going, сэкIом /sakʷʼam/ - when i went.
  • тэщхэ /taɕxa/ - we are eating, тэщхэм /taɕxam/ - when we ate.
  • еплъых /japɬəx/ - they are looking at it, еплъыхэм /japɬəxam/ - when they looked at it.
сэкIом кIалэр къэслъэгъогъ
[sakʷʼam t͡ʃaːlar qasɬaʁʷaʁ]
when i went the boy (erg.) i saw
"when i went i saw the boy"
пшъашъэр макIом кIалэм къыриIуагъ
[pʂaːʂar [maːkʷʼam t͡ʃaːlam qəriʔʷaːʁ]
girl (abs.) when (s)he went boy (erg.) he told him
"when the girl went the boy told her"
лIым едж къысеIом седжагъ
[ɬʼəm jad͡ʒ qəsajʔʷam sajd͡ʒaːʁ]
man (erg.) study! when he told me I studied
"when the man told me to study, I studied"

Sociative suffix -дэ (-da)[edit]

When a certain verb is done by someone with someone else, the prefix -дэ (-da) is added. The prefix designates action performed jointly with somebody, or stay/sojourn with somebody.

  • мащхэ /maːɕxa/ - he is eating, дащхэ /daːɕxa/ - he is eating with him
  • макӀо /maːkʷʼa/ - he is going, дакӀо /daːkʷʼa/ - he is going with him
  • тэкӀо /takʷʼa/ - we are going, къэтдакӀо /qatdaːkʷʼa/ - he is going with us
  • сеплъы /sajpɬə/ - i am looking at it, къэсдеплъы /qasdajpɬə/ - he is looking at it with me
  • шъоӀо /ʂʷaʔʷa/ - you (plural) are saying, къэшъудеӀо /qaʂʷdajʔʷa/ - he is saying with you (plural)
кӀалэр пшъашъэм дакӀо
[t͡ʃaːlar pʂaːʂam daːkʷʼa]
the boy (abs.) the girl (erg.) he is going with
"the boy is going with the girl"
дэщхынэр къэсдэщх
[daɕxənar qasdaɕx
the food (abs.) eat it with me
"eat the food with me"
кӀалэр лӀыхэмэ ядащхэ
[t͡ʃaːlar ɬʼəxama jaːdaːɕxa]
the boy (abs.) the old men (erg.) he is eating with them
"the boy is eating with the old men."

In favour of or for prefix (фэ-) (fa-)[edit]

Can not be used simultaneously with both the sufix -ф (-f) and suffix (-дэ) (-da). When a certain verb is done by someone for someone else, the suffix -фэ (-fa) is added.

Verbs that are done by absolutive nouns for ergative nouns[edit]

A verb that was done for a single absolutive noun has the prefix (фэ-) (fa-) for past and future tense, and for present tense (фа-) (faː-).

  • мэкӀуагъ /makʷʼaːʁ/ - he went, фэкӀуагъ /fakʷʼaːʁ/ - he went for him.
  • сакӀо /saːkʷʼa/ - I am going, сыфакӀо /səfaːkʷʼa/ - I go for him.
  • тыкӀот /təkʷʼat/ - we will go, тыфэкӀот /təfakʷʼat/ - we will go for him.

A verb that was done for a plural absolutive nouns has the prefix (яфэ-) (jaːfa-) for past and future tense, and for present tense (яфа-) (jaːfaː-).

  • мэкӀуагъ /makʷʼaːʁ/ - he went, яфэкӀуагъ /jaːfakʷʼaːʁ/ - he went for them.
  • сакӀо /saːkʷʼa/ - I am going, сафакӀо /saːfaːkʷʼa/ - I go for them.
  • тыкӀот /təkʷʼat/ - we will go, тафэкӀот /taːfakʷʼat/ - we will go for them.
кIалэр бзылъфыгъэхэмэ дуканэм яфакӏо
[t͡ʃaːlar bzəɬfəʁaxama dukaːnam jaːfaːkʷʼa]
the boy (abs.) the women (erg.) the shop (erg.) he is going for them
"the boy is going to the shop for the women"
кIалэр томым фэлажэ
[t͡ʃalar toməm falaːʒa]
boy (Abs.) Tom (Erg.) he works for him
"the boy is working for Tom."

Verbs that are done by ergative nouns for ergative nouns[edit]

A verb that was done for a single ergative noun by a single has the prefix (фи-) (fi-) for past and future tense and (фе-) (fe-) for present tense.

  • ещхы /jaɕxə/ - he is eating it → фещхы /feɕxə/ - he is eating for him.
  • илъэгъогъ /jəɬaʁʷaʁ/ - he saw it → филъэгъогъ /fiɬaʁʷaʁ/ - he saw it for him.
  • итхыт /jətxət/ - he will write it → фитхыт /fitxət/ - he will write it for him.

A verb that was done for a single ergative noun by a plural has the prefix (фа-) (faː-).

  • ящхы /jaːɕxə/ - they are eating it → фащхы /faːɕxə/ - they are eating for him.
  • ялъэгъогъ /jaːɬaʁʷaʁ/ - they saw it → фалъэгъогъ /faːɬaʁʷaʁ/ - they saw it for him.
  • ятхыт /jaːtxət/ - they will write it → фатхыт /faːtxət/ - they will write it for him.

A verb that was done for a plural ergative nouns by a single has the prefix (яфи-) (jaːfi-) for past and future tense and (яфе-) (jaːfe-) for present tense.

  • ещхы /jaɕxə/ - he is eating it → яфещхы /jaːfeɕxə/ - he is eating for them.
  • илъэгъогъ /jəɬaʁʷaʁ/ - he saw it → яфилъэгъогъ /jaːfiɬaʁʷaʁ/ - he saw it for them.
  • итхыт /jətxət/ - he will write it → яфитхыт /jaːfitxət/ - he will write it for them.

A verb that was done for a plural Ergative nouns by a plural has the prefix (яфа-) (jaːfaː-).

  • ящхы /jaːɕxə/ - he is eating it → яфащхы /jaːfaːɕxə/ - they are eating for them.
  • ялъэгъогъ /jaːɬaʁʷaʁ/ - they saw it → яфалъэгъогъ /jaːfaːɬaʁʷaʁ/ - they saw it for them.
  • ятхыт /jaːtxət/ - they will write it → яфатхыт /jaːfaːtxət/ - they will write it for them.
кIалэм фещхы бэнанэр пшъашъэм
[t͡ʃaːlam feɕxə banaːbar pʂaːʂam]
the boy (erg.) he eats for him a/the the banana (abs.) the girl (erg.)
"the boy is eating the banana for the girl"
бэнанэр сэ къэсфещхы
бэнанэр сэ къэс-фе-щхы
[banaːbar sa qasfeɕxə]
banana (abs.) I he eats it for me
"he is eating the banana for me"
Root Tense Forms
Negative Positive (want) Can If Even if Because
фищхэгъ Past фищхэгъэп фищхырэгъуагъ фищхышъутэгъ фищхыгъэмэ фищхыгъэми фищхыгъи
фещхы Present фещхырэп фещхырагъу фещхышъу фещхымэ фещхыми фещхи
фищхыт Future фищхытэп фищхырэгъот фищхышъут фищхытмэ фищхытми фищхыти
фищхыгъагъ Fourth фищхыгъагъэп фищхырэгъуэгъагъ фищхышъутыгъагъ фищхыгъагъэмэ фищхыгъагъэми фищхыгъагъи

Prefix (ре-) (raj-)[edit]

To describe a verb that was done using something, the prefix (ре-) (raj-) is added for present tense and the prefix (ри-) (ri-) is added for past and future tense.

  • макӀо /maːkʷʼa/ - he is going (makʷʼa), рекӀо /rajkʷʼa/ - he is going on it or he is going with it
  • мащхэ /maːɕxa/ - he is eating, рещхэ /rajɕxa/ - he is eating with it
  • сэлажэ /salaːʒa/ - i am working, срелажэ /srajlaːʒa/ - i am working with it
къэлэмым шъуретхэ
[qalaməm ʂʷəretxa]
the pencil (erg.) you (plural) writing with it
"you (plural) are writing with a pencil"
къалэм срикӀорагъу
[qaːlam srikʷʼaraːʁʷ]
the wall (erg.) i want to go on it
"i want to go on the wall"
Root Tense Forms
Negative Positive (want) With For Possible (Capable) If Even if Infinitive
рикIуагъ Past рикIуагъэп рикIорэгъуагъ дрикIуагъ фрикIуагъ рикIошъутэгъ рикIуагъэмэ рикIуагъэми рикIогъэн
ремакIо Present рекIорэп рекIорагъу дрекIо фрекIо рекIошъу рекIомэ рекIоми рикIон
рикIот Future рикIотэп рикIорэгъот дрикIот фрикIот рикIошъут рикIотьмэ рикIотьми  ?
рикIогъагъ Fourth рикIогъагъэп рикIорэгъуэгъагъ дрикIогъагъ фрикIогъагъ рикIошъутыгъагъ рикIогъагъэмэ рикIогъагъэми рикIогъагъэн

Until suffix -фэ (-fa)[edit]

  • мэкӀуагъ /makʷʼaːʁ/ - he went → мэкӀуагъэфэ /makʷʼaːʁafa/ - until he went.
  • сакӀо /saːkʷʼa/ - I am going → сыкӀофэ /səkʷʼafa/ - until I go.
КъэкIожьыфэ шхэ
[qakʷʼaʑəfa ʃxa]
Until he is coming back eat
"Eat Until he is coming back"
Сышхэфэ къэспаплъ
[səʃxafa qaspaːpɬ]
Until I done eating wait for me
"Wait for me until I done eating."

Usually do -расэ (-raːsa)[edit]

To indicate a verb that is done usually or often, has the suffix -расэ (-raːsa). For example going to the same area/place or eats or drinks the same thing.

  • мэкӀуагъ /makʷʼaːʁ/ - he went → мэкӀорасэ /makʷʼaraːsa/ - the place he usually goes - the place he often goes.
  • сакӀо /saːkʷʼa/ - I am going → сыкӀорасэ /səkʷʼaraːsa/ - the place I often go.
  • тышхэт /təʃxat/ - we will eat → тышхэрасэ /təʃxaraːsa/ - the thing we often eat.
  • ушылажэрэ /wʃəlaːʒara/ - the place you work at → ушылажэрасэ /wʃəlaːʒaraːsa/ - the place you often work at.
  • сшышхэт /sʃəʃxat/ - I will eat there → сшышхэрасэ /sʃəʃxaraːsa/ - the place I often eats.
  • чӏэцӏхьэ /t͡ʃʼat͡sʼħa/ - he sits under → чӏэцӏхьэрасэ /t͡ʃʼat͡sʼħaraːsa/ - the place he often sits under.
  • чӏахьэ /t͡ʃaːħa/ - he enters → чӏэхьэрасэ /t͡ʃaħaraːsa/ - the place he often enters.
мэу шъушимджэгу шъушиджэгу шъушыджэгурасэм
[maw ʃʷəʃimd͡ʒaɡʷ ʃʷəʃid͡ʒaɡʷ ʃʷəʃəd͡ʒaɡʷraːsam]
here don't place (Body position/Pose Conjugation) play the place you often plays.
"Don't play here, play in the place you often plays (said to plural)"
уздэкӏорасэм лӏыжъыхэр макӏох
[wəzdakʷʼaraːsam ɬʼəʐəxar maːkʷʼax]
the place you often goes the old men they go
"the old men go to the place you often goes."

Should have -пхъагъ (-pχaːʁ)[edit]

To indicate an event that the subject should have done and haven't, the suffix -пхъагъ (-pχaːʁ) is added to the verb. This suffix can only be added to verbs in the past tense.

  • мэкӀуагъ /makʷʼaːʁ/ - he went → мэкӀопхъагъ /makʷʼapχaːʁ/ - he should have gone so.
  • сыкӀуагъ /səːkʷʼaːʁ/ - I went → сыкӀопхъагъ /səkʷʼapχaːʁ/ - I should have gone so.
  • тышхагъ /təʃxaːʁ/ - we ata → тышхэпхъагъ /təʃxapχaːʁ/ - we should have eaten.
  • уӏуагъ /wʔʷaːʁ/ - you said → уӏопхъагъ /wʔʷapχaːʁ/ - you should have said so.
сиунэ укъакӏом сидиск къэпхьыпхъагъ
[siwna wqaːkʷʼam sidisk qaphəpχaːʁ]
my house when you came my disk you should have brought it.
"When you came to my house, you should have brought my disk with you"
къэпӏопхъагъ зэрэуимӏэ гущыӏалъэ
[qapʔʷapχaːʁ zarawimʔa ɡʷəɕəʔaːɬa]
you should have said so that you don't have it a dictionary
"You should have said that you don't have a dictionary."

жьэ- (жьэхэ-) (ʑaxa-)[edit]

Designates action directed at something. for example.: жьэхэплъэн /ʑaxapɬan/: to look steadily (at), to stare (at); жьэхэуэн /ʑaaxwan: to shove, to hit/strike somebody or something; to collide (with).

жьэдэ- (ʑada-)[edit]

Designates action performed in or towards the mouth, for example : жьэдэдзэн /ʑadad͡zan: to throw something in the mouth of someone else; жьэдэплъэн /ʑadapɬan/ : to look into somebody else' mouth.

зэ- (za-)[edit]

To indicate a verb that is done by some subjects (more than one) to each other, the suffix зэ- (za-) is added.

  • мэзаон /mazaːwan/ - to fight → зэзэон /zazawan/ - to fight each other.
Шъузэзэонэу шъуфаемэ мэу шъузэмзау
[ʃʷəzazawanaw ʃʷəfaːjama maw ʃʷəzamzaːʷ]
You (plural) (to) fight each other if you (plural) want here don't fight each other (said to plural)
"If you wanna fight each other, don't fight here"

зэдэ- (zada-)[edit]

To indicate a verb that is done by some subjects (more than one) together, the suffix зэдэ- (zada-) is added..

  • мэзаон /mazaːwan/ - to fight → зэдэзэон /zadazawan/ - to fight together.
  • мэкӏон /makʷʼan/ - to walk → зэдэкӏон /zadaakʷʼan/ - to walk together.
  • еон /jawan/ - to hit → зэдэон /zadawan/ - to strike together.
  • плъэн /pɬan/ - to look → зэдэплъэн /zadapɬan/ - to look together.
Сиунэ тыкӏони анэм тызэдэшхэт
[siwna təkʷʼani aːnam təzadaʃxat]
my house we will go (in order something to happen) table (erg.) we will eat together
"We will go to my house and we will eat together on the table."
Томымрэ Джекобрэ тестэр зэдашӏы
[toməmra d͡ʒekobra testar zadaːʃʼə]
Tom and Jacob the test (arg.) they are doing it together
"Tom and Jacob are doing the test together."

Suffixes and prefixes[edit]

Suffixes and prefixes for verbs, nouns, adverbs and adjectives.

Infinitive suffix - н (- n)[edit]

The Infinitive in the Adyghe language has the Suffix - н (- n). For example:

  • кIо /kʷʼa/ "go" >→ кIон /kʷʼan/ "to go"
  • Iо (Iуэ) /ʔʷa/ "say" → Iон (Iуэн) /ʔʷan/ "to say"
  • ощхэ /waɕxa/ "you are eating" → уыщхэн /wəɕxan/ "you (to) eat"
  • мафэ /maːfa/ - day → мэфэн /mafan/ - to be a day.
  • кӀалэ /t͡ʃaːla/ - boy → кӀэлэн /t͡ʃalan/ - to be a boy.
  • дахэ /daːxa/ - pretty → дэхэн /daxan/ - he/she/it (to) be pretty.
  • кӀэхьы /t͡ʃaħə/ - long → кӀэхьын /t͡ʃaħən/ - he/she/it (to) be long.
цIыфым шъущхэн фай къушъуиIуагъ
[t͡sʼəfəm ʂʷəɕxan faːj qʷəʂʷiʔʷaːʁ]
the person (erg.) (you plural) to eat must he told you (plural)
"the person told you, you must eat"
Лъэпкъу узыхэсым ыбзэ пшIэн фае
[ɬapqʷəw wəzəxasəm əbza pʃʼan faːja]
People/Ethnic group (inv) the people you live among (erg.) their language (you) to know must
"You have to know the language of the people, among which you live"
пшъашъэр дэхэн фай
[pʂaːʂar daxan faːj]
the girl (abs.) to be pretty must/have to
"the girl must be pretty"
"the girl have to be pretty"
тиунэ укъихьэн фэшӀкӀэ укӀэлэн фай
[tiwna wqiħan faʂʼt͡ʃʼa wt͡ʃʼalan faːj]
our house (to) you come in for him (ins.) you (to) be boy must/have to
"to come inside our house, you have to be a boy"
"to come inside our house, you must be a boy"

Future Tense Suffix -ну (-nəw):

сэ къосIону сыфай
[sa qəsʔʷanəw səfaːj]
i I (to) tell you I want
"I want to tell you"
цIыфым шъущхэну къушъуиIуагъ
[t͡sʼafəm ʂʷəɕxanəw qʷəʂʷiʔʷaːʁ]
the person (erg.) you (plural) (to) eat (inv.) he told you (plural)
"the person told you, to eat (plural)"

Negative Prefix (мы~) (mə~)[edit]

It is posited most often before root of verb, after all other prefixes.

  • кIо /kʷʼa/ "go" → уымыкIу /wəməkʷʼ/ "don't go"
  • Iо (Iуэ) /ʔʷa/ "say" → уымыIу /wəməʔʷ/ "don't say"
  • шъущх /ʂʷɕx/ "eat (plural)" → шъумыщх /ʂʷəməɕx/ "don't eat (plural)"

When to use this Prefix :

  • In Imperative case (To order someone to do a certain verb) - умыкӀу /wəməkʷʼ/ "don't go".
  • In case to use together with the suffixes -ми (-mi), -эм (-am), -мэ (-ma), -ыу (-əw) and -и (-i) - умыкӀомэ /wəmkʷʼama/ "if you don't go", умыкӀорагъоми /wəmkʷʼaraːʁʷami/ "even if you don't want to go", мамкӀуу /maːmkʷʼəw/ "while he didn't want to go".
  • In Infinitive suffix - мэмкӀон /wamkʷʼan/ "to not go".
Ащтыу умышI!
[aːɕtu wməʂʼ]
like that don't do it
"Do not do this"
Ащтыу шъущымыт!
[aːɕtu ʂʷəɕəmət]
like that (inv.) don't stand (plural)
"Don't stand like that (Said to several people)"
"Don't be like that (Said to several people)"
зыгори ащ ешъумыIу
[zəɡʷari aːɕ jaʂʷəməʔʷ]
something him/that don't tell him (plural)
"Do not tell him anything"
укъэмыкӀу сиунэ
[wəqaməkʷʼ siwna]
don't come my house
"don't come to my house"

Can not be used simultaneously both Negative Prefix (мы~) (mə~) mand Negative Suffix (-п) (-p).

Root Tense Forms
If Even if
мэкIуагъ Past мэмкIуагъэмэ мэмкIуагъэми
макIо Present мамкIомэ мамкIоми
мэкIот Future мэмкIотьмэ мэмкIотьми
мэкIогъагъ Fourth мэмкIогъагъэмэ мэмкIогъагъэми

The negative suffix (~эп) (~ap)[edit]

The Negation Suffix ~п (~p) usually follows all other suffixes and it's ~рэп (~rap) when the verb is present tense:

  • мэкӀуагъ /makʷʼaːʁ/ - he went → мэкӀуагъэп /makʷʼaːʁap/ - "he did not go".
  • окIо /wakʷʼa/ "you are going" → уыкIорэп /wəkʷʼarap/ "you are not going"
  • тыкӀот /təkʷʼat/ - we will go → тыкӀотэп /təkʷʼatap/ - "we will not go".
  • сэIо /saʔʷa/ "I am saying" → сыIорэп /səʔʷarap/ "I am not saying"
  • шъущхагъ /ʂʷəɕxaːʁ/ "you (plural) ate" → шъущхагъэп /ʂʷəɕxaːʁap/ "you (plural) didn't ate"
  • мафэ /maːfa/ - day → мафэп /maːfap/ - it's not a day.
  • кӀалэ /t͡ʃaːla/ - boy → кӀалэп /t͡ʃaːlap/ - it's not a boy.
  • дахэ /daːxa/ - pretty → дахэп /daːxap/ - he/she/it is not pretty.
  • кӀэхьы /t͡ʃaħə/ - long → кӀэхьэп /t͡ʃaħai/ - he/she/it is not long.
Ахэр къэкIуагъэхэп!
Ахэ-эр къэ-кӀо-агъ-эх-эп!
[aːxar qakʷʼaːʁaxap]
the those (erg.) they didn't come
"they didn't come"
Непэ къaкIощтэп
[napa aːr qakʷʼaɕtap]
today it he can't come
"today he can't come"
мэр къикӀтэп
[mar qikʲʼtap]
this will not come out
"This will not work"

The word къикӀын has two meanings: "to come out" or "to work" [qikʲʼən]. "to work" refers to plans, bets, and possibilities. "to come out" refers to come out of something like rooms, doors, or buildings.

Can not be used simultaneously both Infinitive Suffix - н (- n) and Negative Suffix (-эп) (-ap).

Can not be used simultaneously both Negative Suffix (-эп) and (-мэ) (-ми) (-и) Suffixes.

Root Tense Forms
With Positive (want) For Possible (Capable) Impetus
мэкIуагъэп Past дэкIуагъэп мэкIорэгъуагъэп фэкIуагъэп мэкIошъутыгъэп егъэкIуагъэп
макIорэп Present дакIорэп мэкIорагъоп факIорэп мэкIошъурэп егъакIорэп
мэкIотэп Future дэкIотэп мэкIорэгъот фэкIотэп мэкIошъутэп егъэкIотэп
мэкIогъагъэп Fourth дэкIогъагъэп мэкIорэгъуэгъагъэп фэкIогъагъэп мэкIошъутыгъагъэп егъэкIогъагъэп

Positive suffix (~рагъу) (raːʁʷ)[edit]

To express a present wish to do something, the suffix (~рагъу) (~raːʁʷ) is used. For past tense, the suffix (~рэгъуагъ) (~raʁʷaːʁ) is used. For future tense, the suffix (~рэгъот) (~raʁʷat) is used. For example:

  • сэкIо /sakʷʼa/ "I am going" → сыкIорагъу /səkʷʼaraːʁʷ/ "I want to go/.
  • ущхагъ /wəɕxaːʁ/ "you ate" → ущхарэгъуагъ /wəɕxaraʁʷaːʁ/ "you wanted to eat".
  • мэплъэт /mapɬat/ "he will look" → мэплъэрэгъот /mapɬaraʁʷat/ "he will want to look".
  • плъыжьы /pɬəʑə/ - red → плъыжьырагъу /pɬəʑəraːʁʷ/ - he/she/it want to be red.
  • кӀалэ /t͡ʃaːla/ - boy → кӀэлэрагъу /t͡ʃalaraːʁʷ/ - he/she/it want to be a boy.
  • дахэ /daːxa/ - pretty → дэхэрагъу /daxaraːʁʷ/ - he/she/it want to be pretty.
  • кӀэхьы /t͡ʃaħə/ - long → кӀэхьырагъу /t͡ʃaħəraːʁʷ/ - he/she/it want to be long.
кӀалэр пшъашъэм иунэ мэкӀорагъоп
кӀалэ-эр пшъашъэ-эм и-унэ мэ-кӀо-рагъу-эп
[t͡ʃʼaːlar pʂaːʂam jəwna makʷʼaraːʁʷap]
the boy (abs.) the girl (erg.) his house he don't want to go
"the boy don't want to go to the girl's house"
дышъэм фэдыу пшъашъэр дэхэрагъу
[dəʂam fadəw pʂaːʂar daxaraːʁʷ]
the gold (erg.) like him the girl (abs.) he wants to be pretty
"the girl wants to be pretty like a gold"
лӀым фэдыу скIочIэрэгъуагъ
[ɬʼəm fadəw səkʷʼat͡ʃʼaraʁʷaːʁ]
the man (erg.) like him I wanted to be strong
"I wanted to be strong like the man"
Root Tense Forms
With For Negative Possible (Capable) If Even if
мэкIорэгъуагъ Past дэкIорэгъуагъ фэкIорэгъуагъ мэкIорэгъуагъэп мэкIорэгъошъутэгъ мэкIорэгъуагъэмэ мэкIорэгъуагъэми
мэкIорагъу Present дэкIорагъу фэкIорагъу мэкIорагъоп мэкIорэгъошъу мэкIорэгъомэ мэкIорэгъоми
мэкIорэгъот Future дэкIорэгъот фэкIорэгъот мэкIорэгъотэп мэкIорэгъошъут мэкIорэгъотмэ мэкIорэгъотми
мэкIорэгъуэгъагъ Fourth дэкIорэгъогъагъ фэкIорэгъогъагъ мэкIорэгъуэгъагъэп мэкIорэгъошъутыгъагъ мэкIорэгъогъагъэмэ мэкIорэгъогъагъэми

Completion Suffix -гъах (-ʁaːx)[edit]

To indicate a completed verb, the suffix -гъах (-ʁaːx) is used.

  • сэкIо /sakʷʼa/ "I am going" → сыкIогъах /səkʷʼaʁaːx/ "I already went.
  • ощхэ /waɕxa/ "you are eating" → ущхэгъах /wəɕxaʁaːx/ "you already ate".
  • мафэ /maːfa/ - day → мэфэгъах /mafaʁaːx/ - it was already day.
  • кӀалэ /t͡ʃaːla/ - boy → кӀэлэгъах /t͡ʃalaʁaːx/ - he was already a boy.
  • дахэ /daːxa/ - pretty → дэхэгъах /daxaʁaːx/ - he/she/it was already pretty.
  • кӀэхьы /t͡ʃaħə/ - long → кӀэхьыгъах /t͡ʃaħəʁaːx/ - he was already long.
кIалэр мэкӀогъах
[t͡ʃaːlar makʷʼaʁaːx]
the boy (abs.) he already went
"the boy already went"
"the boy done going"
тэ теджэгъах иунэкIэ
[ta ted͡ʒaʁaːx jəwnat͡ʃa]
we we already studied with his house
"we already studied in his house"
"we done studding in his house"

To indicate an event that is happening while someone is finishing of doing a certain verb, the suffixes -гъах (-ʁaːx) and -ыу (-əw) are used together. For example:

  • сэкIо /sakʷʼa/ "I am going" → сыкIогъахыу /səkʷʼaʁaːxəw/ "While I done going.
  • ощхэ /waɕxa/ "you are eating" → ущхэгъахыу /wəɕxaʁaːxəw/ "While you done eating".
  • мафэ /maːfa/ - day → мэфэгъахыу /mafaʁaːxəw/ - While it was day.
  • кӀалэ /t͡ʃaːla/ - boy → кӀэлэгъахыу /t͡ʃalaʁaːxəw/ - While it was a boy.
  • дахэ /daːxa/ - pretty → дэхэгъахыу /daxaʁaːxəw/ - While he/she/it was pretty.
  • кӀэхьы /t͡ʃaħə/ - long → кӀэхьыгъахыу /t͡ʃaħəʁaːxəw/ - While he/she/it was long.
сымыщхэгъахыу лаж къысэмыӀу
сы-мы-щхэ-гъах-ыу лаж къы-сэ-мы-Ӏо
[səməɕxaʁaːxəw laːʒ qəsaməʔʷ]
While I am not done eating Work! (Imperative mood) Don't tell me
"While I haven't done eating don't tell me to work"
скӀогъахыу къысаӀуагъ
[skʷʼaʁaːxəw qəsaːʔʷaːʁ]
i already done going i saw
"they told me after I already went"

To indicate an event that happened after a completion of a specific verb, it has the Suffix -гъах (-ʁaːx) and -эм (-am). For example:

  • сэкIо /sakʷʼa/ "I am going" → сыкIогъахэм /səkʷʼaʁaːxam/ "When I already done going.
  • ощхэ /waɕxa/ "you are eating" → ущхэгъахэм /wəɕxaʁaːxam/ "When you already done eating".
  • мафэ /maːfa/ - day → мэфэгъахэм /mafaʁaːxam/ - When it was already a day.
  • кӀалэ /t͡ʃaːla/ - boy → кӀэлэгъахэм /t͡ʃalaʁaːxam/ - When it was already a boy.
  • дахэ /daːxa/ - pretty → дэхэгъахэм /daxaʁaːxam/ - When he/she/it was already pretty.
  • кӀэхьы /t͡ʃaħə/ - long → кӀэхьыгъахэм /t͡ʃaħəʁaːxam/ - When he/she/it was already long.
сылэжэгъахэм сылъэгъогъ кIалэр
сы-лажэ-гъах-эм сы-лъэгъу-эгъ кIалэр
[slaʒaʁaːxam sɬaʁʷaʁ t͡ʃaːlar]
when i done working I saw the boy (abs.)
"When i done working I saw the boy"

To indicate a verb that still wasn't completed, it has the Suffix -гъах (-ʁaːx) and the Negative Suffix (~эп) (~ap) together.

  • сэкIо /sakʷʼa/ "I am going" → сыкIогъахэп /səkʷʼaʁaːxap/ "I still haven't done going.
  • ощхэ /waɕxa/ "you are eating" → ущхэгъахэп /wəɕxaʁaːxap/ "You still haven't done eating".
кIалэр мэкӀогъахэп
[t͡ʃaːlar makʷʼaʁaːxap]
the boy (abs.) he didn't done going
"the boy haven't done going"
сыщхэгъахэп дэхьэ
[səɕxaʁaxap daħa]
I haven't done eating Still
"I still haven't done eating"

Can (Capable) Suffix -шъу (-ʂʷə)[edit]

To indicate that an something or someone can or is capable of doing a certain verb, it has the Suffix -шъогъ (-ʂʷaʁ) for past tense, the Suffix -шъу (-ʂʷə) for present tense, the Suffix -шъут (-ʂʷət) for future tense and the Suffix -шъутыгъагъ (-ʂʷtəʁaːʁ) for the forth tense. The Suffix -шъутэгъ (-ʂʷtaʁ) is add in case someone was capable of doing a certain verb and he haven't.

  • мэкӀуагъ /makʷʼaːʁ/ - he went → мэкӀошъогъ /makʷʼaʂʷaʁ/ - he could go.
  • мэкӀуагъ /makʷʼaːʁ/ - he went → мэкӀошъутэгъ /makʷʼaʂʷtaʁ/ - he could have gone.
  • макӀо /maːkʷʼa/ - he is going → мэкӀошъу /makʷʼaʂʷə/ - he is capable of going.
  • тыкӀот /təkʷʼat/ - we will go → тыкӀошъут /təkʷʼaʂʷət/ - we will be capable of going.
  • мафэ /maːfa/ - day → мэфэшъут /mafaʂʷət/ - it can be a day.
  • кӀалэ /t͡ʃaːla/ - boy → кӀэлэшъут /t͡ʃalaʂʷət/ - he can be a boy.
  • дахэ /daːxa/ - pretty → дэхэшъут /daxaʂʷət/ - it can be pretty.
  • кӀэхьы /t͡ʃaħə/ - long → кӀэхьышъут /t͡ʃaħəʂʷət/ - it can be long.
лӏыжъэр цыкум мэкӏошъогъ тэрэзэу
[ɬʼəʐar t͡ʃəkʷəm makʷʼaʂʷaʁ tarazaw]
old man (abs.) when he was little He could go/walk correctly
"When the old man was little he could go correctly"
унэм уехьэм псы къэсфэпхьышъутэгъ
унэ-эм у-ехьэ-эм псы къэ-с-фэ-п-хьы-шъутэгъ
[wənam wajħam psə qapħəʂʷtaʁ]
house (erg.) when you entered the house water you could have bring me
"When you entered the water you could have bring me the water."
кӏалэр мэкӏошъутыгъи мэкӏуагъ
[t͡ʃaːlar makʷʼaʂʷtəʁi makʷʼaːʁ]
the boy (abs.) because he was capable of going he went
"because the boy was capable of going he went"
кӏалэм бэнанэр къыфэщхышъурэп
кӏалэ-эм бэнанэ-эр къы-фэ-щхы-шъу-рэп
[t͡ʃaːlam banaːnar qəfaɕxəʂʷrap]
the boy (erg.) the banana (abs.) he is not capable anymore to eat it
"the boy is not capable anymore to eat the dinner"
пшъашъэм зэпсэо къыщытхъушъутых дахэу мэзакӏомэ
пшъашъэ-эм зэпсэо къы-щытхъу-шъут-ых дахэ-эу мэзакӏо-мэ
[pʂaːʂam zapsawa qəɕətχʷəʂʷtəx daːxaw mazaːkʷʼama]
the girl (erg.) everybody/all they can be amazed from him/her beautifully/kindly If (s)he behave
"Everybody could be amazed if the girl behave kindly"
Root Tense Forms
Negative Positive (want) With For If Even if
мэкIошъутэгъ Past мэкIошъутыгъэп мэкIошъутэгъэрэгъуагъ дэкIошъутэгъ фэкIошъутэгъ мэкIошъутыгъэмэ мэкIошъутыгъэми
мэкIошъу Present мэкIошъурэп мэкIошъурэгъу дэкIошъу фэкIошъу мэкIошъумэ мэкIошъуми
мэкIошъут Future мэкIошъутэп - дэкIошъут фэкIошъут мэкIошъутымэ мэкIошъутыми
мэкIошъутыгъагъ Fourth мэкIошъутыгъагъэп мэкIошъутырэгъуэгъагъ дэкIошъутыгъагъ фэкIошъутыгъагъ мэкIошъутыгъагъэмэ мэкIошъутыгъагъэми

Even if Suffix -ми (-mi)[edit]

To indicate an event that will happen even if something/someone do a specific verb, it has the Suffix -ми (-mi).

  • мэкӀуагъ /makʷʼaːʁ/ - he went → мэкӀуагъэми /makʷʼaːʁami/ - even if he went.
  • сакӀо /saːkʷʼa/ - I am going → сыкӀоми /səkʷʼami/ - even if I am going.
  • тыкӀот /təkʷʼat/ - we will go → тыкӀотми /təkʷʼatmi/ - even if we will go.
  • мафэ /maːfa/ - day → мафэми /maːfami/ - even if it's a day.
  • кӀалэ /t͡ʃaːla/ - boy → кӀалэми /t͡ʃaːlami/ - even if it's a boy.
  • дахэ /daːxa/ - pretty → дахэми /daːxami/ - even if he/she/it is pretty.
  • кӀэхьы /t͡ʃaħə/ - long → кӀэхьыми /t͡ʃaħəmi/ - even if he/she/it is long.
кIалэм епӀуагъэми къодэӀутэп
[t͡ʃaːlam japʔʷaːʁami qʷadaʔʷtap]
the boy (erg.) even if you told him he will not listen to you
"even if you told the boy he will still not listen to you"
кIалэр мэкӀошъутыми нэхьышӀу мамкӀомэ
[t͡ʃaːlar makʷʼaʂʷtəmi nahəʃʷʼə maːmkʷʼama]
the boy (abs.) even if he can go (capable of going) it's better if he don't go
"even if the boy is capable can go it's better if he don't go"
улажэми ахъчэ къотытэп
[wlaːʒami aːχt͡ʃa qʷatətap]
even if you work money they will not give you it
"even if you work they will not give you money"
Root Tense Forms
Negative (мы) Positive (want) With For Possible (Capable)
мэкIуагъэми Past мэмкIуагъэми мэкIорэгъуагъэми дэкIуагъэми фэкIуагъэми мэкIошъутыгъэми
макIоми Present мамкIоми мэкIорагъоми дакIоми факIоми мэкIошъуми
мэкIотми Future мэмкIотми мэкIорэгъотми дэкIотми фэкIотми мэкIошъутми
мэкIогъагъэми Fourth мэмкIогъагъэми мэкIорэгъуэгъагъэми дэкIогъагъэми фэкIогъагъэми мэкIошъутыгъагъэми

Can not be used simultaneously both Infinitive Suffix - н (- n) and Suffix -ми (-mi). Can not be used simultaneously both Suffix -мэ (-ma) and Suffix -ми (-mi).

Conditional mood Suffix -мэ (-ma)[edit]

To indicate a result of a certain verb that if someone/something done, doing or will do, it has the Suffix -мэ (-ma).

  • мэкӀуагъ /makʷʼaːʁ/ - he went → мэкӀуагъэмэ /makʷʼaːʁama/ - if he went.
  • сакӀо /saːkʷʼa/ - I am going → сыкӀомэ /səkʷʼama/ - if I am going.
  • тыкӀот /təkʷʼat/ - we will go → тыкӀотмэ /təkʷʼatma/ - if we will go.
  • мафэ /maːfa/ - day → мафэмэ /maːfama/ - if it's a day.
  • кӀалэ /t͡ʃaːla/ - boy → кӀалэмэ /t͡ʃaːlama/ - if it's a boy.
  • дахэ /daːxa/ - pretty → дахэмэ /daːxama/ - if he/she/it is pretty.
  • кӀэхьы /t͡ʃaħə/ - long → кӀэхьымэ /t͡ʃaħəma/ - if he/she/it is long.
кIалэр мэлажэмэ ахъчэ къыратыт
[t͡ʃaːlar malaːʒama aːχt͡ʃa qəraːtət]
the boy (abs.) if he work money they will give him
"if the boy work they will give him money"
уысмаджэу удэкIмэ нэхьйыу усмэджэт
[wəmaːd͡ʒaw wdat͡ʃma naħjəw wəsmad͡ʒat]
while you are sick if you go out even more you will get sick
"if you go out while you are sick, you will get even more sick"
уыкIорагъомэ унэм икIый кIо
[wəkʷʼaraːʁʷama wənam jət͡ʃəj kʷʼa]
if you want to go house get out (in order for something to happen) go!
"if you want to go, get out from the house and go"
Root Tense Forms
Negative (мы) Positive (want) With For Possible (Capable)
мэкIуагъэмэ Past мэмкIуагъэмэ мэкIорэгъуагъэмэ дэкIуагъэмэ фэкIуагъэмэ мэкIошъутыгъэмэ
макIомэ Present мамкIомэ мэкIорагъомэ дакIомэ факIомэ мэкIошъумэ
мэкIотмэ Future мэмкIотмэ мэкIорэгъотмэ дэкIотмэ фэкIотмэ мэкIошъутмэ
мэкIогъагъэмэ Fourth мэмкIогъагъэмэ мэкIорэгъуэгъагъэмэ дэкIогъагъэмэ фэкIогъагъэмэ мэкIошъутыгъагъэмэ

Can not be used simultaneously both the suffix -мэ (-ma) and the suffix -ми (-mi).

Completion and its results Suffix -и (-i)[edit]

To indicate an event that is occurring or will occur or occurred because of a certain verb, it has the suffix -и (-i). In this case the verb is also the reason why the event occurred. When used in Imperative mood (form of a command or request) it is to describe an event that will happen when the listener will do the command or request.

  • мэкӀуагъ /makʷʼaːʁ/ - he went → мэкӀуагъи /makʷʼaːʁi/ - because he went.
  • сакӀо /saːkʷʼa/ - I am going → сыкӀуи /səkʷʼi/ - because I am going.
  • тыкӀот /təkʷʼat/ - we will go → тыкӀоти /təkʷʼati/ - because we will go.
  • мафэ /maːfa/ - day → мафи /maːfi/ - because it's a day.
  • кӀалэ /t͡ʃaːla/ - boy → кӀали /t͡ʃaːli/ - because it's a boy.
  • дахэ /daːxa/ - pretty → дахи /daːxi/ - because he/she/it is pretty.
  • кӀэхьы /t͡ʃaħə/ - long → кӀэхьи /t͡ʃaħi/ - because he/she/it is long.

Imperative case examples :

кӀуи кIалэр улъэгъут
[kʷʼi t͡ʃaːlar wɬaʁʷət]
go (in order for the event to occur) the boy (abs.) you will see it
"go and you will see the boy"
лажи ахъчэ къуатыт
[laːʒi aːχt͡ʃa qʷaːtət]
work (in order for the event to occur) money they will give you money
"work and they will give you money"

Other examples :

кIалэр мэкӀоти цуакъэхэр щилъагъэх
[t͡ʃaːlar makʷʼati t͡sʷaːqaxarax t͡ʃaːlar]
the boy (abs.) because he's going to go the shoes (abs.) he wear them
"the boy put the shoes because he was going to go"
пшъашъэр дахи кIалэхэр къеплъых
[pʂaːʂar daːxi t͡ʃaːlaxar qepɬəx]
the girl (abs.) because he/she is pretty the boys (abs.) they are looking at it
"because the girl is pretty, the boys looking at her"
кIалэр мэкӀожьи бэнанэ къэсфихьэгъ
[t͡ʃaːlar makʷʼaʑi banaːna qasfiħaʁ]
the boy (abs.) go back (in order for something to happen) a banana bring it for me.
"the boy went back and brought me a banana"
кIалэр макӀуи пшъашъэр илъэгъогъ
[t͡ʃaːlar makʷʼi pʂaːʂar jəɬaʁʷaʁʷ]
boy (abs.) he went and girl (abs.) he saw it
"The boy went and (then) saw the girl"
кIалэм мые ищхи , тиунэ къэкӀуагъ
[t͡ʃaːlam [məja jəɕxi tiwna qakʷʼaːʁ]
the boy (erg.) apple he ate and our house he came
"the boy ate a apple and (then) came to our house"
Root Tense Forms
Negative (мы) Positive (want) With For Possible (Capable)
мэкIуагъи Past мэмкIуагъи мэкIорэгъуагъи дэкIуагъи фэкIуагъи мэкIошъутыгъи
макIоми Present мамкIоми мэкIорагъоми дакIоми факIоми мэкIошъуми
мэкIотми Future мэмкIотми мэкIорэгъотми дэкIотми фэкIотми мэкIошъутми
мэкIогъагъэми Fourth мэмкIогъагъэми мэкIорэгъуэгъагъэми дэкIогъагъэми фэкIогъагъэми мэкIошъутыгъагъэми

Suffix -нэхь (-naħ)[edit]

To point out something that is unknown to the listener(s), the suffix -нэхь (-naħ) is added to a word. It is also used to indicate something that the listener(s) thinks is the opposite or disagrees about with the speaker.

  • мэкӀуагъ /makʷʼaːʁ/ - he went → мэкӀуагъэнэхь /makʷʼaːʁanaħ/ - actually he went.
  • сакӀо /saːkʷʼa/ - I am going →, сакӀонэхь /saːkʷʼnaħ/ - actually I am going.
  • тыкӀот /təkʷʼat/ - we will go → тыкӀотнэхь /təkʷʼatnaħ/ - actually we will go.
  • мафэ /maːfa/ - day → мафэнэхь /maːfanaħ/ - actually it's a day.
  • кӀалэ /t͡ʃaːla/ - boy → кӀалэнэхь /t͡ʃaːlanaħ/ - actually it's a boy.
  • дахэ /daːxa/ - pretty → дахэнэхь /daːxanaħ/ - actually he/she/it is pretty.
  • кӀэхьы /t͡ʃaħə/ - long → кӀэхьнэхь /t͡ʃaħanaħ/ - actually he/she/it is long.
  • In a case the listener(s) don't know it's a day now
мафэнэхь хьыдж
[maːfanaħ ħəd͡ʒ]
It's day Now
"It's (actually) day now"
  • In a case the listener(s) don't know if the boy capable to run
кIалэр мэчӀэшъутынэхь
кIалэ-р мэчӀэ-шъуыт-нэхь
[t͡ʃaːlar mat͡ʃaʂʷtənaħ]
the boy (abs.) he is capable to run
"the boy is (actually) capable to run"
  • In a case the listener(s) don't think the girl is pretty
пшъашъэр дахэнэхь
pʂaːʂar] daːxanaħ]
girl (abs.) it's (actually) pretty
"that girl is (actually) pretty"

The until suffix -нэс (-nas)[edit]

Verbs:

  • мэкӀуагъ /makʷʼaːʁ/ - he went, мэкӀуагъэнэс /makʷʼaːʁanas/ - until he went.
  • сакӀо /saːkʷʼa/ - I am going, сыкӀонэс /səkʷʼnas/ - until I go.

Note that there is no future tense for this suffix.

Nouns, adverbs and adjectives:

  • кӀалэ /t͡ʃaːla/ - boy (kʷʼa) → кӀалэнэс /t͡ʃaːlanas/ - until it is a boy
  • мафэ /maːfa/ - day → мафэнэс /maːfanas/ - until it is day
  • фабэ /faːba/ - hot → фабэнэс /faːbanas/ - until it is hot
  • шъуцӀэ /ʂʷət͡sʼa/ - black → шъуцӀэнэс /ʂʷət͡sʼanas/ - until it is black
  • сыкӀуачӀэ /ʂəkʷʼaːt͡ʃʼa/ - I am strong → сыкӀуачӀэнэс /ʂəkʷʼaːt͡ʃʼanas/ - until I am strong
  • мафэ /maːfa/ - day → мафэнэс /maːfanas/ - until it's a day.
  • кӀалэ /t͡ʃaːla/ - boy → кӀалэнэс /t͡ʃaːlanas/ - until it's a boy.
  • дахэ /daːxa/ - pretty → дахэнэс /daːxanas/ - until he/she/it is pretty.
  • кӀэхьы /t͡ʃaħə/ - long → кӀэхьынэс /t͡ʃaħənas/ - until he/she/it is long.
кӀалэр макӀонэс скӀотэп
[t͡ʃaːlar maːkʷʼanas səkʷʼatap]
boy (abs.) until he go I will not go
"I will not go until the boy is going"
кӀалэр къакӀонэс зыб ригъэхьра?
[t͡ʃaːlar qaːkʷʼanas zəb riʁaħraː]
boy (abs.) until he is coming a lot he is taking (time)
"It's taking so long until the boy is coming"
чэщынэс лаж
[t͡ʃaɕənas laːʒ]
until it's night work!
"work until the night"

Prefix (шӏо-) (ʃʷa-)[edit]

It's mostly used in adjectives. This is not very common in nouns and are not used in adverbs at all.

Examples:

  • дахэ /daːxa/ - pretty → шӏодах /ʂʷadaːx/ - it's pretty for him.
  • дэхагъ /daxaːʁ/ - was pretty → шӏодэхагъ /ʂʷadaxaːʁ/ - it was pretty for him.
  • дэхэт /daxat/ - will be pretty → шӏодэхэт /ʂʷadaxat/ - it will be pretty for him.
  • ашӀу /ʔaːʃʷʼə/ - tasty → cшӏоӀашӀу /səʂʷaʔaːʃʷʼ/ - it's tasty for me.
  • дэгъу /daʁʷə/ - good → яшӏодэгъу /jaːʂʷadaʁʷ/ - it's good for them.
  • мафэ /maːfa/ - day → шӏомаф /ʂʷamaːfa/ - it's day for them.
пшъашъэм кIалэр шӏодах
[pʂaːʂam t͡ʃʼaːlar ʂʷadaːx]
the girl (erg.) the boy (abs.) it's pretty for him/her
"the boy is pretty for the girl"
мы бэнанэм иуасэ пшӏобэхьала?
мы бэнанэ-эм и-уасэ п-шӏо-бэхьал-а?
[mə banaːnam jəwaːsa pʂʷabaħaːla]
this banana (erg.) its cost is it expensive for you?
"Is this banana expensive for you?"
мы кӏалым шӏоӏашӏутэп уидэшхын
мы кӏал -ым шӏо-ӏашӏу-т-эп уи-дэшхын
[mə t͡ʃaːlam ʃʷaʔaːʃʷʼətap widaʃxən]
this boy (erg.) It will not be tasty for him your dinner
"Your dinner will not be tasty for this boy."

Suffix (-гу) (-ɡʷ)[edit]

A verb for a period time has the suffix (-гу) (-ɡʷ).

Verbs:

  • кӀо /kʷʼa/ - go! (kʷʼa) → кӀогу /kʷʼaɡʷ/ - go for now
  • щхэ /ɕxa/ - eat! → щхэгу /ɕxaɡʷ/ - eat for now
  • шыӀ /ʃəʔ/ - exist → шыӀэгу /ʃʼaɡʷ/ - exist for now
  • макӀо /maːkʷʼa/ - he is going (makʷʼa) → макӀогу /maːkʷʼaɡʷ/ - he is going for now
  • мащхэ /maːɕxa/ - he is eating → мащхэгу /maːɕxaɡʷ/ - he is eating for now
  • сэлажэ /salaːʒa/ - i am working → сэлажэго /salaːʒaɡʷa/ - i am working for now

Nouns, adverbs and adjectives:

  • кӀалэ /t͡ʃaːla/ - boy (kʷʼa) → кӀалэгу /t͡ʃaːlaɡʷ/ - it is a boy for now
  • мафэ /maːfa/ - day → мафэгу /maːfaɡʷ/ - it is day for now
  • фабэ /faːba/ - hot → фабэгу /faːbaɡʷ/ - it is hot for now
  • шъуцӀэ /ʂʷət͡sʼa/ - black → шъуцӀэгу /ʂʷət͡sʼaɡʷ/ - it is black for now
  • сыкӀуачӀэ /ʂəkʷʼaːt͡ʃʼa/ - I am strong → сыкӀуачӀэгу /ʂəkʷʼaːt͡ʃʼaɡʷ/ - I am strong for now
умкӏогу томым иунэ
у-мы-кӏо-гу том-ым и-унэ
[wəmkʷʼaɡʷ toməm jəwna]
Don't go for now Tom (erg.) His house
"Don't go to Tom's house for now"
еджэгу сыкъэкӀожьынэс
еджэ-гу сы-къэ-кӀо-жьы-нэс
[jad͡ʒaɡʷ səqakʷʼaʑənas]
study for now until I come back
"study until I come back"
джэгуалъэм сыриджэгурагъогу
[d͡ʒaɡʷaːɬam sərid͡ʒaɡʷraːʁʷaɡʷ]
the toy (erg.) I want to play it for now
"I want to play the toy for now"

The all suffix (-кӀупэ) (-kʷʼəpa)[edit]

Nouns, adverbs and adjectives:

  • кӀалэ /t͡ʃaːla/ - boy (kʷʼa) → кӀалэкӀупэ /t͡ʃaːlakʷʼəpa/ - all the boys
  • мафэ /maːfa/ - day → мафэкӀупэ /maːfakʷʼəpa/ - all the days
  • фабэ /faːba/ - hot → фабэкӀупэ /faːbakʷʼəpa/ - all the heat
  • кӀуачӀэ /kʷʼaːt͡ʃʼa/ - strong → кӀуачӀэкӀупэ /kʷʼaːt͡ʃʼakʷʼəpa/ - all the strong people
кӀалэкӀупэр тиунэ къакӀо
[t͡ʃaːlakʷʼəpar tiwna qaːkʷʼa]
all the boys (abs.) our house he is coming
"all the boys are coming to our house"
пшъашъэкӀупэм еӀо ар
[pʂaːʂakʷʼəpam jaʔʷa ʔaːr]
all the girls (erg.) he is saying that
"all the girls are saying that"

Adverbs[edit]

The Adverbs can be formed from different speech elements by gaining suffix ~эу (-aw) or ~у (-u): From verbs: ГумэкIын - beware, МыгумэкIыху - unflappable, Джэгун - Play, Джэгуну - playing, Щысын- sits, Щысу - sitting. For example: Щысу илъэгъогъ - he saw white sitting, мэджэгуну мэчIагъ - he ran white playing.

From adjectives: тэрэз - correct, Тэрэзу тхы! - write correctly, рэхьат - calm, рэхьату - calmly, псынкIэ - quick, псынкIу - quickly.

From other speech elements: ежь - itself (jaʑ), Ежь-ежьэрэу иIофыр къэгъэухыгъ – He (she) has finished his (her) work by himself (herself).

The following adverbs are not formed from another words:

Place adverbs[edit]

Such as: мыдэ, mode, моджэ here, мыдыджэ here, мэу here.

удэ, удыджэ, ауджэ - (there, there) different with comparative vicinity degree: удэ къэкIорэр тигъунэгъу - Here goes our neighbour (wda qakʷʼarar tiʁʷnaʁʷ).

Tense adverbs[edit]

непэ - today, тыгъубсэ or тыгъуасэ - yesterday, нэущы - tomorrow, едэдэм - presently, ыужым or иужым or икънэуыж - after, етIубнэ or етIонэ – afterwards, жъу or пасу – early, лъэжъуагъу - late.

Нэпэ ap къэкIотэп - Today he will not come, Тыгъуасэ тызытегущыIагъэм угу къэкIыжьа? – Do You remember, what we talked about yesterday?, Неущы тыкIот ауджэ - Tomorrow we will go there, Пчэджэм жъэу сэкъэтэджагъ – I got up early in the morning.

Number adverbs[edit]

мбкIэу or тэку or маӀу - few, бэ - much, a lot, бэр’э - often/long, бэщагъ’у - long ago.

МакIэу Iо, бэу шIэ – Talk less, do a more, Ащ бэрэ лъэхъугъ, ау къыгъотыжьыгъэп – I had been looking for him for a long time, but I did not find him, Нахь бэрэ уIущхыпцыкIынэу сэфай - I want you to smile more often, Бэшъагъу оу слъэгъугъэп - I have not seen you for a long time.

Pronouns[edit]

Personal pronouns[edit]

Pronoun Adyghe language
Cyrillic IPA
I сэ sa
you (singular) о (уэ) wa
we тэ ta
you (plural) шъо ʂʷa
he, she, it, itself ежь jaʑ
they, them-self ежьхэ jaʑxa
he, she, it, that (Absolutive case) ар, ор, дыор, мэр, джэр, дымэр aːr, war, dəwar, mar, d͡ʒar, dəmar
they, them, those (Absolutive case) ахэр, охэр, дыухэр, мэхэр, джэхэр, дымэхэр aːxar, waxar, dəwaxar, maxar, d͡ʒaxar, dəmaxar
he, she, it, that (Ergative case) ащ, ущ, дыуыщ, мыщ, джэщ, дымыщ aːɕ, wəɕ, dəwəɕ, məɕ, d͡ʒaɕ, dəməɕ
they, them, those (Ergative case) ахэмэ, охэмэ, дыухэмэ, мэхэмэ, джэхэмэ, дымхэмэ aːxama, waxama, dəwaxama, maxama, d͡ʒaxama, dəmxama

Like nouns, personal pronouns take one of the follow four cases: absolutive, ergative, instrumental, and invertive.

сэ - I, сэркIэ - me, for me, by me, сэру - for me, by me, o/уэ - you, орыкIэ – for you, by you, ору - for you, by you, ap – he (she), аркIэ, ащкIэ - for him (her), by him (her), ару - for him (her), by him (her), тэ - we, тэркIэ – us, тэру - us, шъо шъощ – You (plural form), шъоркIэ you, for you, by you, шъору- for you, by you, ахэр ахэмэ - they, ахэмкIэ – by them, аху - by them.

Examples: Сэ o къыосIуагъ - I said to you, Сэ ap къэсэлъэIугъ - I asked him (her), O уятэ къыоIуагъа? – Did you say to your father? [You your-father once-you- say-did], Ащ еупкI – Ask him, Ащ ыIорэр сэркIэ тIуейзы – All he says, is not important for me, Ахэр бо Iэшъу аIу – People say they are very tasty.

Possessive pronouns[edit]

Significies the attribute of subject: сэсый - mine, оуий - yours, ащий – his, hers, тэтый - ours, шъошъуий - yours, яий - theirs.

Varied on the same principle, as noun, verbs, adjectives etc.: Мы ощыр сэсый - this axe is mine, Мы унэр тэтый - this house is ours, Мы къамыр оуий - this dagger is Yours, Мы лагъэхэр шъошъуиех - these plates are Yours.

The indefinite pronoun[edit]

In Adyghe whole one - зыгорэ.[clarification needed] Serves for indication of all notions corresponding to English words "someone", "something", "someone", "something", "sometime", "somewhere", and etc.

Changes either as noun – in number and in cases:

Case Ending Singular form Plural form
Absolutive -r зыгорэ /zəɡʷara/ зыгорэхэр /zəɡʷaraxar/
Ergative -m зыгорэм /zəɡʷaram/ зыгорэхэм /zəɡʷaraxam/
Instrumental -kӀэ -t͡ʃa or -мkӀэ -mt͡ʃa зыгорэ(м)кIэ /zəɡʷara(m)t͡ʃa/ зыгорэхэ(м)кIэ /zəɡʷaraxa(m)t͡ʃa/
Invertive -эу -aw зыгорэу /zəɡʷaraw/ зыгорэхэу /zəɡʷaraxaw/

Зыгорэ къэшъотх – Write something, Зыгорэ къэкIуагъ – Someone has come, Зыгорэм уеупкIын фае – You need to ask somebody, Зыгорэм сэкъэкIощт - I will come someday, НекIоба, зыгорэм тыкIощт – Come on, we’ll go somewhere, Непэ ap тадэжи къэкIот. - Today he (she) will come to us.

зыгорэ макIоу слъэгъогъ
[zəɡʷara maːkʷʼaw sɬaʁʷaʁ]
someone (abs.) while he is going I saw
"I saw someone going"
кIалэгорэм бэнанэр ещхы
[t͡ʃaːlaɡʷaram banaːna jaɕxə]
some boy (erg.) the banana (abs.) he eats
"some boy is eating the banana"
пшъэшъэ дахэгорэм мэр къысиIуагъ
[pʂaʂa daːxaɡʷaram mar qəsiʔʷaːʁ]
girl some pretty (erg.) this he/she told me
"some pretty girl told me this"

Generalization pronouns[edit]

сыдри сыди (Abadzekh), лъэури лъэуи (some Shapsugs), щыдри щыди (Bzhedug): each (not about human), хэтри хэти - each (about human), зэкIэ or зэпсэо - all, ежь - itself, ежьхэ - themself.

Х’этри инас’ып ежеж’эу х’ехы - Each one chooses his fate by himself, Сыдри цIыфри дэгъурэ дэирэ епIолъэн плъэкIыт - About each person it’s possible to say as bad as good.

Determiner[edit]

Adyghe has three determiners: а (ʔaː), ду (dəw) and мэ or мы (mə).

а (ʔaː)

  1. that
    а бэнанэthat banana
    а пшъашъэthat girl
    а кӀалэм еӀоthat boy is saying
  • The determiner а usually refer to a referent that is invisible (not seen by the speaker or by the listener(s)) to both the speaker and the listener(s) and far away from them.

гьэ (gʲa) or джэ (d͡ʒa)

  1. that
    джэ бэнанэthat banana
    джэ пшъашъэthat girl
    джэ кӀалэм еӀоthat boy is saying
  • The determiner джэ refer to a referent that can be both visible and invisible. This determiner is used when the speaker wants to show and to give a strong impression that this is the referent that he talks about and refer to.

у (wə)

  1. that
    у бэнанэthat banana
    у пшъашъэthat girl
    у кӀалэм еӀоthat boy is saying
  • The determiner у refer to a referent that is visible to both the speaker and the listener(s) (both the speaker and the listener(s) can see the referent). Usually this determiner is used when the speaker knowns that the listener(s) is/are aware who is the referent he talks about or refer to.

уду (wədəw)

  1. that (over there)
    уду бэнанэthat banana over there
    уду пшъашъэthat girl over there
    уду кӀалэм еӀоthat boy over there is saying
    уду цӀыфэр улъэгъуа? — Do you see that person over there?
  • The determiner ду refer to a referent that is also visible. Unlike the determiner у (wə), this determiner is used when the listener(s) aren't aware who is the referent. It can be used to introduce a new stranger on the street for example. It might be used while pointing one's finger at the people or objects in question.

мыдым (mədəm)

  1. this (over here)
    мыдым бэнанэthis banana over here
    мыдым пшъашъэthis girl over here
    мыдым кӀалэм еӀоthis boy over here is saying
    мыдым цӀыфэр улъэгъуа? — Do you see this person over here?
  • The determiner дым refer to a referent that is visible. This determiner is similar to the determiner ду (dəw). This determiner is used when the listener(s) aren't aware who is the referent and it can be used to introduce a new referent. It also might be used while pointing one's finger at the people or objects in question.

мы (mə)

  1. this
    мы бэнанэthis banana
    мы пшъашъэthis girl
    мы кӀалэм еӀоthis boy is saying
    мы мэгъэthis year
  • The determiner or мы are exactly like the English language determiner this.

тэ (ta)

  1. which
    тэ бэнанэ?which banana?
    тэ пшъашъэ?which girl?
    тэ кӀалэм еӀо?which boy is saying?

Suffixes[edit]

[edit]

For Ergative case. ащ (ʔaːɕ) (he, she, it), гьэщ (gʲaɕ) (he, she, it), уыщ (wəɕ) (that person), дыуыщ (dəwəɕ) (that person over there), дымыщ (dəməɕ) (this person over here), мыщ (məɕ) (this person),тэщ (taɕ) (which person?).

Instrumental case has the suffix -щгьэ or -щкӀэ. ащгьэ (ʔaːɕgʲa) (using that), гьэщгьэ (gʲaɕgʲa) (using that),уыщгьэ (waəɕgʲa) (using that), дыуыщгьэ (dəwəɕgʲa) (using that thing over there), дымыщгьэ (dəməɕgʲa) (using this thing over here), мыщгьэ (məɕgʲa) (using this),тэщгьэ (tawgʲa) (with what?).

а кIалэм къысиIуагъэр ащ есIот
[ʔaː t͡ʃaːlam qəsiʔʷaːʁar ʔaːɕ jasʔʷat]
that the boy (erg.) the thing he told me he, she, it, that I will tell him
"I will tell the thing that boy told me to him"
мыщ еIорэ ушIэн фай
[məɕ jaʔʷara wʃʼan faːj]
this (person or object) the thing he is saying (you) to know/do must/want
"you must do as this person says"
"you must know the things this person says"

-эр[edit]

For Absolutive case. ар (ʔaːr) (he, she, it), гьэр (gʲar) (he, she, it), ор (war) (that person), дыор (dəwar) (that person over there), дымэр (dəmaɕ) (this person over here), мэр (mar) (this person),тэр (tar) (which person?).

ар тиунэ къэкIот
[ʔaːr tiwna qakʷʼat]
he my house he will come
"he will come to my house"
гьэр къащти къэсфэхь
[ɡʲar qaːɕti qasfaħ]
that (object) pick it up (in order to something to happen) bring it to me
"lift that and bring it to me"

-эхэ[edit]

Plural form. ахэ (ʔaːxa) (they, those), гьэхэ (gʲaxa) (they, those), охэ (waxa) (those people), дыухэ (dəwxa) (those people over there), дымэхэ (dəmaxa) (these people over here), мэхэ (maxa) (they, these),тэхэ (taxa) (which people or object?).

For Ergative case it has the suffix -эхэмэ. ахэмэ (ʔaːxama) (those), гьэхэмэ (gʲaxama) (those), охэмэ (waxama) (those), дыухэмэ (dəwxama) (those over there), дымэхэмэ (dəmaxama) (those over here), мэхэмэ (maxama) (these),тэхэмэ (taxa) (which people or object?).

For Absolutive case it has the suffix -эхэр. ахэр (ʔaːxar) (those), гьэхэр (gʲaxar) (those), охэр (waxar) (those), дыухэр (dəwxar) (those over there), дымэхэр (dəmaxar) (those over here), мэхэр (maxar) (these),тэхэр (taxar) (which people or object?).

Instrumental case has the suffix эхэмгьэ or -эхэмкӀэ

дыухэмэ яшIагъхэр ошIа?
[dəwxama jaːʃʼaːʁxar waʃʼaː]
those over there the things they done do you know?
"do you know the things those (people) done?"
мэхэр тиунэ илхьэх
[maxar tiwna jəlħax]
these my house put it inside it
"put these into my house"

-рэ[edit]

арэ (ʔaːra) (that too), гьэрэ (gʲara) (that too), орэ (wara) (that too), дыурэ (dəwra) (that person or object over there too), дымэрэ (dəmara) (this person or object over here too), мэрэ (mara) (this too),тэрэ (tara) (which people or object too?).

гьэрэ уатэрэ къэсфэхь
[ɡʲara waːtara qasfaħ]
that too/that and a hammer too bring it to me
"bring me that and the hammer."

-ддэ[edit]

аддэ (ʔaːdda) (there), уыддэ (wədda) (there), дыуыддэ (dəwədda) (that place or spot over there), дымэддэ (dəmadda) (this place or spot over here), мыддэ (mədda) (here),тэдэ (tada) (where?).

мыддэ ушIагъэ
[mədda wəʃʼaːʁa]
here you done
"look what you done here"
гьэр уыддэ гъэтIылъ
[ɡʲar wədda ʁatˤʼəɬ]
that there put it down
"put that down there"

-дрэ[edit]

адрэ (ʔaːdra) (that other), уыдрэ (wədra) (that other), дыуыдрэ (dəwədra) (that other person or object over there), дымэдрэ (dəmadra) (this other person or object over here), мыдрэ (mədra) (this other),тэдрэ (tadra) (what other?).

For Ergative case it has the suffix -дрэм. адрэм (ʔaːdram) (that other), уыдрэм (wədram) (that other), дыуыдрэм (dəwədram) (that other person or object over there), дымэдрэм (dəmadram) (this other person or object over here), мыдрэм (mədram) (this other),тэдрэм (tadram) (which other?).

For Absolutive case it has the suffix -дрэр. адрэр (ʔaːdrar) (that other), уыдрэр (wədrar) (that other), дыуыдрэəр (dəwədrar) (that other person or object over there), дымэдрэр (dəmadrar) (this other person or object over here), мыдрэр (mədrar) (this other),тэдрэр (tadrar) (which other?).

Instrumental case has the suffix эдрэмгьэ or -эдрэмкӀэ

Instrumental case and plural has the suffix эдрэхэмгьэ or -эдрэхэмкӀэ

мэ уатэрэп къэсфэпхьынэу сфэйагъэ, адрэ уатэ рары
мэ уатэ-рэп къэс-фэхь-п-нэу с-фэй-агъэ, адрэ уатэ рары
[ma waːtarap qasfapħənaw səfajaːʁa aːdra waːta raːrə]
this not the hammer the thing you to bring me the thing i wanted the other thing hammer that is
"it's not this hammer I wanted you to bring me, it's the other hammer"
адрэ пакIэм тгъакIу
[aːdra paːkam tʁaːkʷʼ]
that other the way (erg.) let us go
"let us go to that other way"

-эу[edit]

ау (ʔaːw) (over there), гьэу (gʲaw) (over there),оу (waw) (over there), дыоу (dəwaw) (over there), дымэу (dəmaw) (over here), мэу (mədaw) (over here),тэу (taw) (over where?).

ау укIомэ къэбгъэзэщтэп
[aːw wkʷʼma qabʁazaɕtap]
over there if you go you will not manage to return
"if you go there you will not manage to return back"
мэу бэнанэр щыщх
[maw banaːnar ɕəɕx]
over here the banana (abs.) eat it there
"eat the banana here"

-эурэ[edit]

аурэ (ʔaːwra) (over there too), гьэурэ (gʲawra) (over there too),оурэ (wawra) (over there too), дыоурэ (dəwawra) (over there too), дымэурэ (dəmawra) (over here too), мэурэ (mədawra) (over here too),тэурэ (tawra) (over where too?).

Instrumental case has the suffix -эугьэ. аугьэ (ʔaːwgʲa) (using that way), гьэугьэ (gʲawgʲa) (using that way),оугьэ (wawgʲa) (using that way), дыоугьэ (dəwawgʲa) (using that way over there), дымэугьэ (dəmawgʲa) (using this way over here), мэугьэ (məwgʲa) (using this way),тэугьэ (tawgʲa) (using which way?).

-ары[edit]

ары (ʔaːrə) (that is), гьары (gʲaːrə) (that's it), уары (waːrə) (that is), дыуары (dəwaːrə) (that person or object over there), дымары (dəmaːrə) (this person or object over this), мары (maːrə) (this is),тары (taːrə) (which thing or person?).

ары къысиIуагъэ
[aːrə qəsiʔʷaːʁa]
that is the thing he told me
"that is what he told me"
дыуары кIалэу сфэсIуагъэ
[dəwaːrə t͡ʃaːlaw səfasʔʷaːʁa]
that is over there boy (Inv.) the thing i talked about
"here is the boy i talked about"

-щто[edit]

ащто (ʔaːɕtaw) (like that), гьэщто (gʲaɕtaw) (like that), уыщто (wəɕtaw) (like that), дыуыщто (dəwəɕtaw) (like that over there), дымыщто (dəməɕtaw) (like this over here), мыщто (məɕtaw) (like this),тэщто (taɕtaw) (like what?).

Instrumental case has the suffix щтогьэ or -щтокӀэ.

ащто умышI
[ʔaːɕtaw wnəʃʼ]
like that don't do
"don't do like that"
дыуыщто кIалэр макIо
[dəwəɕtaw t͡ʃaːlar mːkʷʼa]
like that over there boy (abs.) he is going
"the boy is going like that (over there)"

-фэдэ[edit]

афэдэ (ʔaːfada) (like that), гьэфэдэ (gʲafada) (like that), офэдэ (wafada) (like that), дыуфэдэ (dəwfada) (like that over there), дымфэдэ (dəmfada) (like this over here), мыфэдэ (məfada) (like this),тэфэдэ (tafada) (like what?).

гьэфэдэ уатэ сэри сфай
[ɡʲafada waːta sari sfaːj]
like that hammer me too i want
"I want a hammer like that too"

-щфэдэ[edit]

ащфэдэ (ʔaːɕfada) (like him, it), гьэщфэдэ (gʲaɕfada) (like him, it), ущфэдэ (wəɕfada) (like that person), дыуыщфэдэ (dəwəɕfada) (like that person over there), дымыщфэдэ (dəməɕfada) (like this person over here), мыщфэдэ (məɕfada) (like this),тэщфэдэ (taɕfada) (like what?).

For Ergative case it has the suffix -щфэдэм=====

For Absolutive case it has the suffix -щфэдэр=====

Instrumental case has the suffix -щфэдэгьэ or -щфэдэкӀэ.

ащфэдэу умышI
[ʔaːɕfada wnəʃʼ]
like that/him don't do
"don't do it like him"

-армэ[edit]

армэ (ʔaːrma) (if that), гьармэ (gʲaːrma) (if it's that), уармэ (waːrma) (if that), дыуармэ (dəwaːrma) (if that over there), дымармэ (dəmaːrma) (if this over here), мармэ (maːrma) (if this).

Plural: ахэрмэ (ʔaxarma) (if those), гьэхэрмэ (gʲaxarma) (if it's those), охэрмэ (waxarma) (if those), дыохэрмэ (dəwaxarma) (if those over there), дымэхэрмэ (dəmaxarma) (if these over here), мэхэрмэ (maxarma) (if these).

армэ ушIэрэ узгъэлъэгъут о
[ʔaːrma wəʃʼata wazʁaɬaʁʷət wa]
if that the thing you are doing I will show you/I gonna make you see it you
"If that's what you doing then i gonna show you"

Adjectives[edit]

Adjectives are different in their quantity: either as noun, in plural form adjectives gain suffix ~хэ.

дахэ – beautiful, дахэхэ - beautiful (in plural form), дэгъу - good, дэгъухэ - good (in plural form), дэи - bad (dajə), дэихэ - bad (in plural form) (dajəxa)

Adjectives are different as qualitative and relative.

The Qualitative adjectives are those which can have comparative and superlative degrees. The Qualitative adjectives are always posited after the defined word: КIалэ дэгъу - good boy [boy good], Пшъашъэ дэх - beautiful girl [girl beautiful], ЦIыф Iуш - wise man [person wise].

The Relative adjectives are those which can not have the comparative degrees. They are posited before the defined word: ГъукIэ гъогур - railway [iron road], Пхъэ Iанэ - wooden table.

In both events when we change the form and number of structure "none + quality adjective" or "relative adjectives + none" this leads to changing of the suffix of the last word in structure: Пшъэшъэ дах - Beautiful girl, Пшъэшъэ дахэхэр - beautiful girls, ЦIыф Iуш - wise person, ЦIыф Iушхэр - wise people, ГъукIэ гъогур - railway, ГъукIэ гъогухэр - railways.

Qualitative adjectives can have comparative and superlative degrees: The Comparative degree is formed by auxiliary word нахь / анбхь (more).

Ар ощ нахь лъагэ – he is higher than you, Нахь ины хъугъэ – He became bigger [More big became], Нахь лIэблан охъун фай - You must be braver.

For superlative degrees the structure зэкIэмэ анахь (more than all...) is used: Ар зэкIэмэ анахь дахэ – She is the most beautiful, Ар зэкIэмэ анахь лъагэ - It is the highest, ЗэкIэми анахь дэгъу шхынкIэ ыгъэшхагъ – She feeds him with the tastiest meal, Ар заужмэ анахь лъэщэ – He is the strongest.

Adjective suffixes[edit]

Too much -ашэ (-aːʃa)[edit]

дахэ [daːxa] - pretty, дахашэ [daːxaːʃa] - too much pretty, кӀэхьы [kʲaħə] - long, кӀэхьышэ [kʲaħəːʃa] - too long, бэ [ba] - much, башэ [baːʃa] - too much.

пхъэу къэпхьыгъэ кӀэхьышэ
[pχaw qapħəʁa kʲaħəːʃa]
wood (inv.) what thing you bring too long
"The wood your bring is too long"
кӀалэм ахъчэ башэ иӀ
[t͡ʃaːlam aːχt͡ʃa baːʃa jəʔ]
the boy (erg.) money/cash too much he have
"The boy have too much money"
сиӀоф къинышэ
[siʔof qinəʃa]
my work too hard
"My work is too hard"

Very much -шъыпкъ (-ʂəpq)[edit]

дахэ [daːxa] - pretty, дэхэшъыпкъ [daːxaʂəpq] - really pretty, кӀэхьы [kʲaħə] - long, кӀэхьышъыпкъ [kʲaħəʂəpq] - really long, бэ [ba] - much, бэшъыпкъ [baʂəpq] - a lot much/very much/very lot. The word шъыпкъэ (ʂəpqa) means truth.

пхъэу къэпхьыгъэ кӀэхьышъыпкъ
[pχaw qapħəʁa kʲaħəʂəpq]
wood (inv.) what thing you bring really long
"The wood you brought is really long"
кӀалэм ахъшэ бэшъыпкъ иӀ
[t͡ʃaːlam aːχʃa baʂəpq jəʔ]
the boy (erg.) money/cash very lot of he have
"The boy have very lot of money"
сиӀоф къинышъыпкъ
[siʔof qinəʂəpq]
my work really hard
"My work is really hard"

Numbers[edit]

  • Numbers from zero to ten are specific words
0 зиӀ [ziʔ]
1 зы About this sound [zə] 
2 тӀу About this sound [tʷʼə] 
3 щы About this sound [ɕə] 
4 плӀы About this sound [pɬʼə] 
5 тфы About this sound [tfə] 
6 хы About this sound [xə] 
7 блы About this sound [blə]  or About this sound [bɮə] 
8 и About this sound [jə] 
9 бгъу About this sound [bʁʷə] 
10 пшӀы About this sound [pʃʼə] 
  • Numbers from eleven to nineteen are built with the word for ten, followed by кIу ([kʷʼə]) and the unit digit:
11 пшӀыкӀуз About this sound [pʃʼəkʷʼəz] 
12 пшӀыкӀутIу About this sound [pʃʼəkʷʼətʷʼ] 
13 пшӀыкӀущ About this sound [pʃʼəkʷʼəɕ] 
14 пшӀыкӀуплI About this sound [pʃʼəkʷʼəpɬʼ] 
15 пшӀыкӀутф About this sound [pʃʼəkʷʼətf] 
16 пшӀыкӀух About this sound [pʃʼəkʷʼəx] 
17 пшӀыкӀубл About this sound [pʃʼəkʷʼəbl] 
18 пшӀыкӀуй About this sound [pʃʼəkʷʼəj] 
19 пшӀыкӀубгъу About this sound [pʃʼəkʷʼəbʁʷ] 
  • The tens follow a vigesimal system from forty up, with the exception of fifty:
20 тӀокӀы [tʷʼat͡ʃə] (20)
21 тӀокӀырэ зырэ [tʷʼat͡ʃəra zəra] (20 and 1)
22 тӀокӀырэ тIурэ [tʷʼat͡ʃəra tʷʼəra] (20 and 2)
23 тӀокӀырэ щырэ [tʷʼat͡ʃəra ɕəra] (20 and 3)
...
30 щэкӀы [ɕat͡ʃə] (30)
31 щэкӀырэ зырэ [ɕat͡ʃə zəra] (30 and 1)
32 щэкӀырэ тIурэ [ɕat͡ʃə tʷʼəra] (30 and 2)
...
40 тӀокӀитIу [tʷʼat͡ʃitʷʼ] (20 × 2)
41 тӀокӀитIурэ зырэ [tʷʼat͡ʃitʷʼəra zəra] (20 × 2 and 1)
42 тӀокӀитIурэ тIурэ [tʷʼat͡ʃitʷʼəra tʷʼəra] (20 × 2 and 2)
...
50 шъэныкъо [ʂanəqʷa] (half-hundred)
51 шъэныкъорэ зырэ [ʂanəqʷara zəra] (half-hundred and 1)
52 шъэныкъорэ тIурэ [ʂanəqʷara tʷʼəra] (half-hundred and 2)
...
60 тӀокӀищ [tʷʼat͡ʃiɕ] (20 × 3)
61 тӀокӀищырэ зырэ [tʷʼat͡ʃiɕəra zəra] (20 × 3 and 1)
62 тӀокӀищырэ тIурэ [tʷʼat͡ʃiɕəra tʷʼəra] (20 × 3 and 2)
...
70 тӀокӀищырэ пшIырэ [tʷʼat͡ʃiɕra pʃʼəra] (20 × 3 and 10)
71 тӀокӀищырэ пшIыкIузырэ [tʷʼat͡ʃiɕra pʃʼəkʷʼəzəra] (20 × 3 and 11)
72 тӀокӀищырэ пшӀыкӀутIурэ [tʷʼat͡ʃiɕra pʃʼəkʷʼətʷʼəra] (20 × 3 and 12)
...
80 тӀокӀиплӀ [tʷʼat͡ʃipɬʼ] (20 × 4)
81 тӀокӀиплӀырэ зырэ [tʷʼat͡ʃipɬʼəra zəra] (20 × 4 and 1)
82 тӀокӀиплӀырэ тIурэ [tʷʼat͡ʃipɬʼəra tʷʼəra] (20 × 4 and 2)
...
90 тӀокӀиплӀырэ пшIырэ [tʷʼat͡ʃipɬʼəra pʃʼəra] (20 × 4 and 10)
91 тӀокӀиплӀырэ пшIыкIузырэ [tʷʼat͡ʃipɬʼəra pʃʼəkʷʼəzəra] (20 × 4 and 11)
91 тӀокӀиплӀырэ пшӀыкӀутIурэ [tʷʼat͡ʃipɬʼəra pʃʼəkʷʼətʷʼəra] (20 × 4 and 12)
  • One hundred is шъэ (ʂa). The hundreds are formed by the hundred word root (шъ (ʂ)) followed by -и- (-i-) and the multiplier digit root.
100 шъэ (ʂa)
101 шъэрэ зырэ (ʂara zəra) (100 and 1)
110 шъэрэ пшӏырэ (ʂara pʃʼəra) (100 and 10)
200 шъитӀу (ʂitʷʼ) (100 × 2)
201 шъитӀурэ зырэ (ʂitʷʼəra zəra) (200 × 2 and 1)
300 шъищ (ʂiɕ) (100 × 3)
400 шъиплӀ (ʂipɬʼ) (100 × 4)
500 шъитф (ʂitf) (100 × 5)
600 шъих (ʂix) (100 × 6)
700 шъибл (ʂibl) (100 × 7)
800 шъий (ʂij) (100 × 8)
900 шъибгъу (ʂibʁʷ) (100 × 9)
  • One thousand is мин (min). The thousands are formed by the thousand word root (мин (məjn)) followed by -и- (-i-) and the multiplier digit root.
1000 мин (min)
1001 минрэ зырэ (minra zəra) (1000 and 1)
1010 минрэ пшӏырэ (minra pʃʼəra) (1000 and 10)
1100 минрэ шъэрэ (minra ʂara) (1000 and 100)
2000 минитӀу (minitʷʼ) (1000 × 2)
3000 минищ (miniɕ) (1000 × 3)
4000 миниплӀ (minipɬʼ) (1000 × 4)
5000 минитф (minitf) (1000 × 5)
6000 миних (minix) (1000 × 6)
7000 минибл (minibl) (1000 × 7)
8000 миний (minij) (1000 × 8)
9000 минибгъу (minibʁʷ) (1000 × 9)
10000 минипшӏ (minipʃʼ) (1000 × 10)
11000 минипшӀыкӀуз (minipʃʼəkʷʼəz) (1000 × 11)
12000 минипшӀыкӀутIу (minipʃʼəkʷʼətʷʼ) (1000 × 12)
20000 минитӀокӀы (minitʷʼat͡ʃə) (1000 × 20)
100000 минишъэ (miniʂa) (1000 × 100)
200000 минишъитӀу (miniʂitʷʼ) (1000 × 200)

When composed, the hundred word takes the -рэ (-ra) suffix, as well as the ten and the unit if any (e.g.: шъэрэ зырэ (ʂara zəra) [101], шъэрэ тIурэ (ʂara tʷʼəra) [102], шъэрэ пшӀыкӀузырэ (pʃʼəkʷʼətʷʼəra) [111], шъитӀурэ щэкӀырэ плIырэ (ʂitʷʼəra ɕat͡ʃəra pɬʼəra) [234]).

  • One thousand is мин (min). The other thousands are formed by concatenating the thousand word with -и- (-i-) and the multiplier digit root: минитӀу (minitʷʼə) [2,000], минищ (miniɕ) [3,000]…

минищ шъэ (miniɕ ʂa) [3,100], минищ шъитIу (miniɕ ʂitʷʼə) [3,200], миниплӀ (minipɬʼ) [4,000], миниплӀы шъэ (minipɬʼəra ʂa) [4,100], минишъиплIтIу (miniʂipɬʼətʷʼ) [4,200], минишъиплӀщ (miniʂipɬʼəɕ) [4,300], минитфы шъэ (minitfə ʂa) [5,100], минишъитфтIу (miniʂitfətʷʼ) [5,200]...

When there is a certain amount of the noun, the noun is followed by -и (-i) and the multiplier digit root. for example: Зы кӀалэ - One boy (zə t͡ʃaːla), КӀалитӀу - two boys (t͡ʃaːlitʷʼ), КӀалиплӏ - four boys (t͡ʃaːlipɬʼ), КӀалишъэ - 100 boys (t͡ʃaːliʂa), Зы мафэ - one day (zə maːfa), МафитIу - two days (maːfitʷʼ), Мафищы (мафищ) - three days (maːfiɕ).

Ordinal numbers[edit]

  • Except апэрэ/япэрэ - first (aːpara/jaːpara) are formed by prefix я- (jaː-) and suffix – нэрэ (- nara). For example: ятIунэрэ - second (jaːtʷʼənara), ящынэрэ - third (jaːɕənara), яплIынэрэ - fourth (jaːpɬʼənara).
first - япэрэ [jːpara]
second - ятӀунэрэ [jaːtʷʼənara]
third - ящынэрэ [jaːɕənara]
fourth - яплӀынэрэ [jaːpɬʼənara]
firth - ятфынэрэ [jaːtfənara]
sixth - яхынэрэ [jaːxənara]
seventh - яблынэрэ [jaːblənara]
eighth - яинэрэ [jaːjənara]
ninth - ябгъунэрэ [jaːbʁʷənara]
tenth - япшӀынэрэ [jaːpʃʼənara]
eleventh - япшӀыкӏузынэрэ [jaːpʃʼəkʷʼəzənara]
twelfth - япшӀыкӏутӏунэрэ [jaːpʃʼəkʷʼətʷʼənara]
twenty th - ятӏокӏынэрэ [jaːtʷʼat͡ʃənara]
hundredth - яшъэнэрэ [jaːʂanara]

Япэрэ мафэ - First day (jaːpara maːfa), ЯтIонэрэ мафэ - second day (jaːtʷʼənara maːfa), ЯтIонэрэ цуакъо - second shoe (jaːpara t͡ʃʷaːqʷa), Яхэнэрэ классым щэгъэжьагъу тутын сешъо~I have been smoking since the sixth class.

Discrete numbers[edit]

  • Are formed by changing the last vowel ~ы (~ə) of number to ~эрэ (~ara):

о плIэрэ къосIогъах - I have told you four times already.

  • Number can also define measure of a share: Numbers "one" and "two" are formed by words псау (psaw) (whole, whole), ренэ (pena) (whole, whole about length of time), ныкъо (nəqʷa) (the half).
  • Fractional numerals are formed from cardinal numerals with the help of the -(а)нэ /aːna/ morpheme: щы /ɕə/ "three" - щанэ /ɕaːna/ "thirds", плӏы /pɬʼə/ "four" - плӏанэ /pɬʼaːna/ "fourth", хы "six" - ханэ /xaːna/ "sixth" and so on. In a sentence: Чӏыгоу къытатыгъэм изыщанэ картоф хэдгъэтӏысхьа́гъ "On one third of the allocated land we have planted potatoes", Хатэм изыщанэ помидор хэдгъэтIыцсхагъ - third part of vegetable garden we used for the tomatoes, Ахщэ къыратыгъэм ыпӏланэ чыфэ ритыгъ – The quarter of the money he received, he lent.
half (1÷2) - ныкъо [nəqʷa]
one third (1÷3) - щанэ [ɕaːna]
two thirds (2÷3) - щанитӏу [ɕaːnitʷʼ] (1÷3 × 2)
one fourth (1÷4) - плӀанэ [pɬʼaːna]
two fourths (2÷4) - плӀанитӏу [pɬʼaːnitʷʼ] (1÷4 × 2)
three fourths (3÷4) - плӀанищ [pɬʼaːniɕ] (1÷4 × 3)
one fifth (1÷5) - тфанэ [tfaːna]
one sixth (1÷6) - ханэ [xaːna]
one seventh (1÷7) - бланэ [blaːna]
one eighth (1÷8) - янэ [jaːna]
one ninth (1÷9) - бгъуанэ [bʁʷaːna]
one tenth (1÷10) - пшӀанэ [pʃʼaːna]
one eleventh (1÷11) - пшӀыкӏузанэ [pʃʼəkʷʼəzaːna]
one twelfth (1÷12) - пшӀыкӏутӏуанэ [pʃʼəkʷʼətʷʼaːna]
one twentieth (1÷20) - тӏокӏанэ [tʷʼat͡ʃaːna]
one hundredth (1÷100) - шъанэ [ʂaːna]
  • Separative numerals are formed by repetition of the appropriate cardinal numeral with the help of the morpheme -ры /-rə/: зырыз /zərəz/ "by one", тӏурытӏу /tʷʼərətʷʼ/ "by twos", щырыщ /ɕərəɕ/ "by threes", плӏырыплӏ /pɬʼərəplʼ/ "by fours", тфырытф /tfərətf/ "by fives" and so on. In a sentence: Еджакӏохэр экзаменым тӏурытӏоу чӏахьэщтыгъэх "Pupils entered the examination room by twos".
  • Approximate numerals are formed as a combination of three cardinal numerals where the main constructive numeral is, usually, the numeral зы "one". for example зыхыбл /zəxəbl/ зы-хы-бл "about six or seven", зытӏущ /zətʷʼəɕ/ зы-тӏу-щ "about two or three" . In a sentence: Непэ садэжь нэбгырэ зыт1ущ къы1ухьагъ "About two or three people have approached me today".

Postpositions[edit]

Postposition serve similar functions to prepositions in English, but are placed after the noun.

  • These are the words: ыпэ or ипэ (əpa/jəpa) – before first, дэжь (ди) - to, beside, чIэгъ - under, кIыб –behind for

Ыпэ узытеплъэрэм машинэ дэгъу - At first you thought the car was good, Ар ыпэ къэчIэжьыгъэп - I did not remember him at first, Чэтыур анэ чIэгъым чIэс – The cat sits under the table.

  • If the object is a personal pronoun, these words can merge with it and form an independent structure: Садэжь - To me, beside me (saːdaʑ), Сидэжь - near me (sidaʑ), Тадэжь - To us,beside us (taːdaʑ), Тидэжь - near us (tidaʑ).

Садэжь укъакIощта непэ? – Can you come to me today?, Тадэжь къакIоба! – Come to us!.

  • Conjunction: ыкIы, ыджы – and, else (ət͡ʃə, əd͡ʒə), бу, шъхьбем - but (bu, ʂħbem), e/йэ - or (ja).

Лъэу ыджы къыпIотэт? - What else will You say?, Ащ бэрэ лъэхъугъ, ау къыгъотыжьыгъэп – I was looking for him for a long time, but I did not find, E улIэн, e улIын – Die or be a man! (Adyghe proverb).

  • The Particles affirmative and negative:

ары – yes (arə), хьау – no (ħaːaw).

ЗэхэушыкIа? – Do you understand?; Ары. ЗэхэсэшыкIы - Yes, I understand; Хьау, ЗэхэсэшыкIэп - No, I don’t understand.

Sentences[edit]

  • In Adyghe, word order is free. However all preferred that predicate will be positioned at the end of sentence.

Пчэджэм жъэу сыхьатэблым сэкъэтэджагъ. - I got up at seven o’clock in the early morning, Сэ тутынэр сешъону чIэсыдзыжьыгъ - I gave up smoking.

Interrogative sentence[edit]

  • Word order in interrogative sentences is the same as in declarative sentences. The word about which the question is, takes the suffix ~а (~a) or ~ра (~ra) (absolutive case), or ~ми (~mi) (ergative case).

кIалэр къэущыжьагъ - The boy woke up (t͡ʃaːlar qawɕəʑəʁa), кIалэр къэущыжьгъэ? - Has the boy woke up?

Дэгу - Deaf, Дэгуха мы унэр зийэхэр? Are they deaf, this house owners?

  • If question is posited to word having Negative Suffix ~п (~p), it is converted to suffix ~ба (~baː). for example: пшIэрэба? – Don’t you know?, Къыоэджэ, зэхэпхырэба? – They call You, don’t you hear [that]?, укIожьрагъоба? - Don’t you want to go back?, къакIорагъоба - isn't he want to come?, ущхэрагъоба - don't you want to eat?
кIалэр къэущыжьгъэба?
[t͡ʃaːlar qawɕəʑʁabaː]
boy (abs.) isn't he woke up?
"Has not the boy woke up?"
кIалэр тиунэ къакIорэба?
[t͡ʃaːlar tiwna qaːkʷarabaː]
boy (abs.) our house isn't he coming?
"Isn't the boy coming to my house?"
кIалэр тиунэ къакIоба?
[t͡ʃaːlar tiwna qaːkʷabaː]
boy (abs.) our house he is coming to right?
"The boy is coming to my house right?"
  • If question is posited by auxiliary interrogative words, хэт (who), щыд or Лъэу or сыд (what), тыдэ (where), тары (which), хьэ or щтэ (why), these word are positioned in the sentence in that place, where the word is supposed to be positioned, being answer to supplied question:

Хэт къэк1уагъ? Who came?, Лъэу ы1уагъ? What did he say?, Непэ тыдэ ущы1эщт? Where you will be today?.

References[edit]


Bibliography[edit]

  • Аркадьев, П. М.; Ландер, Ю. А.; Летучий, А. Б.; Сумбатова, Н. Р.; Тестелец, Я. Г. Введение. Основные сведения об адыгейском языке в кн.: "Аспекты полисинтетизма: очерки по грамматике адыгейского языка" под ред.: П. М. Аркадьев, А. Б. Летучий, Н. Р. Сумбатова, Я. Г. Тестелец. Москва: РГГУ, 2009 (Arkadiev, P. M.; Lander, Yu. A.; Letuchiy, A. B.; Sumbatova, N. R.; Testelets, Ya. G. Introduction. Basic information about Adyghe language in "Aspects of polysyntheticity: studies on Adyghe grammar" edited by: P. M. Arkadiev, A. B. Letuchiy, N. R. Sumbatova, Ya. G. Testelets. Moscow, RGGU, 2009) (in Russian) ISBN 978-5-7281-1075-0
  • Ranko Matasović,A SHORT GRAMMAR OF EAST CIRCASSIAN (KABARDIAN): [1].

External links[edit]