Aerial toll house

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Death of Saint Theodora and visions of spiritual trials

Aerial toll houses refers to a teaching held by some Eastern Orthodox Saints and Eastern Orthodox Christians, about the immediate state of the soul after death. According to this doctrine, "following a person's death the soul leaves the body, and is escorted to God by angels. During this journey the soul passes through an aerial realm, which is inhabited by wicked spirits (Eph 6:12). The soul encounters these demons at various points referred to as 'toll-houses' where the demons then attempt to accuse it of sin and, if possible, drag the soul into hell."[1]

In rudimentary form this teaching is taught and probably alluded to in hagiographical and other spiritual texts from quite early in the history of the Church, though it has never been formally promulgated by any ecumenical council.[1] Some Orthodox saints, modern elders and theologians have openly endorsed it, while a number of bishops and theologians have condemned it as heretical and gnostic in origin.[2] The content is somewhat similar to that propounded by John Climacus in The Ladder of Divine Ascent. It is also somewhat similar to the intermediary state taught by the Catholic Church in its doctrine of Purgatory, a cleansing preparing the soul to enter into the divine presence. Some say that given the amount of fear that comes along with this teaching, the love of Christ becomes misunderstood and is forgotten, while others suggest that fear is perfectly "natural" and salvific for Orthodox Christians. In this sense the discussion goes to the heart of soteriology. While some say that the toll houses are only metaphorical, others believe in a strong vivid representation of real "houses of taxation" where demons have the right to ask their victims to account for their wrongdoings, and actually let the victim go if a good enough payment (of victim's good deeds) is offered. This latter thought shares some aspects with the Roman Catholic teaching on merits, although in the case of the Catholic church the merits in question are not primarily individual but those of Christ and the saints administered by the Church.

The toll-house teaching[edit]

The most detailed account of the aerial toll-houses is found in the hagiography of Saint Basil the New, found in the Lives of Saints for 26 March (according to the Orthodox calendar). In this rendering, Saint Theodora, spiritual student of Saint Basil, appeared to another student, the pious and holy layman Gregory. According to the story, Gregory had prayed to God and asked him to inform them of what happened to Theodora after her death. God answered his prayers (according to this account) by sending Theodora herself to Gregory; and told him, in great detail, about her journey through the toll-houses.[3]

According to Theodora's alleged teaching, every Christian has a demon who tempts him or her. These demons keep a record of every sin of thought or action they succeed in tempting a person to commit, though repented sins are erased from the demonic records. On the third day after the soul separates from the body, according to this account, it is carried by angels towards Heaven. On the way, souls must go past twenty aerial toll-houses. Each toll house is populated by demons devoted to particular sins. At each toll-house, demons demand that souls "pay" for their sins by giving an account of compensatory good deeds. If the soul is unable to compensate for a sin, the demons take it to hell.[3]

Several authors of the Philokalia taught about the toll houses. For example, St Theodoros the Great Ascetic instructs to "reflect on the dreadful reckoning that is to come, how the harsh keepers of the toll homes will bring before as one by one the actions, words and thoughts which they suggested but which we accepted and made our own".[4] St. Abba Isaiah of Scetis wrote: ".. you will leave this body, pass the powers of darkness that will meet you in the air".[5]

Prayers mentioning the aerial accusers can be found in Liturgical texts and official Orthodox books like The Great Book of Needs: “do thou banish from me the commander of the bitter toll-gatherers and ruler of the earth.. O holy Theotokos” (Ode 8, Troparion 3).[6]

It has been discussed whether something akin to this teaching can be found in the hymnology of the Church,[7][8][9][10] and in stories of the lives of some saints (for example, the Life of Saint Anthony the Great, written by Saint Athanasius the Great, the life of Saint Basil the New, and Saint Theodora, in the homilies of St. Cyril of Alexandria,[11] in the Discourses of Abba Isaiah,[12] the Philokalia, the Ladder of Divine Ascent, and the Dogmatics of the Orthodox Church by Justin Popović).

Some contemporary Church figures, a good number of which associate with the Holy Synod in Resistance (Old Calendarists), support the teaching on toll-houses.[13][14][15][16] Recent saints, including Saint Ignatius Brianchaninov[17] and Saint Theophan the Recluse,[18] insisted not only on the truthfulness of but also on the necessity of this teaching in the spiritual life of a Christian.

It has been suggested that the doctrine of the toll houses has been taught by the Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad.[19] However, the Holy Synod of the Russian Church Abroad actually enforces "the cessation in our magazines of controversy on dogmatic questions and, in particular, on questions concerning life after death" and that this controversy must be ended on "both sides".[19]

The toll houses[edit]

  • On the first aerial toll-house, the soul is questioned about the sins of the tongue;
  • The second is the toll-house of lies;
  • The third is the toll-house of slander;
  • The fourth is the toll-house of gluttony;
  • The fifth is the toll-house of laziness;
  • The sixth toll-house is the toll-house of theft;
  • The seventh is the toll-house of covetousness;
  • The eighth is the toll-house of usury;
  • The ninth is the toll-house of injustice;
  • The tenth is the toll-house of envy;
  • The eleventh is the toll-house of pride;
  • The twelve is the toll-house of anger;
  • The thirteenth is the toll-house of remembering evil;
  • The fourteenth is the toll-house of murder;
  • The fifteenth is the toll-house of magic;
  • The sixteenth is the toll-house of lust;
  • The seventeenth is the toll-house of adultery;
  • The eighteenth is the toll-house of sodomy;
  • The nineteenth is the toll-house of heresy;
  • The twentieth toll-house is the toll-house of unmercifulness.[3]

Controversy[edit]

A number of bishops and theologians of the Orthodox Christian Church consider this teaching controversial—even a heresy. They argue that it is a form of gnosticism, or neo-gnosticism, and claim that the teaching is opposed to the church's catechism and other Orthodox teachings.[2] The Rev. Dr. Michael Azkoul, argues that Fr. Seraphim Rose is the only contemporary theological proponent of the teaching. Fr. Seraphim, an American Orthodox hieromonk and theologian, wrote a book on this subject entitled The Soul After Death. While Fr. Seraphim endeavored to demonstrate that this teaching is derived from Patristic and other church sources, his opponents—among them the Rev. Azkoul and Archbishop Lazar Puhalo (a hierarch in the Orthodox Church of America) —found his conclusions questionable.[20] Moreover, opponents of this teaching argue that it emphasizes fear and guilt as a way of keeping believers "in line", while ignoring the forgiveness of Jesus Christ—who, according to Orthodox Christian teaching, came to earth to save the world and humanity when they least deserved it. On this account the emphasis of the spiritual life thus changes from communion with a God of love, to fear of demons.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Death and the Toll House Controversy
  2. ^ a b "Against the Gnostic Story of Judging Demons." http://constans_wright.tripod.com/notolls.html
  3. ^ a b c St. Theodora's Journey Through the Aerial Toll-Houses Lives of Saints, March 26th
  4. ^ St Theodoros the Great Ascetic. A Century of Spiritual Texts / Philokalia. Vol. 2.
  5. ^ Abba Isaiah of Scetis - Ascetic Discourses. 2002. Cistercian Studies (Book 150)
  6. ^ The Great Book of Needs, St Tikhon's Monastery Press
  7. ^ January 27, The Recovery of the Holy Relics of our Father among the Saints John Chrysostom, Troparion 1, Ode 5 of Orthros: "Grant me to pass untroubled through the host of noetic satraps and the tyrannic battalion of the lower air in the hour of my departure..."
  8. ^ Parakletike, Friday Vespers, Second Mode: "When my soul is about to be separated violently from the members of the body, then, O Bride of God, come to my aid; scatter the counsels of the fleshless enemies and shatter their millstones, by which they seek to devour me mercilessly; that, unhindered, I may pass through the rulers of darkness standing in the air."
  9. ^ However, it is first with the Greek and Slavonic Euchologion, in the canon for the departure of the soul by St. Andrew , that we find the word used in Ode 7: "All holy angels of the Almighty God, have mercy upon me and save me from all the evil toll-houses."
  10. ^ In the Canon of Supplication at the Parting of the Soul in The Great Book of Needs are found the following references to the struggle of a soul passing through the toll-houses: "Count me worthy to pass, unhindered, by the persecutor, the prince of the air, the tyrant, him that stands guard in the dread pathways, and the false accusation of these, as I depart from earth." (Ode 4, p. 77). "Do thou count me worthy to escape the hordes of bodiless barbarians, and rise through the aerial depths and enter into Heaven…" (Ode 8, p. 81). "[W]hen I come to die, do thou banish far from me the commander of the bitter toll-gatherers and ruler of the earth…" (Ode 8, p. 81).
  11. ^ St. Cyril of Alexandria Ephesi praedicata depoito Nestorio, ACO.14(52.405D) as referenced by Lampe, G.W.H., A Patristic Greek Lexicon, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1961, p.1387
  12. ^ The Twenty-nine Discourses of our Holy Father Isaiah, Volos, 1962, p. 37 (in Greek): "[Live] every day having death before your eyes, and concerning yourselves with how you will come out from the body, how you will pass by the powers of darkness that will meet you in the air, and how you will answer before God..."
  13. ^ The Taxing of Souls by Metropolitan Hierotheos (Vlachos)
  14. ^ Answer to a Critic, Appendix III from The Soul After Death by Father Seraphim Rose of Platina
  15. ^ Vid. Ephraim, Elder, Counsels from the Holy Mountain, St. Anthony's Greek Orthodox Monastery, Arizona, 1999, pp. 436, 447.
  16. ^ Cavarnos, Constantine, The Future Life According to Orthodox Teaching, Center for Traditionalist Orthodox Studies, Etna, California, 1985, pp. 24-26.
  17. ^ A Word on Death, chapter "Aerial toll-houses"
  18. ^ What is spiritual life, and how to obtain it, chapter "Perfect preparation for the Mystery of Repentance"
  19. ^ Azkoul, Rge Rev. Dr. Michael. The Toll-House Myth: The Neo-Gnosticism of Fr. Seraphim Rose. Introduction.

Further reading[edit]

  • Azkoul, The Rev. Dr. Michael. The Aerial Toll House Myth: The Neo-Gnosticism of Fr. Seraphim Rose.
  • Rose, Fr. Seraphim. The Soul After Death.