Aeropyrum pernix

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Aeropyrum pernix
Scientific classification
Domain: Archaea
Kingdom: Archaea
Phylum: Crenarchaeota
Class: Thermoprotei
Order: Desulfurococcales
Family: Desulfurococcaceae
Genus: Aeropyrum
Species: A. pernix
Binomial name
Aeropyrum pernix
Sako et al. 1996

Aeropyrum pernix is an extremophile species of Archaea that is part of the phylum Crenarchaeota. It is a heat-requiring species and was isolated from sediments in the sea off the coast of Japan.

Discovery[edit]

Aeropyrum pernix was the first strictly aerobic hyperthermophilic Archaea to be discovered. It was originally isolated from heated marine sediments and venting water collected in 1996 from a solfataric vent at Kodakara-jima Island in Kyūshū, Japan.[1]

Genome structure[edit]

Its complete genome was sequenced in 1999 and is 1,669 kilobases in size, with 2,694 possible genes detected.[2] All of the genes in the TCA cycle were found except for that of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. In its place, the genes coding for the two subunits of 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductase were identified.

Properties[edit]

The cells of Aeropyrum pernix are spherical in shape and approximately 1 µm in diameter. The envelope surrounding the cells of Aeropyrum is about 25 nm wide. The organisms grows at temperature between 70 and 100 °C (optimum, 90 to 95 °C), at pH 5 to 9 (optimum, pH 7), and at a salinity of 1.8 to 7% (optimum, 3.5% salinity). The growth of the organisms is not detected at 68 or 102 °C. Below 1.5% salinity, cells lyse by low osmotic shock. The cells of the organisms are sensitive to chloramphenicol and insensitive to ampicillin, vancomycin, and cycloserine. It grows well on proteinaceous substances, with a doubling time under these conditions of about 200 minutes.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Sako Y, Nomura N, Uchida A et al. (1996). "Aeropyrum pernix gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel aerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon growing at temperatures up to 100 degrees C". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 46 (4): 1070–7. doi:10.1099/00207713-46-4-1070. PMID 8863437. 
  2. ^ Kawarabayasi Y, Hino Y, Horikawa H et al. (1999). "Complete genome sequence of an aerobic hyper-thermophilic crenarchaeon, Aeropyrum pernix K1". DNA Res. 6 (2): 83–101, 145–52. doi:10.1093/dnares/6.2.83. PMID 10382966. 

Further reading[edit]

Napotnik, T.B.; Valant, J.; Gmajner, D.; Passamonti, S.; Miklavcic, D.; Ulrih, N.P. (September 2013). "Cytotoxicity and uptake of archaeosomes prepared from Aeropyrum pernix lipids". Human & Experimental Toxicology 32 (9): 950–959. doi:10.1177/0960327113477875. Retrieved 12 November 2014.