Aes grave (heavy bronze) is a term in numismatics indicating bronze cast coins used in central Italy during the 4th and 5th centuries BC, whose value was generally indicated by signs: I for the as, S for semis and pellets for unciae. Standard weights for the as were 272, 327, or 341 grams, depending upon the issuing authority.
The main Roman cast coins had these marks and images:
|Bellona or Roma||Uncia||one pellet|
Main series were from Rome, Ariminum (Rimini), Iguvium (Gubbio), Tuder (Todi), Ausculum (Ascoli Satriano), Firmum (Fermo), Hatria - Hadria (Atri), Luceria (Lucera), and Latins. Other series have unknown provenance.
As (ca. 240–225 BC)
Triens (ca. 241–235 BC)
Quadrans (ca. 230–226 BC. weight 63.19 g
Thurlow-Vecchi 26; Crawford 27/8)
Sextans (ca. 289–245 BC)
Quincunx (coin) (After 220 BC)
Uncia (coin) (ca. 275–270 BC)
- Haeberlin, Ernst: Aes Grave, Das Schwergeld Roms und Mittelitaliens einschließlich der ihm vorausgehenden Rohbronzewährung, Halle 1910.
- Head, Barclay V.: Historia Nummorum, a Manual of Greek Numismatic, London, 19112.
- Sear, David: "Roman Coins and Their Values," Volume I, Spink.
- Sydenham, Edward A.: Aes Grave A Study of the Cast Coinages of Rome and Central Italy. London, Spink, 1926.
- Italo Vecchi. Italian Cast Coinage. A descriptive catalogue of the cast coinage of Rome and Italy. London Ancient Coins, London 2013. Hard bound in quarto format, 84 pages, 92 plates. ISBN 978-0-9575784-0-1
- Zander H. Klawans: Reading and Dating Roman Imperial Coins, Racine, Wisconsin 1959.
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