|Afghana or Avagana|
|Reign||1000 BC|
|Died||1000 BC
Ghor Province, present-day Afghanistan
Afghana or Avagana (born ~ 1000 BC according to folklore) is considered in Afghan folklore a tribal chief or prince of Bani Israel (Israelite) origin and a progenitor of modern-day Pashtuns (ethnic Afghans), the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan and second largest in Pakistan. The ethnonym "Afghan" is believed to derive from his name.
House of King Saul
According to the Tanakh, King Saul (Talut) was the son of Kish, a member of the tribe of Benjamin, one of the twelve Tribes of Israel (1 Samuel 9:1-2). Saul married Ahinoam, daughter of Ahimaaz and had four sons and two daughters. The sons were Jonathan, Abinadab, Malchishua and Ish-bosheth. Saul's daughters were named Merab and Michal.
The legend describes Afghana as the son of Irmia (Jeremiah) and grandson of King Saul (Talut). This name is mentioned in the form of Abgan in the 3rd century CE by the Sassanians and as Avagana in the 6th century CE by Indian astronomer Varahamihira.
It is mentioned that Afghana was orphaned at a young age, and brought up by King David. When Solomon became the king, Afghana was made commander-in-chief of the army. Afghana is also credited with the building of the first temple (also known as Bait ul-Mukaddas or the Temple of Jerusalem):
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According to legend, after his death he was buried in what is now Ghor, Afghanistan. In other folklore however, Qais Abdur Rashid in his old age, when he felt his time was near, asked his sons to bury him in the vicinity of Zhob (Sulaiman Mountains) at the location where his ancestor Afghana was buried.
- Nimat Allah al-Harawi author of Tarikh-i-Khan Jahani Makhzan-i-Afghani also known as The History of the Afghans
- Ten Lost Tribes
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- 1 Samuel 14:51 lists three sons - Jonathan, and Ishvi, and Malchi-shua - and the two daughters. But see also 2 Samuel 2:8 and 1 Chronicles 8:33.
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- Volume 13 of Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics - Editors: James Hastings, John Alexander Selbie, Louis Herbert Gray - Publisher C. Scribner's sons - Original from the University of Michigan.
- The rise of the Indo-Afghan empire, c.1710-1780 By Jos J. L. Gommans - 1995 - 219 pages - Page 164.
- "History of Afghanistan". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved November 22, 2010.
- Pathan tribal patterns: an interim study of authoritarian family process and structure, Ruth Einsidler Newman, Foreign Studies Institute, 1965 - 111 pages.
- Among the wild tribes of the Afghan frontier, Theodore Leighton Pennell, Oxford University Press, 1975 - 323 pages - page 31.
- Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. Edited by James Hastings, Volume 1, James Hastings, John Alexander Selbie - 2001 - 343 pages - Page 159.
- Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society , Volume 39, Pakistan Historical Society, Pakistan Historical Society, 1991.
- Tadhkirat al-Muluk: A Manual of Safavid Administration, Translated by V. Minorsky, Publisher: Gibb Memorial Trust; 2nd edition (December 1, 1980) Language: English, ISBN 978-0-906094-12-9, Paperback: 360 pages.
- Balochistan: land, history, people, Ihsan H. Nadiem, Sang-e-Meel Publications, 2007 - - 160 pages, Page 16.
- Pakistan pictorial, Publisher: Pakistan Publications, 2003.
- Shariat and Tasawwuf
- The Legendary Qais Abdur Rashid
- Pashtun clue to lost tribes of Israel: Genetic study sets out to uncover if there is a 2,700-year-old link to Afghanistan and Pakistan
- Pashtun Bani Israelite Origins
- Hebrew Pashtun Article 1
- Hebrew Pashtun Article 2
- Alden Oreck, The Virtual Jewish History Tour: Afghanistan from Jewish Virtual Library