Afghanistan–India relations

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Afghanistan-India relations
Map indicating locations of India and Afghanistan

India

Afghanistan
Afghan President Ashraf Ghani with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi. November 2014.

Bilateral relations between the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and the Republic of India have traditionally been strong and friendly. Whilst the Republic of India was the only South Asian country to recognise the Soviet-backed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan in the 1980s, its relations were diminished during the 1990s Afghan civil war and the Taliban government.[1] India aided the overthrow of the Taliban and became the largest regional provider of humanitarian and reconstruction aid to Afghanistan.[2][3] Indians are working in various construction projects, as part of India's rebuilding efforts in Afghanistan. Pakistan alleges the Indian intelligence agency RAW is working in cover to malign Pakistan and train and support insurgents,[4][5][6] a claim rejected strongly by India and the United States,[7][8] the latter historically being a strong ally of Pakistan.

In the aftermath of the 2008 Indian embassy bombing in Kabul, the Afghan Foreign Ministry quoted India as a "brother country" and the relationship between the two as one which "no enemy can hamper". Relations between Afghanistan and India received a major boost in 2011 with the signing of a strategic partnership agreement,[9] Afghanistan's first since the Soviet invasion of 1979.[10]

According to a 2010 Gallup poll, 75 % Afghans prefer India's leadership over that of the U.S. and China, with 50% expressing approval, the most positive rating of India for any other surveyed Asia-Pacific country.[11]

History[edit]

Further information: History of India and History of Afghanistan
An edict of Ashoka from Kandahar, now in the Kabul museum.

Relations between the people of Afghanistan and India traces to the Indus Valley Civilisation.[12] Following Alexander the Great's brief occupation, the successor state of the Seleucid Empire controlled the region known today as Afghanistan. In 305 BCE, they ceded much of it to the Indian Maurya Empire as part of an alliance treaty.

Alexander took these away from the Persians and established settlements of his own, but Seleucus Nicator gave them to Sandrocottus (Chandragupta), upon terms of intermarriage and of receiving in exchange 500 elephants.[13]

Strabo64 BCE – 24 CE

The Mauryans brought Buddhism from India and controlled the area south of the Hindu Kush. Their decline began 60 years after Ashoka's rule ended, leading to the Hellenistic reconquest of the region by the Greco-Bactrians. Much of it soon broke away from the Greco-Bactrians and became part of the Indo-Greek Kingdom. The Indo-Greeks had been defeated and expelled by the Indo-Scythians in the late 2nd century BCE.[14] Much of Afghanistan has been influenced by Buddhist, Hindu and Zoroastrian cultures until the arrival of Islam in the 7th century. But despite many Afghans accepting the message of Islam, the Muslims and Hindus lived side by side.

"Kábul has a castle celebrated for its strength, accessible only by one road. In it there are Musulmáns, and it has a town, in which are infidels from Hind."[15]

Istahkrí921 CE

Between the 10th century to the mid 18th century, northern India has been invaded by a number of invaders based in what today is Afghanistan. Amongst them were the Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Khiljis, Suris, and Durranis. During these eras, especially during the Mughal period (1526–1858), many Afghans began immigrating to India due to political unrest in their regions.

Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan and Khan Sahib were prominent leaders of the Indian independence movement and active supporters of the Indian National Congress. Although the NWFP became part of the Muslim state of Pakistan in 1947, active Pashtun support for the Indian freedom struggle led to great sympathy in India for the cause of Pashtun autonomy and freedom. The Indian government continued to support Pashtun leader Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan in lobbying for greater Pashtun freedom in the NWFP.[2] Indians are working in various construction projects, as part of India's rebuilding efforts in Afghanistan, although the Indian intelligence agency RAW is accused by countries such as Pakistan of working to malign Pakistan and train & support insurgents.[4][5][6]These workers are estimated to be anywhere between 3,000 and 4,000. Indian nationals stationed in Afghanistan have often faced continuous security threats in the country, with kidnappings and many attacks (such as the February 2010 Kabul attack) deliberately carried out on them.

Soviet invasion to Taliban takeover[edit]

The Republic of India was the only South Asian nation to recognise the Soviet-backed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan[9] and the Soviet Union's military presence in Afghan territories, and provided humanitarian aid to President Najibullah's Government in Afghanistan.[1] Following the withdrawal of the Soviet armed forces from Afghanistan in 1989, India continued to support Najibullah's government with humanitarian aid. After its fall, India together with the international community supported the coalition government that took control, but relations and contacts ended with the outbreak of another civil war, which brought to power the Taliban, an Islamist militia supported by Pakistan.[16] The Taliban regime was recognised only by Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The destruction of the Bamiyan Buddha monuments by the Taliban led to outrage and angry protests by India, the birthplace of Buddhism.[17] In 1999, the hijacked Indian Airlines Flight 814 landed and stayed in Kandahar in Afghanistan and the Taliban were suspected of supporting them.[1] India became one of the key supporters of the anti-Taliban Northern Alliance.[18]

Post 9/11[edit]

During the U.S.-led invasion of Afghanistan in 2001, India offered intelligence and other forms of support for the Coalition forces. After the overthrow of the Taliban, India established diplomatic relations with the newly established democratic government, provided aid and participated in the reconstruction efforts.[3] India has provided US$650–750 million in humanitarian and economic aid, making it the largest regional provider of aid for Afghanistan.[2][3] India's support and collaboration extends to rebuilding of air links, power plants and investing in health and education sectors as well as helping to train Afghan civil servants, diplomats and police. India also seeks the development of supply lines of electricity, oil and natural gas. Also to give Afghan Students scholarships.[3]

The Indian Army's Border Roads Organisation constructed a major road in 2009 in the remote Afghan province of Nimroz, connecting Delaram to Zaranj. This has proved a viable alternative route for the duty-free movement of goods through the Chabahar port in Iran to Afghanistan.[2][3][19][20] Key to India's strategy in Afghanistan is to build up transportation links that bypass Pakistan, helping reduce the Afghan economy's dependence on Pakistan.[10]

In 2005, India proposed Afghanistan's membership in the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). Both nations also developed strategic and military cooperation against Islamic militants.[2] Owing to the killing of an Indian national by Taliban militants in November 2005, India deployed 200 soldiers of the Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) to provide security for Indian nationals and the projects supported by India.[3] Afghanistan strengthened its ties with India in wake of persisting tensions and problems with Pakistan, which was suspected of continuing to shelter and support the Taliban.[2][3] India pursues a policy of close collaboration with countries such as Afghanistan, Bhutan, and Iran in order to bolster its standing as a regional power and contain its rival Pakistan, which stands accused of aiding and abetting Islamic militants in Kashmir and other states of India.[3]

Three memorandums of understanding (MOUs) for strengthening cooperation in the fields of rural development, education and standardisation between the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and Afghan National Standardisation Authority were signed between Afghanistan and India during Hamid Karzai's visit to India in April 2006.[21] An agreement providing $50 million to promote bilateral businesses between Afghanistan and India was signed during the visit of the Afghan Foreign Minister Dr. Spanta between 29 June – 1 July 2006.[21] During the same year, India raised its aid package to Afghanistan by $150 million, to $750 million.[21] In 2007, Afghanistan finally became the eighth member of SAARC.

In July 2008 the Indian embassy in Kabul was attacked by a suicide car bomb – the deadliest attack in Kabul since the fall of the Taliban in 2001.[22] The bombing killed 58 people[23] and wounded 141.[24] Senior Indian Army officer Brigadier Ravi Datt Mehta was entering the embassy gates in a car along with V. Venkateswara Rao when the attack took place. Both were killed in the blast.[24] The Afghan government's official position implies that Pakistan's ISI was involved in the attack. This position has found support in recent leaks of classified information by Wikileaks.

During the 15th SAARC summit in Colombo, India pledged another USD $450 million alongside a further US$750 million already pledged for ongoing and forthcoming projects. In August 2008, Afghan President Hamid Karzai visited New Delhi. This visit further strengthened bilateral relations, and Prime Minister Singh pledged further aid for Afghanistan.[25]

On 18 October 2009, the Indian Embassy in Kabul was attacked again by a car bomb, little more than a year after the previous attack. The attack killed at least 17 people.[26] Another attack conducted by the same Pakistan-based terrorist organisation took place at the Arya guest house where Indian doctors were staying, resulting in the death of 18 people. India's pledge to rebuild Afghanistan has reached a total of US$2 billion in May 2011 after Manmohan Singh arrived to Kabul for a two-day visit.[27]

The September 2011 assassination of former Afghan president Burhanuddin Rabbani was condemned by India, which stated that, "Tragically, the forces of terror and hatred have silenced yet another powerful voice of reason and peace in Afghanistan. We unreservedly condemn this act of great brutality," and reiterated the steadfast support of the people and government of India in Afghanistan's "quest for peace and efforts to strengthen the roots of democracy".[28][29] India promised to stand by the people of Afghanistan as they prepare to assume the responsibility for their governance and security after the withdrawal of international forces in 2014.[30] In October 2011, Afghanistan signed its first strategic pact with India.[10][31] The military assistance will include training of Afghan security personnel.[32] During his visit to India, Karzai told the media that "This strategic partnership is not directed against any country. This strategic partnership is to support Afghanistan." He also stated that "Pakistan is our twin brother, India is a great friend. The agreement we signed with our friend will not affect our brother." He also added that "However, our engagement with Islamabad has unfortunately not yet yielded the result that we want."[33] Both sides will launch Partnership Council, topmost body to implement the Strategic Partnership Pact in May,2012.

On 22 May 2014 the Indian consulate in Herat was attacked by 3 militants equipped with AK-47s, RPGs, hand grenades and suicide vests. "Our premises have been repeatedly attacked by those who do not support India's development work in Afghanistan. The attack will not dilute India's development assistance and its contribution to rehabilitation and reconstruction of Afghanistan," India's ambassador to Kabul Amar Sinha said at the time.[34]

Economy[edit]

India seeks to expand its economic presence in Afghanistan as the international coalition fighting the Taliban withdraws combat forces through 2014. Especially, it wants to improve transport connectivity and economic collaboration with countries in Central and South Asia. India has already invested US$10.8 billion in Afghanistan as of 2012. More such projects are likely to come up after Nato's withdrawal. This includes setting up Iron ore mines, a 6 MTPA steel plant (by SAIL—Steel Authority of India Limited), an 800 MW power plant, Hydro-electric power projects, transmission lines, roads etc., India and Iran are set to ink a transit agreement on transporting goods to landlocked Afghanistan. The Indian government is investing more than US$100 million in the expansion of the Chabahar port in south-eastern Iran which will serve as a hub for the transportation of transit goods.[35]

Trans-Afghanistan Pipeline[edit]

See main article on TAPI.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Crossette, Barbara (7 March 1989). "India to Provide Aid to Government in Afghanistan". New York Times. Retrieved 3 June 2008. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Kabul's India ties worry Pakistan". Radio Free Europe, Radio Liberty. Archived from the original on 11 June 2008. Retrieved 3 June 2008. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "India's Northern Exposure". Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 30 May 2008. Retrieved 3 June 2008. 
  4. ^ a b "'RAW Is Training 600 Balochis In Afghanistan'". outlookindia.com. Retrieved 9 March 2012. 
  5. ^ a b "Pakistan Times! » RAW Creating Trouble for NATO in Afghanistan". Pak-times.com. 25 September 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2012. [unreliable source?]
  6. ^ a b "RAW helping militants in Afghanistan: Musharraf". Rediff.com. 31 December 2004. Retrieved 9 March 2012. [unreliable source?]
  7. ^ "'No evidence that India aiding Pak Baloch rebels'". The Indian Express. 27 May 2009. Retrieved 9 March 2012. 
  8. ^ "US bails out India from Balochistan wrangle". Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 31 July 2009. Retrieved 9 March 2012. 
  9. ^ a b "India, Russia and China in Race to Expand Influence Over Afghanistan; Preventing Re-Talibanization After 2014". The World Reporter. Retrieved 30 March 2013. 
  10. ^ a b c "[Indian Influence in Afghanistan:] 2011 and Beyond," Global Bearings, 2 November 2011.
  11. ^ U.S. Leadership More Popular in Asia Than China's, India's Gallup
  12. ^ Nancy Dupree (1973): An Historical Guide To Afghanistan, Chapter 3 Sites in Perspective.
  13. ^ Nancy Hatch Dupree / Aḥmad ʻAlī Kuhzād (1972). "An Historical Guide to Kabul – The Name". American International School of Kabul. Archived from the original on 30 August 2010. Retrieved September 18, 2010. 
  14. ^ Rajadhyaksha, Abhijit (2 August 2009). "The Mauryas: Chandragupta". Historyfiles.co.uk. Retrieved 9 March 2012. 
  15. ^ "A.—The Hindu Kings of Kábul (p.3)". Sir H. M. Elliot. London: Packard Humanities Institute. 1867–1877. Retrieved September 18, 2010. 
  16. ^ "Afghanistan's Troubled Border". Newsweek. Retrieved 3 June 2008. 
  17. ^ Popham, Peter (10 March 2001). "Taliban vandalism stirs India's oldest hatreds". The Independent (UK). Retrieved 3 June 2008. 
  18. ^ "India joins anti-Taliban coalition". Jane's Security News. Archived from the original on 26 February 2008. Retrieved 3 June 2008. 
  19. ^ Adam Bennett; International Monetary Fund (15 April 2005). Reconstructing Afghanistan. International Monetary Fund. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-58906-324-2. Retrieved 10 January 2012. 
  20. ^ Ibp Usa (15 February 2008). Global Logistics Assessments Reports Handbook: Strategic Transportation and Customs Information for Selected Countries. Int'l Business Publications. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-7397-6603-3. Retrieved 10 January 2012. 
  21. ^ a b c India 2008, Pg 494
  22. ^ "hindustantimes news". Hindustan Times (India). Agence France-Presse. 7 July 2008. Retrieved 7 July 2008. 
  23. ^ "AP Interview: Indian Embassy bomber hoped to destroy Kabul embassy, ambassador says – International Herald Tribune". Retrieved 10 July 2008. 
  24. ^ a b "IFS officer, Brig among Indians killed in blast". IBN (ibnlive.com). 7 July 2008. Archived from the original on 10 July 2008. Retrieved 7 July 2008. 
  25. ^ India, Afghanistan united against terror
  26. ^ "Afghan bomb strikes India embassy". BBC News. 8 October 2009. Retrieved 23 April 2010. 
  27. ^ Pajhwok Afghan News – Singh given ceremonial reception, 12 May 2011.
  28. ^ Former Afghanistan President Burhanuddin Rabbani assassinated[dead link]
  29. ^ "India Condemns Rabbani Assassination". News.outlookindia.com. Retrieved 9 March 2012. 
  30. ^ Archis Mohan (5 October 2011). "Deal for larger role in Kabul". The Telegraph. Kolkota, India. Retrieved 9 March 2012. 
  31. ^ KATY DAIGLE – Associated Press (4 October 2011). "Afghanistan signs 1st strategic pact _ with India". News.yahoo.com. Retrieved 9 March 2012. 
  32. ^ "US hails India's key role in Afghanistan." PTI, 8 October 2011.
  33. ^ Pakistan a twin brother, talks to go on: Karzai. Pajhwok Afghan News. Sujoy Dhar. 5 October 2011.
  34. ^ "Indian consulate in Afghanistan attacked by gunmen". India Gazette. Retrieved 22 May 2014. 
  35. ^ "India Plans Shipping Afghan Goods via Iran". The Gazette of Central Asia (Satrapia). 24 March 2013. 

Additional reading[edit]