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Background and prerequisites
The Treaty of Gandomak (26 or 30 May 1879) and the Treaty of Durand Line overruled an agreement from 1893 concerning 2,640 kilometers (1,640 mi) of porous border between India (which is, as of 1947, now Pakistan) and Afghanistan. As a result, the King of Afghanistan completely ceded foreign policy rule to Great Britain. Germany, as a rival of England, was only through secret missions and expeditions able to curb the influence of the United Kingdom in Afghanistan. Engineer Gebhard Fleischer as a german James Bond in Kabul was a technical employee of the Krupp company, an arms manufacturer. In 1893, he traveled to Kabul and privately met with the Monarch Abdur Rahman Khan. Under the king's direction, he expanded the weapons companies Maschin Khana (House of machines) and Tupkhana (cannon house). It is not sure whether the government of British India knew of this journey. Later, in 1904, the Krupp engineers were mysteriously assassinated. Adamec writes:
- * The first German known to reside in Kabul was Gottlieb Fleischer, an employee of Krupp Stellworks of Essen, Germany, who was contracted by Amir Abdul Rahman in 1898 to start manufacture of ammunitions and arms in the newly constructed factory (mashin Khana) at Kabul. He was killed in November 1904 near the border while traveling to India
Beginning and Development of the Relationship
- Trade and friendship treaty of 1916
The second German-Afghan meeting between Habibullah Khan and a 23-member German delegation was in 1915. This delegation is known as the Niedermayer-Hentig expedition. The German delegation was not their main intentions, namely the weakening of the British position in Afghanistan can be achieved, however, was in 1916 came to a friendship and trade agreement. The contract has been concluded, even if between Germany and Afghanistan were no diplomatic relations. According to the Treaty of 24.January 1916 the German delegation of the Government of Afghanistan has promised 100,000 rifles and 300 guns.
The relations between Germany and Afghanistan began before World War I. Relations between the two countries have historically been friendly. A friendship agreement was concluded on March 3, 1926. With accreditation of ambassadors in both countries in 1926 the existing friendship and trade agreement of 24 January 1916 a diplomatic higher level was expressed.
- Diplomatic relations and accreditation of consul and ambassadors 1922
1922 a first Afghan delegation traveled to Berlin for talks on diplomacy, trade and cultural relations. 1923 Germany has sent Dr. Fritz Grobba to Afghanistan. He was first carried out for a year as consul and then to 1926 as a de facto embassy Managing the work of an ambassador in Kabul. Diplomatic representation and the residence of the minister plenipotentiary were in Kabul Gardens of Babur
Afghanistan established close ties with Germany in 1935, seeking an alternative to its historical position contested between Russia and Britain. Afghanistan resisted calls from Moscow and London to expel the Italian and German diplomatic corps for most of World War II. After the conclusion of World War II the German military donated its remaining arsenal to Afghanistan as a show of good faith for its neutral stance.
Complete removal of all German specialists in 1981 from Afghanistan
The Goethe Institute from the Federal Republic of Germany was closed in 1981. The organisation of courses for learning the German language and literature were taken over by teachers from the German Democratic Republic. In 2003, after 12 years, the unified Germany re-established the courses teaching German language and literature.
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Military participation ISAF
Currently Germany is engaged in a security mission with its military and reconstruction efforts in the northern areas of Afghanistan.
- Ludwig W. Adamec: Historical Dictionary of Afghanistan, 4th ed., 2012, ISBN 978-8170493112
- Ludwig W. Adamec: Afghanistan's Foreign Affairs to the Mid-Twentieth Century: Relations with the USSR, Germany, and Britain. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1974, ISBN 978-0816504596
- Germany-Afghanistan Relations in :Ludwig W. Adamec: Historical Dictionary of Afghanistan, 4th ed., 2012, p. 162, ISBN 978-8170493112.
- Adamec, Ibid.
- Necipoglu, Gulru (2002). Muqarnas: An Annual on the Visual Culture of the Islamic World. BRILL. ISBN 90-04-12593-0.
- Text in League of Nations Treaty Series, vol. 62, pp. 116-125.
- Clements, Frank A.: Conflict in Afghanistan: a historical encyclopedia, 2003, p.7
- Tom Lansford. A bitter harvest: US foreign policy and Afghanistan. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2003 ISBN 0-7546-3615-1, ISBN 978-0-7546-3615-1. Pg 2