African-American Woman Suffrage Movement
As the women's suffrage movement gained popularity, African-American women were increasingly marginalized. African-American women dealt not only with the sexism of being withheld the vote, but also the racism of white suffragists. The struggle for the vote did not end with the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment. In some Southern states African American women were unable to freely exercise their right to vote up until the 1960s. However, these difficulties did not deter African-American women in their effort to secure the vote.
Marginalizing African American women
In 1890, two rival organizations, the National Woman Suffrage Association and the American Woman Suffrage Association, merged to form the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA). As NAWSA began gaining support for its cause, its members realized the exclusion African-American women would gain greater support, resulting in the adoption of a more narrow view of woman suffrage than had been previously asserted. NAWSA focused on enfranchisement solely for white women. African American women began experiencing the ‘Anti-Black’ woman suffrage movement. The National Woman Suffrage Association considered the Northeastern Federation of Colored Women's Clubs to be a liability to the association due to Southern white women's attitudes on black women getting the vote. Southern whites feared African Americans gaining more political advantage and thus power; African American women voters would help to achieve this.
The "Educated Suffragist"
The main push of NAWSA's movement was to marginalize as many African-American women as possible. Through this effort developed the idea of the “educated suffragist.” This was the notion that being educated was an important pre-requisite for being allowed the right to vote. Since many African American women were uneducated, this meant exclusion from having the right to vote. This movement was prevalent in the South but eventually gained momentum in the North as well. African-American women would not be deterred by the rising opposition and became even more aggressive in their campaign to find equality with men and other women.
Issues in exercising the vote
Despite the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920, African-American women, particularly those inhabiting Southern states, still faced a number of issues. At first, African American women in the North were easily able to register to vote and quite a few became actively involved in politics. One such woman was Annie Simms Banks who was chosen to serve as a delegate to Kentucky’s Republican Party in March 1920. White southerners took notice of black female activists organizing themselves for suffrage, and after the passage of the nineteenth amendment, black women's voter registration in Florida was higher than white woman's. Due to fears by white people, African-American women found themselves on the receiving end of a number of disenfranchisement methods. These included waiting in line for up to twelve hours to register to vote, head taxes and new tests. One of the new tests required that African-American women read and interpret the Constitution before being deemed eligible to vote. In the South, African-American women faced more difficult circumstances. These included bodily harm and fabricated charges designed to land them in jail if they attempted to vote. This treatment of African-American women in the South continued up until the 1960s.
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