African Australian

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African Australians
Africaimmiaus.jpg
Total population
248,605 (by country of birth, 2006); 2.51% of Australia's population (by ancestry, 2006)[1]
Regions with significant populations
All capital cities;
predominantly Melbourne · Sydney · Perth
Languages
English · Afrikaans · Akan · Arabic · Dinka · Ewe · Igbo · Mauritian Creole · Ndebele · Shona · Swahili · Tigrinya · Yoruba · other languages of Africa
Religion
predominantly Christianity; Islam
Related ethnic groups
other African people

African Australians are Australian citizens and residents born in, or with recent ancestors from Africa.[2][3] Large-scale immigration from Africa to Australia is only a recent phenomenon, with Europe and Asia traditionally being the largest sources of migration to Australia. In 2005-06, permanent settler arrivals to Australia included 4,000 South Africans and 3,800 Sudanese, constituting the sixth and seventh largest sources of migrants, respectively.[4]

African Australians are of diverse cultural, linguistic, racial, religious, educational, and employment backgrounds.[5] The Australian Bureau of Statistics classifies all residents into cultural and ethnic groups according to geographical origin, including the many Afrikaner migrants from Southern Africa in the Sub-Saharan region.[6]

African migrants may have come to Australia as skilled migrants, refugees, through family reunion, or as secondary migrants from other countries.[7]

History[edit]

An agricultural officer from Ghana visiting Queensland under the Special Commonwealth African Assistance Plan, 1962.

People from Africa, including those of Black African heritage, arrived in Australia with the First Fleet.[8][9] Migrants from Mauritius have been arriving in Australia since before federation in 1901. They came as convicts, prospectors who sought Victoria's goldfields, or skilled sugar workers who significantly helped to develop Queensland's sugar industry.[10]

The Special Commonwealth African Assistance Plan enabled students from Commonwealth African countries, including from Ghana, to travel to Australia during the mid-1960s. More than 70 per cent of those from West African countries remained in Australia following military coup d'états in their countries of birth.[11] Ultimately, however, immigration from Africa to Australia generally remained limited until the 1990s.

Demographics[edit]

Migration streams[edit]

People of South African ancestry whose parents were both born in Australia as a fraction of total residents.

The largest source of African immigrants in Australia come from South Africa and are largely of Afrikaner and British descent. Many migrants born in Zimbabwe left the country after major land reforms started in the 1980s by the Robert Mugabe government. Two thirds arrived after 2001, following economic uncertainty in their country of birth. Of the Zimbabwe-born migrants who moved to Australia, the largest proportion are of English (30.6%) ancestry, with some individuals of Scottish (7.3%) background present as well. More recent migration from Zimbabwe has included increasing numbers of Bantu people of Shona and Ndebele ethnicities.[12]

Other immigrants from Africa arrived via humanitarian programs. In the 2011-2012 fiscal year, these individuals were mainly from Burundi (44/79), Congo (143/158), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (370/454), Eritrea (244/294), Malawi (57/71), Rwanda (44/62), and Tanzania (40/67).[7]

Additionally, other immigrants from Africa arrived through a family migration stream. In the 2011-2012 fiscal year, these individuals were primarily from Ethiopia (412/802), Ghana (152/202), Guinea (33/62), Liberia (82/129), Sierra Leone (106/140), Somalia (164/420), Sudan (313/513), and Uganda (37/67).[7]

A significant number of African migrants have come to Australia through a skill migration stream. In the 2011-2012 fiscal year, these individuals were chiefly from Egypt (417/773), Kenya (188/415), Mauritius (228/303), Nigeria (126/250), South Africa (4,239/6,307), Zambia (35/115), and Zimbabwe (467/848).[7]

Some African immigrants have also arrived via a secondary migration from New Zealand, where they are citizens. In the 2011-2012 fiscal year, these New Zealand nationals were mainly originally from Libya (31/76).[7]

Across Australia's major cities, immigration from Africa is varied depending on country of origin. While Egyptian, Nigerian, and Ghanaian migrants overwhelmingly head for Sydney,[13][14][15] Mauritian and Sudanese migrant communities are largest in Melbourne.[10][16]

As of 2013, the Australian Special Broadcasting Service broadcasts in six new languages spoken by the growing migrant and refugee communities from Africa and Asia. Among these are Dinka of South Sudan, Swahili of Tanzania and the African Great Lakes region, and Tigrinya of Eritrea and Ethiopia.[17]

Countries of birth[edit]

In the 2006 Australian Census, 248,605 residents declared that they were born in Africa.[1]

Major countries of birth of African immigrants to Australia (2006 Census)
Country Population Main city and proportion who live there
South Africa 104,128 Sydney (27.3%)
Egypt 33,497 Sydney (48.5%)
Zimbabwe 20,157 Perth (24.7%)
Sudan 19,049 Melbourne (31.0%)
Mauritius 18,175 Melbourne (48.6%)
Kenya 9,940 Perth (26.9%)
Ethiopia 5,633 Melbourne (53.9%)
Somalia 4,316 Melbourne (60.1%)
Zambia 4,082 Perth (30.7%)
Ghana 2,771 Sydney (51.0%)

Notable African Australians[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b 20680-Country of Birth of Person (full classification list) by Sex - Australia (2006)
  2. ^ "African Australians: A Report on Human Rights and Social Inclusion Issues". Australian Human Rights Commission. Retrieved 23 November 2013. "It is a common misconception that people from African backgrounds are one and the same. While the strong African spirit and pride certainly unifies, people from African backgrounds represent tremendous diversity in ethnicity, race, language, culture and religion. After all, the African continent comprises more than 50 countries. The impression of homogeneity is only one of many misconceptions about African Australians." 
  3. ^ "Joint Submission on the Australian Human Rights Commission Discussion Paper: African Australians: A report on human rights and social inclusion issues". NSW Service for the Treatment and Rehabilitation of Torture and Trauma Survivors (STARTTS) with the Public Interest Advocacy Centre (PIAC). Retrieved 24 November 2013. 
  4. ^ Australian Year Book 2008
  5. ^ "African resettlement in Australia: Conference report" (pdf (6.2MB 76 pages)). African Think Tank Inc. April 2007. Archived from the original on 19 July 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-26. 
  6. ^ "Australian Standard Classification of Cultural and Ethnic Groups (ASCCEG), 2011". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 1 November 2013. 
  7. ^ a b c d e "Settler Arrival Data: Selected Countries of Birth by Migration Stream for the Financial Year 2011–12". Department of Immigration and Border Protection. Retrieved 1 November 2013. 
  8. ^ "THE FIRST FLEET, BOTANY BAY AND THE BRITISH PENAL COLONY". NSW Government. 
  9. ^ "A Multicultural First Fleet". University of Wollongong. Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  10. ^ a b http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/statistics/comm-summ/_pdf/mauritius.pdf
  11. ^ "Community Information Summary: Ghana-born". Department of Immigration & Citizenship. 
  12. ^ "Zimbabwe". Department of Immigration and Citizenship. Retrieved 2 November 2013. 
  13. ^ http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/statistics/comm-summ/_pdf/egypt.pdf
  14. ^ http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/statistics/comm-summ/_pdf/nigeria.pdf
  15. ^ http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/statistics/comm-summ/_pdf/ghana.pdf
  16. ^ http://www.immi.gov.au/media/publications/statistics/comm-summ/_pdf/sudan.pdf
  17. ^ http://www.sbs.com.au/news/article/2012/12/01/sbs-unveils-new-radio-schedule

External links[edit]