African forest buffalo
|African forest buffalo|
|Subspecies:||S. caffer nanus|
|Syncerus caffer nanus
African forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus) is the smallest subspecies of the African buffalo. It is related to the Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer), West African savanna buffalo (Syncerus caffer brachyceros) and Central African savanna buffalo (Syncerus caffer aequinoctialis). However, it is the only subspecies that occurs mainly in the rainforest of central and western Africa with an annual rainfall around 1,500 mm.
The African forest buffalo is a smaller variety of African buffalo. Cape buffalo weigh anywhere from 400 to 800 kg (880–1760 lbs), whereas African forest buffalo are much lighter, weighing in at 250 to 320 kg (550–705 lbs). Weight is not the only differentiation, however; this subspecies has reddish brown hide that is darker in the facial area. The shape and size of the horns distinguishes forest buffalo from other subspecies. African forest buffalo have much smaller horns than their savanna counterparts, the Cape buffalo. Cape buffalo horns will often grow and fuse together, but forest buffalo horns will rarely fuse.
African forest buffalo live in the rainforests of Western and Central Africa; however, their home ranges typically consist of a combination of marshes, grassy savannas, and the wet African rainforests. Savannas are the area where the buffalo graze, while the marshes serve as wallows and help with the insects. Forest buffalo are very rarely observed in the unbroken canopy of the forests. They instead spend most of their time in clearings, grazing on grasses and sedges. Consequently, their diet is primarily made up of grasses and other plants that grow in clearings and savannas.
The mixture of habitats is essential for the forest buffalo. Expansion and encroachment of the rainforest on the surrounding savannas and openings is a major difficulty of maintaining the ecosystem. Forest buffalo enjoy old logging roads and tracks, where the forest is thinner and grass and other foods can grow. In these areas forest buffalo depend on the grass that is able to develop as a result of the areas that have been previously clear-cut. In some areas park management staff burn off the savannas on a regular basis to keep the rainforest from growing onto the savannas and changing the ecosystem of the area.
Large home ranges can be associated with less-productive habitats; however, a larger area of open grassland has been observed to have a positive relationship with herd size. Home ranges remain remarkably constant and stable year after year. The only documentation of the actual home range boundaries of these animals is relatively recent, so time can only tell how these boundaries remain over large lengths of time; however, studies have shown almost no movement in range boundaries from one year to the next.
Although the area included in a home range is relatively constant over time, the preferences in regards to what part of the range is most used shifts with the seasons. From March until August forest buffalo will spend most of their time in the forest, while from September through February they will favor the savannas and marshes.
African forest buffalo tend to use resting places based on sand during the wet season; however, they like to use dirt and leaves during the dry season.
African forest buffalo arrange themselves into herds, which help in defense against predators; however, they are not immune to assault. Leopards will feast on juvenile forest buffalo when they have the opportunity.
African forest buffalo have relatively small herds compared to the well-studied Cape buffalo. Cape buffalo can have herds of over one thousand members; however, forest buffalo will stay in much smaller groups—as small as three and rarely over thirty. If forest buffalo are in a large group, they will spend more time grazing since there is less need to devote time to alert behavior.
A herd of forest buffalo typically consists of one or occasionally two bulls, and a harem of female cows, juveniles, and calves. Unlike the Cape buffalo, forest buffalo bulls remain with the herd continually, year round. Whereas, Cape buffalo bulls stay in bachelor herds until the wet season when young bulls join the females, mate, help protect the young calves, and then leave. Animals usually remain in the same herd for their entire lives. Herd-switching has been observed in the female cows; however, this is not a usual occurrence and instead is an exception to the rule. Herds can split into two groups for a short period of time before merging back together.
Forest buffalo are relatively unaffected by seasonal cycles. However, in the wet season, herds will be more spread out in the forest,. and these animals tend to use resting places based on sand during the wet season but use dirt and leaves during the dry season. Moreover in open habitats such as clearings, the group was more aggregated when resting and was more rounded in shape compared to group properties noted in forest during the wet season.
- Korte 115
- Melletti et al. 1312
- Korte 123
- Blake 81
- Melletti, Penteriani, and Boitani 186
- Melletti et al. 1313
- van der Hoek et al. 1
- Bekheis, Jong, and Prins 674
- Korte 116
- Korte 122
- Korte 234
- Korte 121
- Melletti et al. 1315
- Korte 125
- Melletti et al. 1316
- Melletti et al. 1317
- Melletti et al. 1318
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Syncerus caffer nanus.|
- Bekhuis, Patricia D.B.M.; De Jong, Christine B. and Prins, Herbert H. T. (2008). "Diet selection and density estimates of forest buffalo in Campo-Ma’an National Park, Cameroon". African Journal of Ecology 46 (4): 668–675. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2028.2008.00956.x.
- Blake, Stephen (2002). "Forest Buffalo Prefer Clearings to Closed-canopy Forest in the Primary Forest of Northern Congo". Oryx 36 (1): 81–86. doi:10.1017/S0030605302000121.
- Hoek, Yntze van der, Lustenhouwer Ivo, Jefferry Kathryn J., and Hooft Pim van (2012). "Potential Effects of Prescribed Savannah Burning on the Diet Selection of Forest Buffalo (Syncerus Caffer Nanus) in Lope´ National Park, Gabon". African Journal of Ecology 50 (3): 1–8.
- Korte, Lisa M (2008). "Habitat Selection at Two Spatial Scales and Diurnal Activity Patterns of Adult Female Forest Buffalo". Journal of Mammalogy 89 (1): 115–125. doi:10.1644/06-MAMM-A-423.1.
- Korte, Lisa M (2008). "Variation of Group Size Among African Buffalo Herds in a Forest-savanna Mosaic Landscape". Journal of Zoology 275 (3): 229–236. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2008.00430.x.
- Korte, Lisa M (2009). "Herd-switching in Adult Female African Forest Buffalo Syncerus Caffer Nanus". African Journal of Ecology 47 (1): 125–127. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2028.2008.00978.x.
- Melletti M., Penteriani V., and Boitani L. (2007). "Habitat Preferences of the Secretive Forest Buffalo Syncerus Caffer Nanus) in Central Africa". Journal of Zoology 271 (2): 178–186. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00196.x.
- Melletti, Mario, Penteriani Vincenzo, Mirabile Marzia, and Boitani Luigi (2007). "Some Behavioral Aspects of Forest Buffalo (Syncerus Caffer Nanus): From Herd to Individual". Journal of Mammalogy 88 (5): 1312–1318. doi:10.1644/06-MAMM-A-240R1.1.
- Melletti, Mario; Penteriani, Vincenzo, Mirabile, Marzia and Boitani, Luigi (2008). "Effects of habitat and season on the grouping of forest buffalo resting places". African Journal of Ecology 47: 121–124. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2028.2008.00965.x.
- Melletti, Mario, M. M. Delgado, Penteriani Vincenzo, Mirabile Marzia, and Boitani Luigi (2010). "Spatial properties of a forest buffalo herd and individual positioning as a response to environmental cues and social behaviour". Journal of Ethology 28 (3): 421–428. doi:10.1007/s10164-009-0199-z.