Cinema of Africa
African cinema is film production in Africa. It dates back to the early 20th century, when film reels were the primary cinematic technology in use. The film industry of Egypt is the largest on the continent.
The colonial era
During the colonial era, Africa was represented exclusively by Western filmmakers. The continent was portrayed as an exotic land without history or culture. Examples of this kind of cinema abound and include jungle epics based on the Tarzan character created by Edgar Rice Burroughs and the adventure film The African Queen (1951), and various adaptations of H. Rider Haggard's novel King Solomon's Mines (1885). In the mid-1930s, the Bantu Educational Kinema Experiment was carried out in order to educate the Bantu peoples.
In the French colonies Africans were, by law, not permitted to make films of their own. This ban was known as the "Laval Decree". The ban stunted the growth of film as a means for Africans to express themselves politically, culturally, and artistically. In 1955, however, Paulin Soumanou Vieyra – originally from Benin, but educated in Senegal – along with his colleagues from Le Group Africain du Cinema, shot a short film in Paris by the name of Afrique Sur Seine (1955). Vieyra was trained in filmmaking at the Institut des hautes études cinématographiques (IDHEC) in Paris, and in spite of the ban on filmmaking in Africa, was granted permission to make a film in France. Afrique Sur Seine explores the difficulties of being an African in France during the 1950s and is considered to be the first film directed by a black African.
Before independence, only a few anti-colonial films were produced. Examples include Les statues meurent aussi by Chris Marker and Alain Resnais about European robbery of African art (which was banned by the French for 10 years) and Afrique 50 by René Vautier about anti-colonial riots in Côte d'Ivoire and in Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso).
Also doing film work in Africa during this time was the French Ethnographic filmmaker, Jean Rouch. Rouch's work has been controversial amongst both French and African audiences. With films like Jaguar (1955), Les maitres fous (1955), Moi, un noir (1958), and La pyramide humaine (1959), Rouch made documentaries that were not explicitly anti-colonial, but which challenged many received notions about colonial Africa and gave a new voice to Africans through film. Although Rouch has been accused by Ousmane Sembene – and others – of being someone who looks at Africans "as if they are insects," Rouch was an important figure in the early development of African film and was the first person to work with several Africans who would go on to have important careers in African cinema (Oumarou Ganda, Safi Faye and Moustapha Alassane, to name a few).
Because most of the films prior to independence were egregiously racist in nature, African filmmakers of the independence era – such as Ousmane Sembene and Oumarou Ganda, among others – saw filmmaking as an important political tool for rectifying the erroneous image of Africans put forward by Western filmmakers and for reclaiming the image of Africa for Africans.
Post-independence and 1970s
The first African film to win international recognition was Ousmane Sembène's La Noire de... also known as Black Girl. It showed the despair of an African woman who has to work as a maid in France. The writer Sembène had turned to cinema to reach a wider audience. He is still considered to be the "father of African cinema". Sembène's native country Senegal continued to be the most important place of African film production for more than a decade.
With the of the African film festival FESPACO in Burkina Faso in 1969, African film created its own forum. FESPACO now takes place every two years in alternation with the film festival Carthago in (Tunisia).
The Federation of African Filmmakers (FEPACI) was formed in 1969 in order to focus attention on the promotion of African film industries in terms of production, distribution and exhibition. From its inception, FEPACI was seen as a critical partner organization to the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), now the African Union. FEPACI looks at the role of film in the politico-economic and cultural development of African states and the continent as a whole.
Med Hondo's Soleil O, shot in 1969, was immediately recognized. No less politically engaged than Sembène, he chose a more controversial filmic language to show what it means to be a stranger in France with the "wrong" skin colour.
1980s and beyond
Souleymane Cissé's Yeelen (Mali, 1987) and Cheick Oumar Sissoko's Guimba (Mali, 1995) were well received in the west. Some critics criticized the filmmakers for adapting to the exotic tastes of western audiences.
Many films of the 1990s, including Quartier Mozart by Jean-Pierre Bekolo (Cameroon, 1992), are situated in the globalized African metropolis.
A first African Film Summit took place in South Africa in 2006. It was followed by FEPACI 9th Congress.
Nollywood, a colloquial term for Nigerian cinema, is a growing and commercially viable industry.
African cinema focuses on social and political themes rather than any commercial interests, and is an exploration of the conflicts between the traditional past and modern times. The political approach of African filmmakers is clearly evident in the Charte du cinéaste africain (Charter of the African cinéaste) which the union of African filmmakers FEPACI adopted in Algiers in 1975.
The filmmakers start by recalling the neocolonial condition of African societies. "The situation contemporary African societies live in is one in which they are dominated on several levels: politically, economically and culturally." African filmmakers stressed their solidarity with progressive filmmakers in other parts of the world. African cinema is often seen a part of Third Cinema.
Some African filmmakers, for example Ousmane Sembène, try to give back African history to African people by remembering the resistance to European and Islamic domination.
The role of the African filmmaker is often compared to traditional griots. Like them their task is to express and reflect communal experiences. Patterns of African oral literature often recur in African films. African film has also been influenced by traditions from other continents, such as Italian neorealism, Brazilian Cinema Novo and the theatre of Bertolt Brecht.
Ethnologist and filmmaker Safi Faye was the first African woman film director to gain international recognition.
In 1972, Sarah Maldoror had shot her film Sambizanga about the 1961–74 war in Angola. Surviving African women of this war are the subject of the documentary Les Oubliées (The forgotten women), made by Anne-Laure Folly twenty years later. In 1995, Wanjiru Kinyanjui made the feature film The Battle of the Sacred Tree in Kenya.
In 2008, Manouchka Kelly Labouba became the first woman to direct a fictional film in the history of Gabon. Her short film, Le Divorce, addresses the clash between modern and traditional values and its impact on a young Gabonese couple's attempt to divorce.
Directors by country
- Burkina Faso: Idrissa Ouedraogo, Gaston Kaboré, Dani Kouyaté, Fanta Régina Nacro, Pierre Yameogo, Sanou Kollo, Pierre Rouamba, Drissa Touré, Pierre Yaméogo
- Cameroon: Jean-Pierre Bekolo, Jean-Pierre Dikongué Pipa, Bassek Ba Kobhio, Jean-Pierre Dikongue, François Woukoache, Francis Taptue
- Chad: Issa Serge Coelo, Mahamat Saleh Haroun
- Côte d'Ivoire: Desiré Ecaré, Fadika Kramo Lancine, Roger Gnoan M'Bala, Jacques Trabi, Sidiki Bakaba, Henri Duparc, Akissi Delta, Marie-Louise Asseu
- Democratic Republic of the Congo: Zeka Laplaine, Mwezé Ngangura, Mamadi Indoka, Balufu Bakupa-Kanyinda, Joseph Kumbela
- Egypt: Salah Abu Seif, Youssef Chahine, Yousry Nasrallah, Ezzel Dine Zulficar, Sherif Arafa, Khaled Youssef, Marwan Hamed, Mohamed Khan, Shady Abdel Salam, Khairy Beshara, Samir Seif
- Ethiopia: Haile Gerima
- Gabon: Imunga Ivanga, Pierre-Marie Dong, Henri Joseph Koumba Bibidi, Charles Mensah
- Ghana: Kwaw Ansah, Leila Djansi
- Guinea: Mohamed Camara, David Achkar, Cheik Doukouré, Cheick Fantamady Camara, Gahité Fofana, Mama Keïta
- Guinea-Bissau: Flora Gomes
- Kenya: Wanuri Kahiu, Judy Kibinge, Jane Munene, Anne Mungai, Wanjiru Kinyanjui
- Mali: Souleymane Cissé, Cheick Oumar Sissoko, Abdoulaye Ascofare, Adama Drabo, Manthia Diawara
- Mauritania: Med Hondo, Abderrahmane Sissako, Sidney Sokhana
- Niger: Oumarou Ganda
- Nigeria: Ola Balogun, Izu Ojukwu, Eddie Ugboma, Amaka Igwe, Zeb Ejiro, Lola Fani-Kayode, Bayo Awala, Greg Fiberesima
- Rwanda: Eric Kabera, Kivu Ruhorahoza
- Senegal: Ousmane Sembène, Djibril Diop Mambéty, Safi Faye, Ben Diogaye Beye, Mansour Sora Wade, Moussa Sène Absa, Bouna Medoune Seye, Tidiane Aw, Moussa Bathily, Ben Diogaye Bèye, Clarence Thomas Delgado, Ahmadou Diallo, Dyana Gaye, Ababacar Samb Makharam, Ousmane William Mbaye, Samba Félix Ndiaye, Moustapha Ndoye, Joseph Gaï Ramaka, Blaise Senghor, Thierno Faty Sow, As Thiam, Momar Thiam, Moussa Touré, Mahama Johnson Traoré, Paulin Soumanou Vieyra, Mansour Sora Wade, Ibrahima Sarr, Alain Gomis
- Somalia: Abdisalam Aato, Abdulkadir Ahmed Said, Idil Ibrahim
- Sudan: Gadalla Gubara
- South Africa: Lionel Ngakane, Gavin Hood, Zola Maseko, Neill Blomkamp, Seipati Bulani-Hopa, Mickey Dube, Oliver Hermanus, William Kentridge, Teddy Matthera, Morabane Modise, Sechaba Morejele
- Togo: Anne Laure Folly
- Uganda: Usama Mukwaya, Mariam Ndagire, Matt Bish, Carol Kamya, Jacqueline Rose Kawere Nabagereka
- Zimbabwe: M. K. Asante, Jr., Tsitsi Dangarembga
Films about African cinema
- Mahir Şaul and Ralph Austen (eds),00 Viewing African Cinema in the Twenty-First Century: Art Films and the Nollywood Video Revolution, Ohio University Press, 2010, ISBN 978-0-8214-1931-1
- Roy Armes: Dictionary of African Filmmakers, Indiana University Press, 2008, ISBN 0-253-35116-2
- Olivier Barlet, African Cinemas: Decolonizing the Gaze, London: Zed Books, 2001
- Fernando E. Solanas, Octavio Getino, "Towards a Third Cinema" in: Bill Nichols (ed.), Movies and Methods. An Anthology, University of California Press, 1976, pp. 44–64
- Nwachukwu Frank Ukadike, Black African Cinema, University of California Press, 1994
- Africultures: see www.africultures.com (French and English)
- Samuel Lelievre (ed.), "Cinémas africains, une oasis dans le désert?", CinémAction, no. 106, Paris, Télérama/Corlet, 1st trimester 2003
- Écrans d'Afriques (1992–1998) – French and English – to read on www.africine.org or www.africultures.com
- Khalid Halhoul, Utne Reader, June/July 2012 Edition – www.utne.com/african-cinema-shift-cultural-perceptions.aspx
- Murphy, David (2000). "Africans Filming Africa: Questioning Theories of an Authentic African Cinema". Journal of African Cultural Studies 13 (2): 239–249. doi:10.1080/713674315. JSTOR 1771833.
- Notcutt, L. A., and G. C. Latham, The African and the Cinema: An Account of the Work of the Bantu Educational Cinema Experiment during the Period March 1935 to May 1937 (London: Edinburgh House Press, 1937).
- Diawara, Manthia (1992). African Cinema: Politics and Culture. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, pp. 22-23.
- Halhoul, Khalid (2012). "Using African Cinema to Shift Cultural Perceptions." Utne Reader (June/July 2012 edition). Mixed Media Section, pp. 78–79.
- Diawara (1992). African Cinema, p. 23.
- Gugler, Josef (2003). African Film: Re-Imagining a Continent. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, p. 3.
- Ukadike, Nwachukwu Frank (1994), Black African Cinema. Berkeley: University of California Press, p. 49.
- Melissa Thackway (2003). Africa Shoots Back: Alternative Perspectives in Sub-Saharan Francophone African Film. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, ISBN isbn=978-0-253-34349-9, pp. 7 and 32.
- See Cine-Ethnography (1994), edited by Steven Feld, and The Adventure of the Real: Jean Rouch and the Craft of Ethnographic Cinema (2010), by Paul Henley, for more on Rouch's work
- See, for example, Nwachukwu Frank Ukadike, Black African Cinema (1994), pp. 48–58.
- Diawara (1992). African Cinema, pp. 23–24. See also Henley, Paul (2010), The Adventure of the Real: Jean Rouch and the Craft of Ethnographic Cinema, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 310–337.
- Thackway (2003). Africa Shoots Back, pp. 1–6.
- Dennis McLellan, "Ousmane Sembene, 84; Sengalese hailed as 'the father of African film'" (obituary), Los Angeles Times, June 14, 2007.
- Thackway (2003). Africa Shoots Back. Retrieved 13 October 2010.
- The Heavy Flag of Pan-African Cinema
- Harvard Film Archive
- African Cinema in the 1990s
- African Media Program – comprehensive database of African media
- Library of African Cinema in California
- Panafrican Film and TV Festival of Ouagadougou (FESPACO)
- Wiki of the African Film Festival of Tarifa
- Utne Reader – Using African Cinema to Shift Cultural Perceptions