Oryza glaberrima

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Oryza glaberrima
Oryza glaberrima seeds.jpg
Seeds of Oryza glaberrima
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Bambusoideae
Tribe: Oryzeae
Genus: Oryza
Species: O. glaberrima
Binomial name
Oryza glaberrima
Steud.

Oryza glaberrima, commonly known as African rice, is a domesticated rice species. It is believed to have been domesticated 2000–3000 years ago in the inland delta of the Upper Niger river, in what is now Mali.[1] Its wild ancestor, which still grows wild in Africa, is Oryza barthii.

This species is grown in West Africa. African rice often shows more tolerance to fluctuations in water depth, iron toxicity, infertile soils, severe climatic conditions and human neglect, and exhibits better resistance to various pests and diseases, such as nematodes (Heterodera sacchari and Meloidogyne spp.), African rice gall midge (Orseolia oryzivora), Rice stripe necrosis virus, Rice yellow mottle virus and the parasitic plants Striga. The species shows several negative characteristics with respect to the Asian rice species O. sativa, such as brittle grain and cracking during industrial polishing.[2] More importantly, it consistently shows lower yields than O. sativa.[citation needed]

Scientists from the Africa Rice Center managed to cross-breed African rice with Asian rice varieties to produce a group of interspecific cultivars called NERICA, which is an acronym for "New Rice for Africa".

Recently, the genome of O. glaberrima was sequenced.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Linares 2002, African rice (Oryza glaberrima): History and future potential. PNAS 99:16360-16365
  2. ^ Carney 2009 [1]
  3. ^ Zhang, QJ.; Zhu, T.; Xia, EH.; Shi, C.; Liu, YL.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, Y.; Jiang, WK. et al. (Nov 2014). "Rapid diversification of five Oryza AA genomes associated with rice adaptation". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111 (46): E4954–E4962. doi:10.1073/pnas.1418307111. PMID 25368197.