Lycaon pictus

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Lycaon pictus
Lycaon pictus Okavango Delta.jpg
Lycaon pictus pictus, Okavango Delta, Botswana.
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Subfamily: Caninae
Tribe: Canini
Genus: Lycaon
Species: L. pictus
Binomial name
Lycaon pictus
Temminck, 1820
African Wild Dog Distrbution.jpg
L. pictus range

Lycaon pictus is a canid native to Sub-Saharan Africa. It is the largest of its family in Africa,[2] and the only member of the genus Lycaon, which is distinguished from Canis by its fewer toes and dentition, which is highly specialised for a hypercarnivorous diet.[3] It is classed as endangered by the IUCN, as it has disappeared from much of its original range. The current population has been estimated at roughly 39 subpopulations containing 6,600 adults, only 1,400 of which are fully grown. The decline of these populations is ongoing, due to habitat fragmentation, human persecution, and disease outbreaks.[1]

L. pictus is a highly social animal, living in packs with separate dominance hierarchies for males and females.[4] Uniquely among social carnivores, it is the females rather than the males that disperse from the natal pack once sexually mature, and the young are allowed to feed first on carcasses. The species is a specialised diurnal hunter of antelopes, which it catches by chasing them to exhaustion.[5] Like other canids, it regurgitates food for its young, but this action is also extended to adults, to the point of being the bedrock of L. pictus social life.[6] It has few natural predators, though lions are a major source of mortality, and spotted hyenas are frequent kleptoparasites.[7]

Although not as prominent in African folklore or culture as other African carnivores,[8] it has been respected in several hunter-gatherer societies, particularly those of the predynastic Egyptians[9][10] and the San people.[11]

Early accounts and naming[edit]

Dutch zoologist Coenraad Temminck was the first person to give Lycaon pictus a binomial name, though he mistakenly classed it as a hyena.

The earliest possible written reference to the species comes Oppian, who wrote of the thoa, a hybrid between the wolf and panther which resembles the former in shape and the latter in colour. Solinus's Collectanea rerum memorabilium from the 3rd century AD describes a multicoloured wolf-like animal with a mane native to Ethiopia.[12]

The species was first described scientifically in 1820 by Coenraad Temminck, after having examined a specimen taken from the coast of Mozambique. He named the animal Hyaena picta, erroneously classifying it as a species of hyena. It was later recognised as a canid by Joshua Brookes in 1827, and renamed Lycaon tricolor. The root word of Lycaon is the Greek λυκαίος (lykaios), meaning 'wolf-like'. The specific epithet pictus (Latin for 'painted'), which derived from the original picta, was later returned to it, in conformity with the International Rules on Taxonomic Nomenclature.[13]

The English language has several names for Lycaon pictus, including painted lycaon,[12] African wild dog, Cape hunting dog,[8] and painted dog. The latter name is being promoted by some conservationists as a way of 're-branding' the species, as 'wild dog' has several negative connotations that could be detrimental to its image.[14] Nevertheless, the name 'African wild dog' is still widely used.[15]

Local and indigenous names[edit]

Taxonomy and evolution[edit]

The evolution of Lycaon pictus was once poorly understood, due to the scarcity of fossil finds. One proposed ancestral genus was Xenocyon, which lived throughout Eurasia, from Germany to Japan, as well as in Africa from the Early Pleistocene to the early Middle Pleistocene. The species X. falconeri shared L. pictus' absent first metacarpal (dewclaw), though its dentition was still relatively unspecialised.[16] This connection was however rejected, as X. falconeri's missing metacarpal was a poor indication of phylogenetic closeness to L. pictus, and the dentition was too different to imply ancestry. A more likely ancestral candidate is the Plio-Pleistocene L. sekowei of South Africa, on the basis of skull shape and tooth morphology, which shows the same adaptations to a hypercarnivorous diet as the modern species. L. sekowei had not yet lost the first metacarpal absent in L. pictus, and was more robust than the modern species, having 10% larger teeth.[3]

Fossil of Lycaon sekowei, a possible ancestor of the modern L. pictus.

Paleontologist George G. Simpson placed L. pictus in the subfamily Simocyoninae, along with Cuon alpinus and Speothos venaticus, on the basis of all three species having similarly trenchant carnassials. This grouping was disputed by Juliet Clutton-Brock, who argued that other than dentition, there were too few similarities between the three species to warrant classifying them in a single subfamily.[6] The species' molecular genetics indicate that, although it is far removed from the genus Canis, it is nonetheless more closely related to it than to other canid lineages.[17] Phylogenetic studies place L. pictus and Cuon alpinus into a monophyletic clade alongside some members of the Canis genus, including C. simensis, C. aureus, C. latrans, and C. lupus, while the more basal C. adustus and C. mesomelas are excluded from it.[18](Fig. 10)





Side-striped jackal



Black-backed jackal








Golden jackal





Dog



Grey wolf




Coyote





Ethiopian wolf




Dhole





African wild dog






Subspecies[edit]

As of 2005,[19] five subspecies are recognised by MSW3:

Nevertheless, although the species is genetically diverse, these subspecific designations are not universally accepted. It was once thought that East African and Southern African L. pictus populations were genetically distinct, based on a small number of samples. More recent studies with a larger number of samples showed that there has been extensive intermixing between East African and Southern African populations in the past. Some unique nuclear and mitochondrial alleles are found in Southern African and north-eastern African populations, with a transition zone encompassing Botswana, Zimbabwe and south-eastern Tanzania between the two. The West African L. pictus population may possess a unique haplotype, thus possibly constituting a truly distinct subspecies.[21]

Physical description[edit]

L. pictus skull.

L. pictus is the bulkiest and most solidly built of African canids.[2] The species stands 60–75 cm (24–30 in) in shoulder height, and weighs 20–25 kg (44–55 lb) in East Africa and up to 30 kg (66 lb) in southern Africa.[5] Females are generally 3-7% smaller than males. Compared to members of the genus Canis, L. pictus is comparatively lean and tall, with outsized ears and lacking dewclaws. The middle two toepads are usually fused. Its dentition also differs from that of Canis by the degeneration of the last lower molar, the narrowness of the canines, proportionately large premolars, which are the largest relative to body size than any other carnivore other than hyenas.[4] The heel of the lower carnassial M1 is crested with a single blade-like cusp, which enhances the shearing capacity of teeth and thus the speed at which prey can be consumed. This feature, termed "trenchant heel", is shared with two other canids: the Asian dhole and the South American bush dog.[8] The skull is relatively shorter and broader than that of other canids.[2]

The fur of L. pictus differs significantly from that of other canids, consisting entirely of stiff bristle-hairs with no underfur.[2] L. pictus gradually loses its fur as it ages, with older specimens being almost naked. Colour variation is extreme, and may serve in visual identification, as L. pictus can recognise each other at distances of 50–100 metres.[4] There is some geographic variation in coat colour, with north-east African specimens tending to be predominantly black with small white and yellow patches, while southern African ones are more brightly coloured, sporting a mix of brown, black and white coats.[8] Much of the species' coat patterning occurs on the trunk and legs. There is little variation in facial markings, with the muzzle being black, gradually shading into brown on the cheeks and forehead. A black line extends up the forehad, turning blackish-brown on the back of the ears. A few specimens sport a brown teardrop shaped mark below the eyes. The back of the head and neck are either brown or yellow. A white patch occasionally occurs behind the forelegs, with some specimens having completely white forelegs, chests and throats. The tail is usually white at the tip, black in the middle and brown at the base. Some specimens lack the white tip entirely, or may have black fur below the white tip. These coat patterns are asymmetrical, with the left side of the body often having different markings from that of the right.[4]

Behaviour[edit]

Social and reproductive behaviour[edit]

L. p. pictus pack, Kruger National Park, South Africa.

L. pictus has very strong social bonds, stronger than those of sympatric lions and spotted hyenas, thus solitary living and hunting is extremely rare in the species.[22] L. pictus lives in permanent packs consisting of 2-27 adults and yearling pups. The average pack size in Kruger National Park and the Masai Mara is 4-5 adults, while packs in Moremi and Selous contain an average of 8-9. Males and females have separate dominance hierarchies, with the latter usually being lead by the oldest female. Males may be lead by the oldest male, but these can be supplanted by younger specimens, thus some packs may contain elderly former male pack leaders. The dominant pair typically monopolises breeding.[4] The species differs from most other social species by the fact that males remain in the natal pack, while females disperse (a pattern also found in primates like gorillas, chimpanzees and red colobuses). Furthermore, males in any given pack tend to outnumber females 3:1.[5] Dispersing females will join other packs and evict some of the resident females related to the other pack members, thus preventing inbreeding and allowing the evicted specimens to find new packs of their own and breed.[4] Males rarely disperse, and when they do, they are invariably rejected by other packs already containing males.[5] Although arguably the most social canid, the species lacks the elaborate facial expressions and body language found in the grey wolf, likely because of L. pictus's less hierarchical social structure. Furthermore, while elaborate facial expressions are important for wolves in re-establishing bonds after long periods of separation from their family groups, they are not as necessary to L. pictus, which remain together for much longer periods.[6]

L. p. pictus pups playing, uMkhuze Game Reserve, kwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

L. pictus populations in East Africa appear to have no fixed breeding season, whereas those in Southern Africa usually breed during the April–July period.[22] During estrus, the female is closely accompanied by a single male, which keeps other members of the same sex at bay.[5] The copulatory tie characteristic of mating in most canids has been reported to be absent[23] or very brief (less than one minute)[24] in L. pictus, possibly an adaptation to the prevalence of larger predators in its environment.[25] The gestation period lasts 69-73 days, with the interval between each pregnancy being 12-14 months on average. L. pictus produces more pups than any other canid, with litters containing around 6-16 pups, with an average of 10, thus indicating that a single female can produce enough young to form a new pack every year. Because the amount of food necessary to feed more than two litters would be impossible to acquire by the average pack, breeding is strictly limited to the dominant female, which may kill the pups of subordinates. After giving birth, the mother stays close to the pups in the den, while the rest of the pack hunts. She typically drives away pack members approaching the pups until the latter are old enough to eat solid food at 3-4 weeks of age. The pups leave the den at around the age of three weeks, and are suckled outside. The pups are weaned at the age of five weeks, at which point they are fed regurgitated meat by the other pack members. By seven weeks, the pups begin to take on an adult appearance, with noticeable lengthening in the legs, muzzle and ears. Once the pups reach the age of 8-10 weeks, the pack abandons the den, and the young follow the adults during hunts. The youngest pack members are permitted to eat first on kills, a privilege which ends once they become yearlings.[5]

Hunting and feeding behaviours[edit]

Brehm's depiction of a L. pictus pack chasing a gemsbok (1894).

L. pictus is a specialised pack hunter of common medium-sized antelopes. Like the cheetah, it is the only primarily diurnal African large predator.[5] L. pictus hunts by approaching prey silently then chasing it in a pursuit clocking at 66 kmph. The average chase typically only goes as far as 2 km, during which time the prey animal, if large, is repeatedly bitten on the legs, belly and anus until it stops running, while smaller prey is simply pulled down and torn apart. L. pictus hunting strategies differ according to prey, with wildebeest being rushed at in order to panic the herd and isolate a vulnerable individual, whereas territorial antelope species, which defend themselves by running in wide circles, are captured by cutting off their escape routes. Medium-sized prey is often killed in 2-5 minutes, whereas larger prey like wildebeest may take half an hour to pull down. Small prey, like rodents, hares and birds are hunted singly, with dangerous prey like cane rats and porcupines being killed with a quick and well placed bite in order to avoid injury. Small prey is eaten entirely, while large animals are stripped of their meat and organs, with the skin, head, skeleton left intact.[22] L. pictus is a fast eater, with a pack being able to consume a Thompson's gazelle in 15 minutes. In the wild, the species' consumption rate is of 1.2-5.9 kg per L. pictus a day, with one pack of 17-43 specimens in East Africa having been recorded to kill three animals per day on average.[15] Unlike most social predators, L. pictus will regurgitate food for adult, as well as young family members.[22]

Ecology[edit]

Habitat[edit]

L. pictus is mostly found in savanna and arid zones, avoiding forested areas.[5] This preference is likely linked to the animal's hunting habits, which require open areas which do not obstruct vision or impede pursuit.[2] Nevertheless, it will travel through scrub, woodland and montane areas in pursuit of prey. There is at least one record of a pack being sighted on the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro.[5] In Zimbabwe, the species has been recorded at altitudes of 1,800 metres.[15]

L. p. pictus pack consuming a blue wildebeest, Madikwe Game Reserve, South Africa.

Diet[edit]

In East Africa, its most common prey is Thomson's gazelle, while in Central and Southern Africa it targets impala, reedbuck, kob, lechwe, and springbok.[5] Its diet is not restricted to these animals though, as it will also hunt wildebeest, warthog, oribi, duiker, waterbuck, Grant's gazelle, zebra, bushbuck, ostrich and smaller prey like dik-dik, hares, spring hares and cane rats.[22] One pack was recorded to occasionally prey on bat-eared foxes, rolling on the carcasses before eating them. L. pictus rarely scavenges, but has on occasion been observed to appropriate carcasses from spotted hyenas, leopards, and lions, as well as animals caught in snares.[15]

Enemies and competitors[edit]

Lions dominate L. pictus, and are a major source of mortality for both adults and pups.[7] Population densities of L. pictus are low in areas where lions are more abundant.[26] One pack reintroduced into Etosha National Park was destroyed by lions, and a population crash in lions in the Ngorongoro Crater during the 1960s resulted in an increase in L. pictus sightings, only for their numbers to decline once the lions recovered.[7] However, there are a few reported cases of old and wounded lions falling prey to L. pictus.[27][28]

Spotted hyenas are important kleptoparasites,[7] and will follow packs of L. pictus in order to appropriate their kills. They will typically inspect areas where L. pictus have rested and eat any food remains they find. When approaching L. pictus at a kill, solitary hyenas will approach cautiously and attempt to take off with a piece of meat unnoticed, though they may be mobbed in the attempt. When operating in groups, spotted hyenas are more successful in pirating L. pictus kills, though the latter's greater tendency to assist each other puts them at an advantage against spotted hyenas, who rarely work in unison. Cases of L. pictus scavenging from spotted hyenas are rare. Although L. pictus packs can easily repel solitary hyenas, on the whole, the relationship between the two species is a one sided benefit for the hyenas,[29] with L. pictus densities being negatively correlated with high hyena populations.[30]

Range[edit]

L. pictus once ranged from the desert and mountainous areas of much of sub-Saharan Africa, being absent in the driest desert regions and lowland forests. The species has been largely exterminated in North and West Africa, and has been greatly reduced in number in Central Africa and northeast Africa. The majority of the species' population now occurs in Southern Africa and southern East Africa.[1]

Status[edit]

North Africa[edit]

The species is very rare in North Africa, and whatever populations remain may be of high conservation value, as they are likely to be genetically distinct from other L. pictus populations.[31]

West Africa[edit]

The species is faring poorly in most of West Africa, with the only potentially viable population occurring in Senegal's Niokolo-Koba National Park. L. pictus is occasionally sighted in other parts of Senegal, as well as in Guinea and Mali.[31]

Central Africa[edit]

The species is doing poorly in Central Africa, being extinct in Gabon, the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Republic of Congo. The only viable populations occur in the Central African Republic, Chad and especially in Cameroon.[31]

East Africa[edit]

L. pictus's range in East Africa is patchy, having been eradicated in Uganda and much of Kenya. A small population occupies an area encompassing southern Ethiopia, South Sudan, northern Kenya, and probably northern Uganda. The species may still occur in small numbers in southern Somalia, and is almost certainly extinct in Rwanda, Burundi, and Eritrea. Nevertheless, it remains somewhat numerous in southern Tanzania, particularly in the Selous Game Reserve and Mikumi National Park, both of which are occupied by what could be Africa's largest L. pictus population.[31]

Southern Africa[edit]

Southern Africa contains numerous viable L. pictus populations, one of which encompasses northern Botswana, northeastern Namibia and western Zimbabwe. In South Africa, around 400 specimens occur in the country's Kruger National Park. Zambia holds two large populations, one in Kafue National Park, and another in the Luangwa Valley. However, the species is rare in Malawi, and probably extinct in Angola and Mozambique.[31]

In African cultures[edit]

Cosmetic palette from the Naqada III period depicting L. pictus, Louvre.

Artistic depictions of L. pictus are prominent on cosmetic palettes and other objects from Egypt's predynastic period, likely symbolising order over chaos, as well as the transition between the wild (represented by the golden jackal) and the domestic (represented by the dog). Predynastic hunters may have also identified with L. pictus, as the Hunters Palette shows them wearing the animals' tails on their belts. By the dynastic period, L. pictus illustrations became much less represented, and the animal's symbolic role was largely taken over by the jackal.[9][10]

L. pictus also plays a prominent role in the mythology of Southern Africa's San people. In one story, the animal is indirectly linked to the origin of death, as the hare is cursed by the moon to be forever hunted by L. pictus after the former animal rebuffs the moon's promise to allow all living things to be reborn after death. Another story has the god Cagn taking revenge on the other gods by sending a group of men transformed into L. pictus to attack them, though who won the battle is never revealed. The San of Botswana see L. pictus as the ultimate hunter, and traditionally believe that shamans and medicine men can transform themselves into the animal. Some San hunters will smear L. pictus's bodily fluids on their feet prior to a hunt, under the belief that doing so will gift them with the animal's boldness and agility. Nevertheless, the species does not figure prominently in San rock art, with the only notable example being a frieze in Mount Erongo showing a pack hunting two antelopes.[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c McNutt et al. (2008). Lycaon pictus. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 6 May 2008. Database entry includes justification for why this species is endangered
  2. ^ a b c d e Rosevear, D. R. (1974). The carnivores of West Africa. London : Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History). pp. 75-91. ISBN 0-565-00723-8.
  3. ^ a b Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Werdelin, Lars; De Ruiter, Darryl J.; Berger, Lee R. and Churchill, Steven E. (2010). "The Plio-pleistocene Ancestor of Wild Dogs, Lycaon sekowei n. sp". Journal of Paleontology 84 (2): 299–308. doi:10.1666/09-124.1. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Creel & Creel 2002, pp. 1–11
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Estes, R. (1992). The behavior guide to African mammals: including hoofed mammals, carnivores, primates. University of California Press. pp. 410-419. ISBN 0-520-08085-8.
  6. ^ a b c Clutton-Brock, J., Corbet, G.G., and Hills, M. (1976). "A review of the family Canidae, with a classification by numerical methods." Bull. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist. 29, 119–199.
  7. ^ a b c d Woodroffe, R. & Ginsberg, J. R., eds. 1997. Past and Future Causes of Wild Dogs' Population Decline. In Rosie Woodroffe, Joshua Ginsberg & David MacDonald, eds., Status Survey and Conservation Plan: The African Wild Dog: 58-73. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group.
  8. ^ a b c d e Woodroffe, R., McNutt, J. W. & Mills, M. G. L., 2004. African Wild Dog Lycaon pictus. In Sillero-Zubiri, C., Hoffman, M. & MacDonald, D. W., ed., Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs - 2004 Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan, 174-183. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group, ISBN 2-8317-0786-2
  9. ^ a b Baines, J. (1993). Symbolic roles of canine figures on early monuments. Archéo-Nil: Revue de la société pour l'étude des cultures prépharaoniques de la vallée du Nil, 3, 57-74.
  10. ^ a b Hendrickx, S. (2006). The dog, the Lycaon pictus and order over chaos in Predynastic Egypt. [in:] Kroeper, K.; Chłodnicki, M. & Kobusiewicz, M. (eds.), Archaeology of Early Northeastern Africa. Studies in African Archaeology 9. Poznań: Poznań Archaeological Museum: 723-749.
  11. ^ a b De la Harpe R. & De la Harpe, P. (2010). In search of the African wild dog: the right to survive. Sunbird. p. 41. ISBN 191993811
  12. ^ a b Smith, C. H. (1839), Dogs, W.H. Lizars, Edinburgh, p. 261-69
  13. ^ Bothma, J. du P. & Walker, C. (1999), Larger Carnivores of the African Savannas, Springer, pp. 130-157, ISBN 354065660X
  14. ^ Kristof, N. D. (14 April 2010), Every (wild) dog has its day, The New York Times, retrieved 18 October 2010 
  15. ^ a b c d Chimimba, C. T. (2005). The Mammals of the Southern African Sub-region. Cambridge University Press. pp. 474-480. ISBN 0521844185
  16. ^ Martínez-Navarro, B., and L. Rook (2003). "Gradual evolution in the African hunting dog lineage: systematic implications". Comptes Rendus Palevol 2 (8): 695–702. doi:10.1016/j.crpv.2003.06.002. 
  17. ^ Wayne, Robert K. (1993). "Molecular evolution of the dog family". Trends in Genetics 9 (6): 218–224. doi:10.1016/0168-9525(93)90122-X. PMID 8337763. 
  18. ^ Lindblad-Toh, K.; Wade, CM; Mikkelsen, TS; Karlsson, EK; Jaffe, DB; Kamal, M; Clamp, M; Chang, JL et al. (2005). "Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog". Nature 438 (7069): 803–819. doi:10.1038/nature04338. PMID 16341006. 
  19. ^ Wozencraft, W. C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 532–628. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  20. ^ a b c Bryden, H. A. (1936), Wild Life in South Africa, George G. Harrap & Company Ltd., pp. 19-20
  21. ^ Edwards, J. (2009). Conservation genetics of African wild dogs Lycaon pictus (Temminck, 1820) in South Africa. Magister Scientiae. University of Pretoria.
  22. ^ a b c d e Kingdon, Jonathan (1988). East African mammals: an atlas of evolution in Africa, Volume 3, Part 1. University of Chicago Press. pp. 36-53. ISBN 0-226-43721-3.
  23. ^ Kleiman, D. G. (1967). "Some aspects of social behavior in the Canidae". American Zoologist (American Society of Zoologists) 7 (2): 365–372. doi:10.1093/icb/7.2.365. 
  24. ^ Creel, S. (1998). "Social organization and effective population size in carnivores". In Caro, T. M. Behavioral ecology and conservation biology. Oxford University Press. pp. 246–270. ISBN 978-0-19-510490-5. 
  25. ^ Kleiman, D. G.; Eisenberg, J. F. (1973). "Comparisons of canid and felid social systems from an evolutionary perspective". Animal Behavior 21 (4): 637–659. doi:10.1016/S0003-3472(73)80088-0. PMID 4798194. 
  26. ^ Woodroffe, Rosie; Ginsberg, Joshua R (1999). "Conserving the African wild dog Lycaon pictus. I. Diagnosing and treating causes of decline". Oryx 33 (2): 132–42. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3008.1999.00052.x. 
  27. ^ Pienaar, U. de V. (1969). "Predator-prey relationships amongst the larger mammals of the Kruger National Park". Koedoe 12 (1). doi:10.4102/koedoe.v12i1.753. 
  28. ^ Schaller, G. B. (1972). The Serengeti lion: A study of predator-prey relations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 188. ISBN 0-226-73639-3.
  29. ^ Kruuk, H. (1972). The Spotted Hyena: A Study of Predation and Social Behaviour. University of California Press. pp. 139–141. ISBN 0226455084.
  30. ^ Creel & Creel 2002, pp. 253–254
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci Fanshawe, J. H., Ginsberg, J. R., Sillero-Zubiri, C. & Woodroffe, R., eds. 1997. The Status & Distribution of Remaining Wild Dog Populations. In Rosie Woodroffe, Joshua Ginsberg & David MacDonald, eds., Status Survey and Conservation Plan: The African Wild Dog: 11-56. IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group.
  32. ^ "Painted Dog Conservation". Painted Dog Conservation. 
  33. ^ "The Botswana Predator Conservation Trust". Save the African Wild Dog. Retrieved 4 November 2012. 
  34. ^ "Dr Rosie Woodroffe". Zoological Society of London. Retrieved 4 November 2012. 
  35. ^ "Help Save Wild Dogs!". African Wild Dog Conservancy. Retrieved 4 November 2012. 
  36. ^ "African Wild Dog – Painted Dog Conservation". WCN Wildlife Conservation Network. Retrieved 4 November 2012. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Creel, Scott; Creel, Nancy Marusha (2002). The African Wild Dog: Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691016542. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]