Africanization

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Africanization can also refer to Africanized "killer" bees.

Africanization or Africanisation (lit., making something African) has been applied in various contexts, notably in geographic and personal naming and in the composition of the civil service e.g. via processes such as indigenization.[1]

Africanization of names[edit]

Africanization has referred to the modification of place names and personal names to reflect an "African" identity. In some cases, changes are not a change of transliteration rather than of the European name.[2]

In many cases during the colonial period, African place names were Anglicized or Francized.

Place names[edit]

Country names[edit]

Various African countries have undergone name changes during the previous century as the result of consolidations and secessions, territories gaining sovereignty, and regime changes.

Previous name Year Current name
Overseas Province of Angola 1975 Angola, Republic of
Dahomey, Republic of 1975 Benin, Republic of
Bechuanaland Protectorate 1966 Botswana, Republic of
Upper Volta 1984 Burkina Faso
Oubangui-Chari 1960 Central African Republic
Zaire, Republic of 1997 Congo, Democratic Republic of the
Middle Congo 1960 Congo, Republic of the
Spanish Guinea 1968 Equatorial Guinea, Republic of
Gold Coast 1957 Ghana, Republic of
French West Africa (part of) 1958 Guinea, Republic of
Portuguese Guinea 1974 Guinea-Bissau, Republic of
Basutoland, Territory of 1966 Lesotho, Kingdom of
Nyasaland Protectorate 1964 Malawi, Republic of
French Sudan 1960 Mali, Republic of
Overseas Province of Mozambique 1975 Mozambique, Republic of
South West Africa 1990 Namibia, Republic of
German East Africa / Ruanda-Urundi 1962 Rwanda, Republic of / Burundi, Republic of
Zanzibar / Tanganyika 1964 Tanzania, United Republic of
Buganda 1962 Uganda, Republic of
Northern Rhodesia 1964 Zambia, Republic of
Southern Rhodesia (autoproclaimed in 1965 as Rhodesia and as Republic of Rhodesia in 1970) 1980 Zimbabwe, Republic of

Other place names[edit]

Personal names[edit]

Other name changes take place when an African person converts to another religion. (This is usually to or from Islam. See Islamic name.)
Examples:

Africanization of civil services[edit]

In some countries immediately following their independence, "Africanization" was the name given to racial policies, affirmative action intended to increase the number of Africans in civil service (which had historically been dominated by European Colonials[3] or Asians.[4])

References[edit]

  1. ^ African Successes Four Public Managers of Kenyan Rural Development David K. Leonard UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS
  2. ^ Edgar A. Gregersen (1977). Language in Africa: An Introductory Survey. CRC Press. ISBN 0-677-04380-5. 
  3. ^ Adedeji, Adebayo. "Comparative strategies of economic decolonization of Africa." In Ali AlʼAmin Mazrui and Christophe Wondji, eds. Africa Since 1935. UNESCO
  4. ^ Pp.176-178. Goans of the North Atlantic: A Transnational Study of Migration, Technology Adoption, and Neoculturation across Six Generations by Clifford Pereira in Migration, technology and Transculturation: Global Perspective. Edited by Myna German and Padmini Banerjee. Center for International and Global Studies. Lindenwood University Press. St. Charles. Mo. USA

See also[edit]