||This article needs additional citations for verification. (September 2008)|
|Active||12 February 1941 – 13 May 1943|
|Garrison/HQ||Tripoli, Italian Libya|
|Motto||Ritterlich im Kriege, wachsam für den Frieden
("Chivalrous in War, Vigilant for Peace")
|Engagements||World War II|
|Seal of the Deutsches Afrikakorps|
The German Africa Corps (German: Deutsches Afrikakorps, DAK listen (help·info)), or just the Afrika Korps, was the German expeditionary force in Libya and Tunisia during the North African Campaign of World War II. The reputation of the Afrika Korps is synonymous with that of its first commander Erwin Rommel, who later commanded the  Panzer Army Africa which evolved into the German-Italian Panzer Army (Deutsch-Italienische Panzerarmee) and Army Group Africa, all of which Afrika Korps was a distinct and principal component. Throughout the North African campaign, the Afrika Korps fought against Allied forces until its surrender in May 1943.
The Afrika Korps formed upon Adolf Hitler's personal orders on 11 January 1941. Hitler picked Erwin Rommel to be their commander on 12 February 1941 (Rommel himself landed on African soil in Libya on 14 February 1941 to begin leading his forces that would be brought into action). The German Armed Forces High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, OKW) and Army High Command (Oberkommando des Heeres, OKH) had decided to send a "blocking force" (Sperrverband) to Libya to support the Italian army. The Italian army group had been routed by the British Commonwealth Western Desert Force in Operation Compass (9 December 1940 – 9 February 1941). The German "blocking force", commanded by Rommel, at first consisted of only the 5./leichte "Afrika" Panzer Regiment, which was quickly cobbled together from the second regiment of the 3./Panzer Division and various other small units attached for water treatment and medical care. These elements were organized into the 5th Light Division when they arrived in Africa from 10 February – 12 March 1941. In late April and into May, the 5th Light Division was joined by transference of the various elements constituting the 15th Panzer Division from Italy, though it did not completely arrive until after Rommel had made a counter-offensive and re-taken most of Cyrenaica and then subsequently gone back over to the defensive. At this time, the Afrikakorps consisted of the two divisions plus various smaller supporting units, and was officially subordinated to the Italian chain of command in Africa (though Rommel had conducted his offensive without any authorization).
On 15 August 1941, the German 5./leichte "Afrika" Division was redesignated 21st Panzer Division (commonly written as 21./PD), still attached to the enlarged entity still known as the Afrikakorps.
During the summer of 1941, the OKW and OKH invested more command structure in Africa by creating a new headquarters called Panzer Group Africa (Panzergruppe Afrika). On 15 August, Panzer Group Africa was activated with Rommel in command, and command of the Afrikakorps was turned over to Ludwig Crüwell. The Panzer Group controlled the Afrikakorps plus some additional German units that were sent to Africa, as well as two corps of Italian units. (A German "group" was approximately the equivalent of an army in other militaries, and in fact, Panzer Group Africa was redesignated as Panzer Army Africa (Panzerarmee Afrika) on 30 January 1942.)
After the defeat at El Alamein and the Allied landings in Morocco and Algeria Operation Torch, the OKW once more upgraded its presence in Africa by creating the XC Army Corps in Tunisia on 19 November 1942, and then creating a new 5th Panzer Army headquarters there as well on 8 December, under the command of Colonel-General Hans-Jürgen von Arnim.
On 23 February 1943, Panzer Army Africa—now called the German-Italian Panzer Army—was redesignated as the Italian 1st Army and put under the command of Italian general Giovanni Messe, while Rommel was placed in command of a new Army Group Africa (Heeresgruppe Afrika), created to control both the Italian 1st Army and the 5th Panzer Army. The remnants of the Afrikakorps and other surviving units of the 1st Italian Army retreated into Tunisia. Command of the Army Group was turned over to von Arnim in March. On 13 May, remnants of the Afrikakorps surrendered, along with all other remaining Axis forces in North Africa.
Composition and terminology 
The term "Afrika Korps" is derived from the original German name and is properly written as one word. Strictly speaking, the term refers to the original formation, the Deutsches Afrikakorps (DAK), which became incoporated into the Axis command of the German and Italian forces in North Africa. However, it was often used by the news media and Allied soldiers as a name for all German units in North Africa. Some notable formations of DAK include the 15th Panzer Division, 21st Panzer Division, and the Artillery Group under command of General Karl Böttcher. Separate from the Afrika Korps was the Afrika zbV (zur besonderen Verwendung, "special purpose") Division, which was created as an infantry division and slowly upgraded to a fully motorized division, and then redesignated as the 90th Light Afrika Division; the 164th Light Afrika Division, the 999 Light "Afrika" Division, also the 334th Infantry division; and the Luftwaffenjäger-Brigade 1 or Fallschirmjäger-Ramcke Brigade Ramcke Parachute Brigade (named after its commander Hermann-Bernhard Ramcke). When Rommel was promoted to the newly formed Panzerarmee Afrika, his command included a number of Italian units, including four infantry divisions. The two Italian armoured divisions, Ariete and Trieste initially remained under Italian control. They formed the Italian XX Motorized Corps under the command of General Gastone Gambara.
The designation "Light" (German: Leicht) indicated the unit was lacking in heavy or armored formations, but did not refer to a standardized table of organization and equipment (TOE) for the various German divisions that bore that designation. For example, 5th Light Division had a single panzer regiment, when the standard panzer division complement was two, while 90th Light division was an infantry formation that was motorized, but never had a panzer regiment as part of its make-up.
German unit organizations were based on tables of organization, (Kriegsstärkenachweisungen, or KStN). Every unit in the German Army raised had one, and all orders raising units indicated the corresponding KStN number and date which applied to them. For instance, the 5./leichte "Afrika" or 5th Light "Africa" had an organizational structure that was missing specific elements to make it a complete Panzer "Division", as did its late April to May 1941 arriving "full complement" partner division in Africa, the 15./Panzer Division.
The 5./le. "Africa" Division eventually became at least partially expanded into the 21./PD or 21st Panzer Division. It was given German unit elements that were already on the ground in North Africa and some replacement equipment to meet the prescribed full Panzer Division KStN constraints (except for the Motorcycle Battalion component, which was never complete) and then renamed in August 1941. As the entire Afrikakorps organization was restructured and even renamed in August 1941, the official nomenclature of Afrikakorps lasted less than six months, but the officers and men continued to refer to it as such. The force became the major German component of Panzerarmee Afrika, which evolved into the Deutsch-Italienische Panzerarmee, and then to Heeresgruppe Afrika (Army Group Africa) in the 27 months of the campaign for this force.
Additional German forces were sent to Africa and became components of Panzerarmee Afrika, but were not a part of the Deutsches Afrikakorps. The 10th Panzer Division which fought in Tunisia would be one such example. Another, such as the 164./le. "Africa" or 164th Light Afrika Division was at first only a partially motorized infantry division, and actually never had any tanks at all, only armored cars and reconnaissance vehicles. Various German divisions in Africa occasionally reorganized or re-equipped without a change of name, or conversely were redesignated with a new name without any substantial reorganization. None of the German Armies actually fielded for service in North Africa completely met the service KStNs directed for their completion because of battle losses, sinkings across the Mediterranenan while in transit and the tremendous wear on the vehicles.
Ramcke Brigade 
The Luftwaffenjäger-Brigade 1, known more commonly as the Ramcke Parachute Brigade, worked alongside the Afrika Korps after Operation Hercules (the planned invasion of Malta) was cancelled and the Brigade was subsequently re-deployed to Germany.
Internment in Mississippi 
Resurrection of units 
Certain divisions were resurrected in Europe after the cessation of fighting in Tunisia:
- 15./Panzer Division
- 21./Panzer Division (in France)
- Hermann Göring Panzer Division (in Sicily and Italy)
See also 
- Fliegerführer Afrika
- Western Desert Campaign
- László Almásy
- Operation Salaam
- Hans von Luck
- Panzer Division
- Afrika Korps (game)
- With Rommel in the Desert by Heinz Werner Schmidt
- Lewin p. 54
- "I Was There When It Happened", Jimmy Lee Beasley. Xlibris Corporation, 2010. ISBN 1-4535-4457-7, ISBN 978-1-4535-4457-0. p. 262
- Cooper, Matthew (1990). The German Army 1933–1945. Scarborough House. Chelsea, MI, USA. ISBN 0-8128-8519-8.
- von Mellenthin, Major General F. W. (1971) . Panzer Battles: A Study of the Employment of Armor in the Second World War (First ed.). New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-24440-0.
- AFRIKAKORPS.org/AANA Research Group
- Rommel's Kampfstaffel
Further reading 
- Editor Major-General Alfred Toppe Desert warfare:German experiences in World War II, written with the assistance of nine German commanders who served in North Africa, the manuscript (translated by Mr. H. Heitman) represents a collaborative attempt to determine "as many factors as possible which exerted a determining influence on desert warfare."
- Hans von Luck's memoirs Panzer Commander: The Memoirs of Colonel Hans von Luck include chapters from his time in North Africa under Rommel.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Afrika Korps|
- Afrika Korps History[dead link]
- Panzer-Armee "AFRIKA" Kommandeurs[dead link]
- Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross Holders: North Africa[dead link]
- Rommel's Kampfstaffel[dead link]
- Afrika Korps Uniforms[dead link]
- Unser Rommel - Wir sind das deutsche Afrikakorps - in MP3 format
- Deutsches Historisches Tonarchiv - see "Lieder und Märsche des Afrika Korps" (Commercial site with songs available on CD)