|Regions with significant populations|
|Saint Lucia (Approx. 134,294)|
|Related ethnic groups|
As of 2013, people of African descent are the majority ethnic group in Saint Lucia, accounting for 82.5% of the country's population. An additional 11.9% of the country is multiracial, predominantly of mixed black African and white European descent or East Indian descent.
Most of the slaves imported to Saint Lucia were from the Bight of Biafra (since where were imported more of 3,000 slaves to archipelago, the 53% of the slaves. To Saint Lucia arrived many Igbos and Yorubas slaves of Nigeria) and from Central Africa (more of 1,000 slaves, the 22% of the slaves of the archipelago). In Saint Lucian also arrived hundreds of slaves from the current Senegal (Mandinka and Wolof), Sierra Leone (although only were a 4,4% of the slaves of the island, a 287 people), Ghana (the 4% of the slaves, a 279 people), Benin (from the Bight of Benin arrived the 6% of the slaves, a 392 people), Windward Coast (although only were a 3,9% of the slaves of the island) and Angola (Ambundus). Akans slaves also arrived in Santa Lucia. They were probably also exported people from some ethnic groups dominated by the Mandinka Empire - such as Dyola and Manjak and other groups.
Between 1600-1700, most of the slaves came from Senegambia. These slaves were mainly used as servants. Meanwhile, Ewe and Fon slaves, from the Slave Coast, exerted as rural slaves. The ethno-linguistic dominance of specific groups in certain areas of work, had a great importance in the origin of Creole identity. In addition, St. Lucia probably bought many slaves to Martinique.
In 1763, when the British acquired the island by the Treaty of Paris, they imported enslaved Africans as workers. Caribbean conditions were harsh, and many African slaves, like the Caribs (also used as slaves in the island), died, requiring continued importation of new captives. The British continued to import slaves until they abolished the trade in 1808. By that time, people of ethnic African and less so Carib descent greatly outnumbered those of ethnic European background.
On 21 February 1795, an army of St. Lucian freedom fighters led by Victor Hugues, a "molatto", defeated a battalion of British troops. For the next four months, a united front of recently freed slaves and freedom fighters known as the Brigands (also ex-slaves, who instigated revolt across the region) forced out not only the British army, but every white slave-owner from the island. Just under a year later, the British Army returned, with many more troops than the freedom fighters could manage, and eventually re-imposed slavery until 1807, when the African slave trade was abolished (although it was not until 1834 that they abolished the institution of slavery).
In 1814, the British regained control of the island, many of those freed had escaped into the thick rain forests.
Even after abolition, all former slaves had to serve a four-year "apprenticeship" which forced them to work for free for their former masters for at least three-quarters of the work week. They achieved full freedom in 1838.
Demography and culture
The official language is English; The official language spoken in Saint Lucia is English although many Saint Lucians also speak a French dialect, Creole (Kwéyòl). The Saint Lucian Creole French (Kwéyòl), which is a French-based Creole colloquially referred to as "Patwah" (Patois), is spoken by 95% of the population. This Antillean Creole is used in literature and music, and is gaining official acknowledgement. It is derived chiefly from French and West African languages, with some vocabulary from Carib and other sources.
The island's cuisine is a unique blend of West African, European (mainly British and French) and East Indian cuisine; this creates dynamic meal dishes such as Marconi pie, Stew chicken, rice and peas, hearty fish broths or fish water, hearty soups packed full with fresh locally produced vegetables. St Lucian cuisine is similar to that in many other commonwealth Caribbean nations such as Dominica, Jamaica, neighboring St Vincent and Trinidad. Typical essential food stuff are potatos, onions, celery, thyme, coconut milk, the very hot scotch bonnet peppers, flour and cornmeal. All mainstream meat and poultry are eaten in St Lucia; meat and seafood are normally stewed and browned to create a rich gravy sometimes served over ground provisions or rice. Due to St Lucia's small Indo-Caribbean population curry is very popular, however due to the blend of between cooking styles curry dishes have a distant Caribbean twist to it. In recent years roti, a flatbread of Indian origin, has become very popular being imported from the twin island nation of Trinidad and Tobago to the south this bread is typically served as a fast food snack, the bread itself is very flat (sometimes very thin) and is wrapped around curried vegetables such as chickpeas, potato or meat.
References and footnotes
- "CIA - The World Factbook -- Saint Lucia". CIA. Archived from the original on May 7, 2013. Retrieved 2013-05-13.
- African origins of United States
- St. Lucian kweyol on Saint Croix - Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
- They Called Us the Brigands. The Saga of St. Lucia's Freedom Fighters by Robert J Devaux
- "About St. Lucia". Castries, St. Lucia: St. Lucis Tourist Board. Retrieved 2011-11-11.
- Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs (U.S. Department of State) (12 August 2011). "Background Note: Saint Lucia". United States Department of State. Retrieved 2011-11-11. "Languages: English (official); a French patois is common throughout the country."
- "Kweyolphone Countries Take Stock of the Language's Growth". Government of Saint Lucia. Retrieved 2008-08-22.
- "Welcome to the International Organisation of La Francophonie's official website". Paris: Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Retrieved 2011-11-11.
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