Afro-Venezuelan

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Afro-Venezuelans are descendants of Africans in Venezuela. Much work has been done studying the culture, tradition, folklore of Afro-Venezuelans, beginning with Miguel Acosta Saignes, in the 1960s.[1] According to the final results of the "XIV Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda" at least 1,087,427 inhabitants (3.6%) are considered Blacks and Afro-Descendants.[2][3]

History[edit]

Ethnic Africans first arrived in Venezuela with the Spanish Conquistadors. They were referred to as Ladinos, hispanicized slaves, some of whom had lived in Spain for a time, as opposed to bozales, slaves straight from Africa. Most of the Atlantic Creole generations were mixed-race descendants of African women and Iberian men, as Portuguese operated in Africa as slave traders and had unions with local women. Most slaves were used as farm hands on subsistence farms. The slaves were also used as divers for pearls, a job that run the risk of being attacked by sharks. The slaves came primarily from Cape Verde and Guinea in Africa. Some slaves purchased their freedom from earnings in pearl mining. Gold was later discovered in the latter part of the 1500s. Numerous slaves perished in the gold mines, which made it necessary to import more slaves. By the 1600s, Venezuela had 13,000 slaves.

Mining was not the primary source of wealth for Venezuela, but farming in wheat, tobacco, cotton, and cocoa. Numerous cocoa plantations were developed in central Venezuela, away from the more established regions. These more isolated and distant regions, the frontier, were places where slaves could own and farm canucos, small homesteads. Most slaves were purchased from markets in the Caribbean, as in Cuba, because it was too expensive for planters to buy them directly from Africa. With plantations located in isolated central regions, black people intermarried with Indians, resulting in numerous mixed-race children known as Zambos by Spanish colonists. The European men had relationships with slave women and free black women over time, resulting in another type of mixed-race children, known as Pardo (mulatto, brown) population. As plantations became prosperous and land became scarce, planters began eyeing the canucos farmed by Afro-Venezuelans. Canucos would be taken. Slaves would run away and formed cumbes, communities in mountainous and isolated areas.

By 1830, Venezuela sought independence from Colombia. Simon Bolivar initially refused to accept Afro-Venezuelans into his army but realized he could not be victorious without the blacks, Zambos, and mulattoes.

Abolition of slavery occurred gradually; first the nation freed newly born children. Slavery was not abolished until 1845 and planters feared revolt. In 1881, the nation passed an anti-discrimination law. Most Afro-Venezuelans continued to work on their small subsistence farms.

After the 1860s, Afro-Caribbean workers were recruited to work the gold mines. The presence of these Afro-Caribbeans stirred racial tension. In 1929, the country prohibited people of African descent from immigrating, in an effort to discriminate against them and prevent growth in the number of ethnic Africans.[4]

During the 1930s, oil was discovered. The latter caused increased urbanization of Afro-Venezuelans, in search of work in oil refineries. Afro-Venezuelans found themselves at the lowest rung of the society, occupying most of the slums and lowest economic strata. During 1945-1948, known as the trienio, an attempt to address disparities was made by providing education, health care, trade union formation, and land reform. This was aborted by the dictatorship of Perez Jemenez.

It was not until the 1960s that the government began to work to address the problems of Afro-Venezuelans. Reform laws were passed that increased black representation in farm societies, trade unions, and oil unions. Numerous positions were acquired by blacks. The ban on black immigration was removed in 1966. Universities were subsidized to study Afro-Venezuelan art, history, music, and dance. Even with these reforms, blacks still remained at the bottom of economic ladder into the 1990s.[5]

Religion and Culture[edit]

Afro-Venezuelan religion fused with Catholicism, creating a creolized religion. The worship of saints would correspond to African deities, healers and priest would become one, mass would be held with drumbeats. Corpus Christie a Catholic celebration would be celebrated with drumbeats and masked, traced to Congo.

Recently celebrations like Fiesta de San Juan, has emerge to re-assert Afro-Venezuelan culture.

Geographic distribution of Black Venezuelans[edit]

List of Venezuelan states by African-Venezuelan population[edit]

The following is a sortable table of Venezuelan states by the African Venezuelan population, according to the 2011 Census data.

Rank State Afro-Venezuelan Alone % Afro-Venezuelan
!000001 Flag of Miranda state.svg Miranda 157,506 5.2%
!000002 Flag of Zulia State.svg Zulia 108,840 2.8%
!000003 Flag of Carabobo State.svg Carabobo 82,798 3.5%
!000004 Bandera de Caracas.svg Capital District 69,602 3.3%
!000005 Bolivar State flag.png Bolívar 67,573 4.1%
!000006 Flag of Aragua State.svg Aragua 63,319 3.6%
!000007 Flag of Anzoátegui State.svg Anzoátegui 61,406 3.9%
!000008 Flag of Sucre State.svg Sucre 47,815 4.9%
!000009 Flag of Falcón.svg Falcón 46,374 4.8%
!000010 Flag of None.svg Guárico 45,745 5.7%
!000011 Flag of Lara State.svg Lara 43,926 2.3%
!000012 Flag of Monagas State.png Monagas 42,618 4.6%
!000013 Flag of Portuguesa.svg Portuguesa 32,989 3.5%
!000014 Flag of Yaracuy State.svg Yaracuy 31,683 4.9%
!000015 Flag of Apure State.svg Apure 28,628 5.5%
!000016 Flag of Mérida.svg Mérida 24,085 2.7%
!000017 Flag of Táchira.svg Tachira 22,745 1.8%
!000018 Flag of Barinas State.svg Barinas 21,363 2.6%
!000019 Flag of Vargas State.svg Vargas 19,199 5.6%
!000020 Flag of Cojedes State.svg Cojedes 13,619 4.2%
!000021 Flag of Delta Amacuro State.svg Delta Amacuro 12,011 7.0%
!000022 Flag of Nueva Esparta.svg Nueva Esparta 11,562 2.5%
!000023 Flag of Trujillo State.svg Trujillo 9,958 1.3%
!000024 Flag of Amazonas State.svg Amazonas 6,291 4.0%

Communities (municipalities) with the highest percentage of Blacks or African Venezuelans[edit]

Percentage of the Venezuelan population recognized as Black and African descent according to the 2011 Census

The top communities (municipalities) with the highest percentage of Blacks or African Venezuelans according to the 2011 Census:[6]

  1. Ocumare de la Costa (Ocumare de la Costa de Oro), Aragua 73,50%
  2. Caruao, Vargas 43.10%
  3. San José de Barlovento (Andrés Bello), Miranda 29.30%
  4. Mamporal (Buroz), Miranda 24.90%
  5. Curiapo (Antonio Díaz), Delta Amacuro 20.80%
  6. Farriar (Veroes), Yaracuy 19.50%
  7. Caucagua (Acevedo), Miranda 18.60%
  8. Higuerote (Brión), Miranda 18.10%
  9. Cabure (Petit), Falcón 15.60%
  10. Río Chico (Páez), Miranda 14.00%
  11. San Carlos de Río Negro (Río Negro), Amazonas 13.90%
  12. Bobures (Sucre), Zulia 12.20%
  13. Güiria (Valdez), Sucre 11.60%
  14. Uracoa (Uracoa), Monagas and San Juan de Manapiare (Manapiare), Amazonas 10.20%
  15. Las Mercedes del Llano (Las Mercedes), Guárico 10.10%

Most densely Blacks/African Venezuelans populated communities (municipalities)[edit]

Concentration of the population self-recognized as black and African descent in Venezuela (person per square kilometer)

The top most densely populated communities (municipalities) with Blacks and African Venezuelans population per km2 according to the 2011 Census:[6]

  1. Carlos Soublette, Vargas 361.64
  2. Santa Rita (Francisco Linares Alcántara), Aragua 176.45
  3. Petare (Metropolitan District of Caracas), 161.23
  4. Capital District (Metropolitan District of Caracas), 160.70
  5. Catia La Mar, Vargas 134.90
  6. La Guaira, Vargas 121.71
  7. Chacao (Metropolitan District of Caracas) 104.28
  8. Mariara (Diego Ibarra), Carabobo 99.45
  9. Porlamar (Mariño), Nueva Esparta 91.11
  10. Maracaibo, Zulia 86.88
  11. Baruta (Metropolitan District of Caracas) 85.89
  12. Los Guayos, Carabobo 72.59
  13. San José de Barlovento (Andrés Bello), Miranda 69.52
  14. Guarenas (Plaza), Miranda 64.04
  15. Palo Negro (Libertador), Aragua 62.24

Notable Afro-Venezuelans[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rise Of The Latin Africans. A new black-power movement in Central and South America.
  2. ^ "Resultado Básico del XIV Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda 2011 (Mayo 2014)". Ine.gov.ve. p. 29. Retrieved 8 September 2014. 
  3. ^ http://www.ine.gob.ve/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&id=95&Itemid=26 Venezuelan population by 30/Jun/2014 is 30,206,2307 according National Institute of Stadistics
  4. ^ "Afro-Venezuelan, History and Cultural Relations", Everyculture.com, retrieved January 17, 2011
  5. ^ Wilpert, Gregory. "Racism and Racial Divides in Venezuela", Venezuelananalysis.com January 21, 2004, retrieved January 17, 2011]
  6. ^ a b http://www.redatam.ine.gob.ve/Censo2011/index.html