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Afrofuturism is an emergent literary and cultural aesthetic that combines elements of science fiction, historical fiction, fantasy, Afrocentricity, and magic realism with non-Western cosmologies in order to critique not only the present-day dilemmas of people of color, but also to revise, interrogate, and re-examine the historical events of the past. First coined by Mark Dery in 1993, and explored in the late 1990s through conversations led by scholar Alondra Nelson,[1] Afrofuturism addresses themes and concerns of the African Diaspora through a technoculture and science fiction lens, encompassing a range of mediums and artists with a shared interest in envisioning black futures that stem from Afrodiasporic experiences.[2] Examples of seminal Afrofuturistic works include the novels of Samuel R. Delany and Octavia Butler; the canvases of Jean-Michel Basquiat and the photography of Renée Cox; and the explicitly extraterrestrial mythoi of Parliament-Funkadelic, the Jonzun Crew, and Sun Ra.[3]


20th Century[edit]

Afrofuturism can be identified in artistic, scientific, and spiritual practices throughout the African diaspora. Contemporary practice retroactively identifies and documents historical instances of Afrofuturist practice and integrates them into the canon. Examples are the Dark Matter anthologies, which feature contemporary Black sci-fi, but also include older works by W. E. B. Du Bois, Charles W. Chesnutt, and George S. Schuyler. Since the term was introduced in 1994, self-identified Afrofuturist practice has become increasingly ubiquitous. The afrofuturist approach to music was first propounded by the late Sun Ra. Born in Alabama, Sun Ra's music coalesced in Chicago in the mid-1950s, when he and his Arkestra began recording music that drew from hard bop and modal sources, but created a new synthesis which also used afrocentric and space-themed titles to reflect Ra's linkage of ancient African culture, specifically Egypt, and the cutting edge of the Space Age. Ra's film Space Is the Place shows the Arkestra in Oakland in the mid-1970s in full space regalia, with a lot of science fiction imagery as well as other comedic and musical material.

Afrofuturist ideas were taken up in 1975 by George Clinton and his bands Parliament and Funkadelic with his magnum opus Mothership Connection and the subsequent The Clones of Dr. Funkenstein, P Funk Earth Tour, Funkentelechy Vs. the Placebo Syndrome, and Motor Booty Affair. In the thematic underpinnings to P-Funk mythology ("pure cloned funk"), Clinton in his alter ego Starchild spoke of "certified Afronauts, capable of funkitizing galaxies."

Other musicians typically regarded as working in or greatly influenced by the Afrofuturist tradition include reggae producers Lee "Scratch" Perry and Scientist, hip-hop artists Afrika Bambaataa and Tricky, and electronic musicians Larry Heard, A Guy Called Gerald, Juan Atkins and Jeff Mills.[4]

In the early 1990s, a number of cultural critics, notably Mark Dery in his 1994 essay Black to the Future, began to write about the features they saw as common in African-American science fiction, music and art. Dery dubbed this phenomenon “afrofuturism”.

According to the cultural critic Kodwo Eshun, British journalist Mark Sinker was theorizing a form of Afrofuturism in the pages of The Wire, a British music magazine, as early as 1992.

Afrofuturist ideas have further been expanded by scholars like Alondra Nelson, Greg Tate, Tricia Rose, Kodwo Eshun, and others.[2] In an interview with Alondra Nelson, she explains Afrofuturism as a way of looking at the subject position of black people which covers themes of alienation and aspirations for a utopic future. The idea of 'alien' or 'other' is a theme often explored.[5] Additionally, Nelson notes that discussions around race, access, and technology often bolster uncritical claims about a so-called “digital divide”.[6] The digital divide overemphasizes the association of racial and economic inequality with limited access to technology. This association then begins to construct blackness “as always oppositional to technologically driven chronicles of progress.”[6] As a critique of the neo-critical argument that the future’s history-less identities will end burdensome stigma, Afrofuturism holds that history should remain apart of identity, particularly in terms of race.[6]

21st Century[edit]

In a more contemporary fashion, Janelle Monáe has made a conscious effort to restore Afrofuturist cosmology to the forefront of urban contemporary music. Her notable works include the music video Prime Time, as well as Many Moons, which explores the realms of slavery and freedom through the world of cyborgs and the fashion industry.[7][8] She has noted that some of her influences are Metropolis, Blade Runner, and Star Wars.[9] Other musical artists to emerge since the turn of the millennium regarded as Afrofuturist include dBridge, SBTRKT, Shabazz Palaces and Heavyweight Dub Champion.[4]

Chicago is home to a vibrant community of artists exploring Afrofuturism. Most notably, Nick Cave, known for his Soundsuits project, has helped develop younger talent as the director of the graduate fashion program at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. Other artists include visual artists Hebru Brantley as well as contemporary artist Rashid Johnson, a Chicago native currently based in New York. In 2013, Chicago resident Ytasha L. Womack wrote the book Afrofuturism: The World of Black Science Fiction and Fantasy. Author William Hayashi, mentioned in Womack's book, has published two volumes of his Darkside Trilogy that tells the story of what happens in America when the country discovers African Americans secretly living on the backside of the moon since before the arrival of Neil Armstrong; an extreme vision of segregation imposed by technically superior Blacks.[10][11] Krista Franklin, a member of University of Chicago's Arts Incubator, is currently exploring the relation between Afrofuturism and the grotesque through her visual and written work with weaves and collected hair. Recently, she also created an audio narrative in collaboration with another Afrofuturist, Perpetual Rebel, called The Two Thousand and Thirteen Narrative(s) of Naima Brown, which explores the ideas of identity and transformation within the context of hair and African American culture.[12]



Jared Richardson's Attack of the Boogeywoman: Visualizing Black Women's Grotesquerie in Afrofuturism[13] assesses how the aesthetic functions as a space for black women to engage with the intersection of topics such as race, gender, and sexuality. The representation and treatment of black female bodies is deconstructed by Afrofuturist contemporaries and amplified to alien and gruesome dimensions by artists such as Wangechi Mutu and Shoshanna Weinberger.

The Grotesque[edit]

In the Afro-Surreal Manifesto, Afro-surrealism is juxtaposed with European surrealism, with European surrealism being empirical. It is consistent with the New Black Aesthetic in that the art seeks to disturb. It samples from old art pieces updating them with current images. This technique calls to the forefront those past images and the sentiments, memories, or ideas around them and combines them with new images in a way that those of the current generation can still identify. Both seek to disturb, but there is more of a "mutant" psychology that is going on. Afro-Futuristic artists seek to propose a deviant beauty, a beauty in which disembodiment is both inhumane, yet distinct; Afro-Futuristic artists speculate on the future, where Afro-Surrealism is about the present.[14]



  1. ^ Rambsy II, Howard (2012-04-14). "A Notebook on Afrofuturism". Cultural Front. Retrieved 2014-03-26. 
  2. ^ a b Yaszek, Lisa (November 2006). "Afrofuturism, science fiction, and the history of the future". Socialism and Democracy 20 (3): 41–60. doi:10.1080/08854300600950236.  NB: Open Access version also available
  3. ^ "Calls for Papers: Afro-Futurism". Callaloo 26 (3): 932–934. 2003. doi:10.1353/cal.2003.0081. ISSN 1080-6512. Retrieved 2014-03-26. 
  4. ^ a b Reddell, Trace (2013). "Ethnoforgery and Outsider Afrofuturism". Dancecult (Griffith University ePress) 5 (2): 89–90. doi:10.12801/1947-5403.2013.05.02.05. Retrieved 22 March 2014. 
  5. ^ Alondra Nelson (Interviewee) (2010). Afrofuturism (Youtube). 
  6. ^ a b c Nelson, Alondra (2002). "Introduction: Future Texts". Social Text: Special Issue on Afrofuturism 20 (2): 1–15. doi:10.1215/01642472-20-2_71-1. ISSN 1527-1951. Retrieved 2014-03-16. 
  7. ^ Gonzales, Michael A. (1 October 2013). "[BLACK ALT] What Is Afrofuturism?". Ebony. Retrieved 14 February 2014. 
  8. ^ Calveri, John (2010-09-02). "Janelle Monáe: A New Pioneer Of Afrofuturism". The Quietus. Retrieved 2014-03-16. 
  9. ^ Barrow, Jerry L. (2009-04-14). "Janelle Monae’s Top 5 Sci-Fi Movies Of All Time". The Urban Daily: Beats, Buzz, & Lifestyle. Retrieved 2014-03-19. 
  10. ^ Hayashi, William (2009-12-04). Discovery: Volume 1 of the Darkside Trilogy. Xlibris, Corp. ISBN 1441586946. 
  11. ^ Hayashi, William (2013-10-21). Conception: Volume 2 of the Darkside Trilogy. XLIBRIS. ISBN 149310005X. 
  12. ^ Hazel, Tempestt (2012-05-28). "Black To The Future Series: An Interview with Krista Franklin". The Chicago Arts Archive: A Sixty Inches from Center Project. Retrieved 2014-03-19. 
  13. ^ Richardson, Jared. (2012) "Attack of the Boogeywoman: Visualizing Black Women's Grotesquerie in Afrofuturism." Art Papers Magazine 36. 6
  14. ^ Miller, D. Scott. "AfroSurreal Generation: AFROSURREAL MANIFESTO". 

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