|• ISO 259||ʕapula|
|• Mayor||Yitzhak Meron|
|• Total||26,909 dunams (26.909 km2 or 10.390 sq mi)|
Afula (Hebrew: עֲפוּלָה) is a city in the North District of Israel, often known as the "Capital of the Valley" due to its strategic location in the Jezreel Valley. The city had a population of 41,293 at the end of 2011. Afula is roughly halfway between Jenin and Nazareth.
In 1226, Syrian geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi mentioned it as being "a town in Jund Filastin," and formerly a Crusader castle between Zir'in and Nazareth. The castle he probably mentions, La Fève, belonged to the Knights Templar and is also known in connection with the Battle of Al-Fule of 1183. Remains of the castle have been found on a hill now occupied by kibbutz Merhavia, some 2 km east of Afula town center. Within the town of Afula itself, on the ancient mound or tell known as Tel 'Afula, remains of a further fortress from the Crusader and Mamluk periods have been discovered. For older finds from Tel 'Afula see the Archaeology paragraph.
In 1909 or 1910, Yehoshua Hankin completed his first major purchase in the Jezreel Valley. He bought some 10,000 dunams (10 km²) of land in Al-Fuleh (now Afula), which became the home of two moshav settlements, Merhavia and Tel Adashim. Afula was founded in 1925 by the American Zionist Commonwealth, after the completion of the purchase of the valley from the Sursuk family of Beirut. A quarter of the one hundred Arab families who had lived in the area accepted compensation for their land and left of their own free will; the remainder were evicted. At the time, the community was served by the Jezreel Valley Railway, part of the larger Hejaz Railway. Since 1913 it had also been the terminus station of the branch connecting it to Jenin and later also to Nablus. Sabotage actions of Jewish underground militias in 1945, 1946 and short before the 1948 Arab-Israeli War rendered first the connection to Jenin, then progressively the entire Valley Railway inoperable. Repairs after 1948 restored service to Haifa, but only until 1949 when it was abandoned. Many plans to revive the line have failed, but the latest Haifa-Afula-Beit She'an project is likely to be completed by 2016.
Due to Afula’s proximity to the West Bank, it has been a target for Palestinian political violence. On 6 April 1994, the Afula Bus suicide bombing killed five people in the center of Afula. In the Afula axe attack in November 1994, a 19-year-old female soldier was attacked and murdered by an axe-wielding Arab militant. Afula also was the target of a suicide attack on a bus on 5 March 2002, in which one person died and several others were injured at Afula’s central bus station. In the Afula mall bombing on 19 May 2003, a woman suicide bomber blew herself up at the Amakim mall, killing three and wounding 70. This attack was carried out by the Palestinian Islamic Jihad and the Fatah movement’s Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades.
On 17 July 2006, during the Israel-Hezbollah War, Hezbollah fired Katyusha rockets at Afula, one of the southernmost rocket attacks on Israel from Lebanon. Six people were treated for shock as a result of the rocket. On 28 July, a rocket landed causing a fire. The rocket carried 100 kilograms (220 pounds) of explosives.
The Alon Tavor Industrial Zone is located northeast of Afula off Highway 65. The Tadiran air conditioner factory is located there. Two Israeli plastics manufacturers, Keter Plastic and StarPlast, are also based there.
Education and culture
According to CBS, there are 24 schools and 8,688 students in the city: 16 elementary schools with a student population of 3,814 and 12 high schools with 4,874 students. 52.3% of 12th grade students were entitled to a matriculation certificate in 2001.
The ancient mound of Afula, known as Tel 'Afula, is close to the city center, west of Route 60 and south of Ussishkin Street. Very little of the initial six-acre tell remains due to construction work done in this area since the British Mandate period. The southern peak of the mound is the better preserved part. It used to be a popular suggestion for being the biblical site of Ophrah, the hometown of the judge Gideon, but scholars tend to disagree. Archaeological finds were dated from the Chalcolithic through the Byzantine period, followed by remains from the Crusader and Mamluk periods.
The first excavations at Tel ‘Afula, carried out in 1948, found Late Chalcolithic–Early Bronze Age remains. Tombs from the Early Bronze Age, Middle Bronze Age II, Late Bronze Age–Iron Age I and Roman period were discovered near the municipal water tower. Archaeologists discovered the Crusader-Mamluk fortress on the southern peak of the tell, a Byzantine olive press and evidence of an Early Bronze Age settlement near the northern peak.
In 1950–1951, excavations on the northwestern slope of the peak revealed a pottery workshop for Tell el-Yahudiyeh Ware from Middle Bronze Age II and another pottery workshop from Middle Bronze Age I.
From the 1990s, several small excavations unearthed an uninterrupted sequence of settlement remains from the Chalcolithic until the Late Byzantine periods as well as remains from the Mamluk period.
In 2012, excavations were conducted by the Israel Antiquities Authority on the southern peak of Tel Afula where the Crusader-Mamluk fortress is located. Due to construction activity from the 1950s, settlement layers on the tell may have been destroyed. Only meager remnants were found, indicative of a settlement from Early Bronze Age I and the Roman period. Pottery from Early Bronze Age III, Iron Age I and a single Hellenistic Attic fragment indicate settlement on the tell in these periods. Fragments of glazed bowls from the thirteenth century were found along the southern edge of the excavation.
- Amir Blumenfeld (born 1983), writer, comedian, actor, and television host
- Yaakov Bodo (born 1931), actor and comedian
- Sarit Hadad (born 1978), singer
- Hila Lulu Linn, painter
- Samuel Scheimann (born 1987), football player
- Mosh Ben-Ari (born 1970), musician, lyricist and composer.
- "Locality File" (XLS). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2011. Retrieved February 2, 2013.
- Afulah, Encyclopedia Judaica
- le Strange, Guy (1890), Palestine Under the Moslems: A Description of Syria and the Holy Land from A.D. 650 to 1500, Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund, p. 441
- Segev, Tom (1999). One Palestine Complete:Jews and Arabs Under the British Mandate. London: Abacus. p. 242. ISBN 978-0-349-11286-2.
- Five die in latest suicide bombing; British bomber dead
- Arab Kills Female Israeli Soldier With Ax - published on The Washington Post on December 1, 1994
- Hezbollah missiles with 100 kg (220 lb) warhead strike Jezreel Valley
- Company Overview of Tadiran Air Conditioners Ltd.
- Afula community guide
- Tel Afula final report
- Zevulun, U., "Tell el-Yahudiyeh Juglets from a Potter’s Refuse Pit at Afula", Eretz-Israel 21 (1990), pp. 174–190, p. 107.
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