Agaricaceae

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Agaricaceae
Temporal range: Burdigalian–recent
[1]
Agaricus campestris.jpg
Agaricus campestris
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Agaricaceae
Chevall. (1826)
Type genus
Agaricus
L. (1753)[2]
Genera

85; See text

The Agaricaceae are a family of basidiomycete fungi and includes the genus Agaricus, as well as basidiomycetes previously classified in the families Tulostomataceae, Lepiotaceae, and Lycoperdaceae.

Taxonomy[edit]

The family Agaricaceae was published by French botanist François Fulgis Chevallier in 1826.[3] It is named after the type genus Agaricus, originally circumscribed by Carl Linnaeus in his 1753 work Species Plantarum. In his authoritative 1986 classification of the Agaricales, Rolf Singer divided the Agaricaceae into four tribes distinguished largely by spore color: Leucocoprineae, Agariceae, Lepiotear, and Cystodermateae.[4] Species once separately classified into the families Tulostomataceae, Battarreaceae, Lycoperdaceae, and Mycenastraceae have since been folded back into the Agaricaceae.[5] According to a standard reference text, the Agaricaceae contains 85 genera and 1340 species.[6]

Description[edit]

Agaricaceae species use a wide variety of fruit body morphology. Although the pileate form (i.e., with a cap and stipe) is predominant, gasteroid and secotioid forms are known. In pileate species, the gills are typically thin, and free from attachment to the stipe. Caps are scurfy to smooth, and range from roughly flat to umbonate. They typically have a centrally attached stipe and a membrane-like partial veil.[7]

The spore print color of Agaricaceae species ranges from greenish to ochraceous to pink or sepia; rusty-brown or cinnamon brown colours are absent. Microscopically, the spore surface ranges from smooth to ornamented, and the presence of a germ pore is variable. Amyloidity (i.e. sensitivity to staining in Melzer's reagent) is also variable. The basidia (spore-bearing cells) are usually small, four-spored, and may have interspersed cystidia.[7]

Genera[edit]

The extinct genus Coprinites is one of four known Agaricaceae genera in the fossil record. Others include Aureofungus, Protomycena, and Archaeomarasmius. Archaeomarasmius leggeti, from Atlantic Coastal Plain amber, is 90–94 Ma); the other fossil genera are from Dominican amber and date to 15–20 Ma.[8]

The family currently includes the following genera:

Ecology[edit]

The Agaricaceae are widely distributed. Most species are saprobic and prefer grassland and woodland habitats.[7] Genera Leucoagaricus and Leucocoprinus are known to be cultivated by fungus-growing ants in ant-fungus mutualism.[9]

Economic significance[edit]

The genus Agaricus includes some species that are cultivated commercially throughout the world. The common "button mushroom", Agaricus bisporus, is the most widely cultivated edible mushroom. Agaricus blazei is a well-known medicinal mushroom used for a number of therapeutic and medicinal purposes.[10][11] Several species are poisonous, such as some Lepiota and Chlorophyllum species.[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Poinar G, Singer R. (1990). "Upper Eocene gilled mushroom from the Dominican Republic". Science 248 (4959): 1099–101. doi:10.1126/science.248.4959.1099. PMID 17733372. 
  2. ^ Linnaeus C. (1753). Species Plantarum. Stockholm: Laurentii Salvii. p. 1171. 
  3. ^ Chevallier FF. (1826). Flore générale des environs de Paris, selon la méthode naturelle: Description de toutes les plantes agames, cryptogames et phanérogames qui y croissent spontanément; leurs propriétés, leur usage dans la médecine, les arts, et l'économie domestique; avec une classification naturelle des agames et des cryptogames, basée sur l'organisation de ces végétaux (in French) 1. Paris, France: Ferra Jeune. p. 121. 
  4. ^ Singer R. (1986). The Agaricales in Modern Taxonomy (4th ed.). Königstein im Taunus, Germany: Koeltz Scientific Books. pp. 465–7. ISBN 3-87429-254-1. 
  5. ^ "Agaricaceae Chevall., Flore Générale des Environs de Paris 1: 121 (1826)". MycoBank. International Mycological Association. Retrieved 2013-12-03. 
  6. ^ Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA. (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi (10th ed.). Wallingford: CAB International. p. 11. ISBN 0-85199-826-7. 
  7. ^ a b c d Cannon PF, Kirk PM. (2007). Fungal Families of the World. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. pp. 3–4. ISBN 978-0-85199-827-5. 
  8. ^ Hibbett DS, Binder M, Wang Z. (2003). "Another fossil agaric from Dominican Amber". Mycologia 95 (4): 685–7. doi:10.2307/3761943. JSTOR 3761943. PMID 21148976.  open access publication - free to read
  9. ^ Hölldobler B, Wilson EO. (2009). The Superorganism: The Beauty, Elegance, and Strangeness of Insect Societies. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company. 
  10. ^ Lima CU, Cordova CO, Nóbrega Ode T, Funghetto SS, Karnikowski MG. (2011). "Does the Agaricus blazei Murrill mushroom have properties that affect the immune system? An integrative review". Journal of Medicinal Food 14 (1–2): 1–8. doi:10.1089/jmf.2010.0017. PMID 21128829. 
  11. ^ Wang H, Fu Z, Han C. (2013). "The medicinal values of culinary-medicinal royal sun mushroom (Agaricus blazei Murrill)". Evidence-Based Complement Alternative Medicine: 842619. doi:10.1155/2013/842619. PMC 3833359. PMID 24288568.  open access publication - free to read

External links[edit]