Agaricus semotus

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Agaricus semotus
Agaricus semotus natural.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Phylum: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Agaricaceae
Genus: Agaricus
Species: A. semotus
Binomial name
Agaricus semotus
Fr.
Agaricus semotus
View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
Mycological characteristics
gills on hymenium

cap is convex

or flat
hymenium is free
stipe has a ring
spore print is brown
ecology is saprotrophic
edibility: edible

Agaricus semotus is a woodland mushroom of the Agaricales order of fungi. It, like many of its relatives, can be found spread throughout wooded, moist areas in the southern United States, and has been found in areas ranging from California to Florida; it is also indigenous to Great Britain and Europe. A. semotus has also been collected in New Zealand.[1] Although various authors disagree about its edibility, its modest size prevents it from being a significant source of nutrition.

Description[edit]

The cap is 2–7 cm in diameter, initially convex while flattening with age; it typically has a low umbo–a raised, conical mound in the center of the cap.[2] The surface color can range from a lighter cream to a darker tan, with brownish scales thinning out towards the margin of the cap. The gills are free from the stalk and packed closely together, showing a pink to salmon color in youth and aging to a darker brown.

A spore print and cross-section of A. semotus

The stalk is 3–7 cm tall and 0.4–0.8 cm broad, and bruises yellow when handled. A ring or remnants thereof are often evident, while the partial veil is often absent or minutely visible along the margin of the cap. The flesh is white throughout and stains yellow when bruised. The spore print is dark brown.

The taste is said to be slightly reminiscent of anise or almond while the odor is often more distinctive.

The spores are 4.5–5.5 x 3–3.5 µm, smooth, nonamyloid, and elliptical. The basidia, the spore-bearing cells, are 4-spored, while the cystidia (relatively large non-spore producing cells typically found on the hymenium) are roughly club-shaped with thin walls.[3]

Edibility[edit]

It has been reported as edible,[4][5] but others claim that it may cause gastrointestinal discomfort.[6][7] Arora notes that these mushrooms are "rarely collected because of their small size."[5]

Phylogenetics[edit]

Phylogenetic analysis suggests that A. semotus belongs in a group of closely related species within the Agaricus genus, known as the Arvensis clade. This clade also includes the species A. silvicola, A. arvensis and A. abruptibulbus; these species also bruise yellow, and smell of almonds.[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mitchell AD, Walter M. (1999). "Species of Agaricus occurring in New Zealand". New Zealand Journal of Botany 37(4): 715–25.
  2. ^ Miller HR, Miller OK. (2006). North American mushrooms: a field guide to edible and inedible fungi. Guilford, Conn: Falcon Guide. p. 281. ISBN 0-7627-3109-5.  Google Books
  3. ^ Jordan, Michael (2004). The encyclopedia of fungi of Britain and Europe. London: Frances Lincoln. p. 225. ISBN 0-7112-2379-3. 
  4. ^ "California Fungi: Agaricus semotus". Retrieved 2009-03-17. 
  5. ^ a b Arora D. (1986). Mushrooms demystified: a comprehensive guide to the fleshy fungi. Berkeley, Calif: Ten Speed Press. p. 340. ISBN 0-89815-169-4.  Google Books
  6. ^ "Rogers Mushrooms | Mushroom Pictures & Mushroom Reference". Retrieved 2009-03-17. 
  7. ^ Bisset NG, Breksinsky A, Bresinsky A, Besl H. (1990). A colour atlas of poisonous fungi: a handbook for pharmacists, doctors, and biologists. London: Wolfe Pub. p. 118. ISBN 0-7234-1576-5.  Google Books
  8. ^ Mitchell AD, Bresinsky A. (1999). "Phylogenetic relationships of Agaricus species based on ITS-2 and 28S ribosomal DNA sequences". Mycologia, 91(5): 811–19.