Agatha Barbara

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Agatha Barbara
Ms Agatha Barbara.jpg
3rd President of Malta
In office
15 February 1982 – 15 February 1987
Preceded by Albert Hyzler (ad interim); Anton Buttigieg
Succeeded by Paul Xuereb (ad interim); Ċensu Tabone
Personal details
Born (1923-03-11)11 March 1923
Żabbar, Malta
Died 4 February 2002(2002-02-04) (aged 78)
Żabbar, Malta
Political party Labour (PL)
Spouse(s) None
Religion Roman Catholicism

Agatha Barbara (11 March 1923 – 4 February 2002) was a Maltese politician, having served as a Labour Member of Parliament and Minister. She was the first woman to hold the office of President of Malta.

Early life[edit]

Barbara was born in Żabbar, Malta, in 1923. Her father worked for the British Navy as a tug master (a skilled pilot of tugboats) and was very poorly paid. Her mother struggled to feed the nine children on her husband's wages. Agatha was the second child and the eldest daughter. She pleaded her parents to send her to school and attended grammar school in Valletta. But the Second World War prevented her from continuing to college. She had to work as an air raid warden and supervised one of the kitchens set up by the British military to feed the population. After the war she became a school teacher and got involved in politics. She became a member of the Malta Labor Party (MLP), was very active in party affairs, became member of the MLP executive committee, headed the party women's branch and founded the Women's Political Movement in Malta.[1]

Political life[edit]

From 1947, Malta had limited self-government. Voting rights for women were raised by the Women of Malta Association and the Malta Labor Party against loud protests from the Church. The proposal was adopted by a narrow majority. The clashes spurred Barbara to show what women could do, so when people encouraged her, she stood for election in 1947. She became the first and only woman among the 40 MPs, and she was the only woman candidate to successfully contest in ten consecutive elections, until 1982, when she resigned to become President.

Agatha Barbara became known as a warm defender of economic and social reforms. She was Malta's first and until the end of the 1990s only woman cabinet minister. When MLP came to power for the first time in 1955, she was appointed as education minister by Dom Mintoff from 1955 to 1958. She undertook comprehensive reforms: instituted compulsory full-time basic education for all children, established a teacher training college and special schools for the disabled, made secondary school free and provided science classes for both girls and boys. In 1958 relations between the British and the Maltese deteriorated. Protests erupted in the streets and Mintoff resigned. Barbara participated in the demonstrations and was sentenced to 43 days "with hard labor". When Mintoff came to power again in 1971, Agatha Barbara was appointed minister of education again. Now compulsory basic education was extended from the age of 14 to 16, trade and technical schools were established and university fees were abolished. In 1974 she became minister for labor, culture and welfare. She worked to reduce unemployment and improve workers' pay and conditions and industrial relations. She introduced a law on equal pay for women and men, paid maternity leave, a 40-hour working week and retirement and unemployment benefits. She also set up a number of national museums. In 1976 Agatha Barbara became deputy chair of the MLP parliamentary group, but not of the party, and deputy prime minister. For shorter periods she served as deputy for Mintoff.[2]

Presidency[edit]

In 1981 elections led to a constitutional crisis because the National Party (PN) won a majority of the votes, but only got a minority in parliament: 31 seats against 34 for MLP. PN boycotted parliament and organized protests. Nevertheless, Mintoff took power, but instead of becoming minister, Barbara was elected as the first woman president, 59 years old, on 15 February 1982. She was the third President of the Republic. Usually the position was mainly ceremonial, but her task now was to resolve the constitutional crises, and she managed to do this, preventing the situation from evolving into civil war. In 1987 her term expired and she withdrew from politics.[3] Barbara appeared on the old series of monetary notes of Malta. She retired in Żabbar, where she was born, and died in 2002. A monument in her honor was unveiled in Żabbar on 23 April 2006 by the then President of Malta, Dr.Edward Fenech Adami.

Private life[edit]

In 2010, Joseph Chetcuti claimed Barbara was a lesbian, based on interviews with contemporaries.[4]

Honors[edit]

National Honours[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Torild Skard (2014) 'Agatha Barbara' 'Women of power - half a century of female presidents and prime ministers worldwide. Bristol: Policy Press ISBN 978-1-44731-578-0
  2. ^ Torild Skard (2014) 'Agatha Barbara'
  3. ^ Torild Skard (2014) 'Agatha Barbara
  4. ^ Joseph Carmel Chetcuti, Queer Mediterranean Memoirs, Malta, 2010, ISBN 9780646512792

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Albert Hyzler
(acting)
President of Malta
1982–1987
Succeeded by
Paul Xuereb
(acting)