Age of consent manifestations (UK)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Since the 1970s, a number of demonstrations have taken place in the UK in favour of lowering the age of consent, either on the grounds of claims for children’s rights, gay liberationism or, more recently, "as a means to avoid unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections (STI’s) and ‘bad sex’ via education and health promotion".[1]

Sociologist Matthew Waites, author of The age of Consent – Young People, Sexuality and Citizenship, observed that:

"By the mid-1970s the case for a lower minimum age for all was finding wider support, with questions being posed concerning the merits of lowering the legal age for male/female sexual behaviour – not only within grassroots sexual movements, but also within religious organisations and liberal intellectual circles."[2]

(…)[Contemporarily,] "significant sections of liberal opinion in the political mainstream, including prominent campaigners for children’s interests and sexual health, support at least some selective decriminalisation of sexual activity between young people under 18".(…) More generally in academic work, particularly in Sociology, writing on sexuality from various perspectives has questioned the extent of prohibitions on sexual activity involving children.[3]

On 17 October 2010 on the BBC’s Sunday Morning Live program, the viewing public was asked for their text poll, the question "Should the age of consent be lowed to 13?" from 18. At the end of the program it was announced that 16% voted yes and 84% voted no.[4]

Religious groups[edit]

In April 1972, a conference of the Quakers religious group in the UK, the Society of Friends Social Responsibility Council, passed a resolution in favour of lowering the age of consent in Britain from 16 to 14.[5][6]

Soon later, in July 1972, Dr. John Robinson, Dean of Trinity College, Cambridge, and chair of the UK’s Sexual Law Reform Society, defended an age of consent of 14 in the Beckley Lecture to the Methodist Conference.[5][7]

Both of them have made the case for equality at 14, thus comprising heterosexual and homosexual relations.

Liberty (The National Council for Civil Liberties)[edit]

In March 1976, the UK's political pressure group Liberty, under their alternate name National Council for Civil Liberties, (NCCL) called for an equal age of consent of 14 in Britain. Its submission to the Criminal Law Revision Committee generated extensive newspaper coverage. Albeit the report recognised the merits for the abolition of the age of consent, it proposed the retention of a prohibition upon sex below the age of 14 "as a compromise with public attitudes":[8]

"Although it is both logical, and consistent with modern knowledge about child development, to suggest that the age of consent should be abolished, we fear that, given the present state of public attitudes on this topic, it will not be politically possible to abolish the age of consent".[9]

The NCCL argued "childhood sexual experiences, willingly engaged in, with an adult result in no identifiable damage", suggesting more harm was caused when the children retold their experiences in court or to the press. The submission was signed by Harriet Harman who later went on to become leader of the House of Commons and deputy leader of the Labour Party.[10]

Government Youth advisory[edit]

In 2000, a committee of 12 teenage girls set up to advise the UK government on youth issues recommended that the age of consent be reduced to twelve. The website from which the group was recruited also conducted a poll of 42,000 girls between 12 and 16 on the age-of-consent. 87% agreed that it should be lowered from 16.[11][12][13]

Contemporary context and support for the lowering of the age of consent to 14[edit]

Arguments in favour[edit]

In the contemporary context, arguments for lowering the age of consent in the United Kingdom do not necessarily comprise values like individual freedom or ‘children’s rights’. Specifically, they tend to focus on a pragmatic analysis of a new situation, including puberty at earlier ages, a higher proportion of young people sexually active below the age of consent and a trend to negotiate sexual behavior in secrecy in certain age groups.[14]

Research[edit]

Research by Jean Golding shows that puberty is occurring earlier than in the 1970s, with an average age of menarche in girls now at 12 years and 10 months,[15] compared to the average age of 14 for puberty in general, accepted as evidence by the Policy Advisory Committee of the 1970s.[16] Golding’s research has found that "one girl in six hits puberty at the age of eight".[17][18]

According to a recent British research conducted by the Centre for Family and Household Research,[19] "an increasing proportion of young people are sexually active below the age of consent".

Additionally, the first UK’s National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (NATSAL), which collected data up to 1990, have found that a much higher proportion of young people engage in others forms of sexual activity prohibited by the law – including mutual masturbation, oral sex and others – beginning on average at the age of 14.[20]

In his book on age of consent, sociologist Matthew Waites observes that :

"Qualitative research reveals a picture of many young people negotiating sexual behaviour in a context of secrecy, constrained by power relationships while lacking confidence, resources and support".[21][22]

He adds that "it is argued by some sexual health professionals that the age of consent should be lowered (…) to facilitate more effective support from health and education services".[23]

Authors[edit]

Edmund White, literary and cultural critic, particularly on same-sex love and sexuality currently a professor of creative writing in Princeton University's Lewis Center for the Arts. "Hypocrisy and cynicism underlie the current crusade against inter-generational love. I predict that children's liberation (inter-generational sex) will be the next great social movement in North America."

Peter Tatchell, British gay activist and author, since the mid-1990s defends an equal (regardless of sexuality) age of consent of 14 in Britain, recovering the arguments presented in the 1970s by the NCCL and the Sexual Law Reform Society. He invokes Romeo and Juliet, aged 14 and 13, as ‘one of the greatest love stories of all time’.[24][25] In the 1990s he has received support from the homosexual direct action group Outrage.[26]

Francis Bennion, British liberal humanist also influenced by the previous historical context (although not to the point of favouring a total abolition), emphasises on the fact that children are ‘sexual beings’, concluding that this in itself makes legal prohibitions unfair.[27]

Miranda Sawyer, British journalist specialised in music and youth culture, points out that ‘we have sexual feelings from a very early age’, considering that sex is ‘natural behaviour’. She favours lowering the age of consent to 12 in the UK, while labeling the criminalisation of sexual activity under the age of 16 as ‘laughably unrealistic’.[28]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Waites, Matthew. The Age of Consent – Young People, Sexuality and Citizenship (2005, pp. 122 and 220). New York/London: Palgrave MacMillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-2173-4. ISBN 1-4039-2173-3.
  2. ^ Waites, Matthew (2005, op.cit., pp. 132-133)
  3. ^ Waites, Matthew (2005, p.220).
  4. ^ "Sunday Morning Live - Episode 14". BBC. 17 Oct 2010. Archived from the original on 17 October 2010. Retrieved 17 Oct 2010. 
  5. ^ a b Waites, Matthew (2005, p.132).
  6. ^ ‘Quakers make 13 age of consent’, Sunday Express, 16 April 1972.
  7. ^ ‘Dr. Robinson puts case for age of consent to be 14’, The Times, 6 July 1972; ‘Consent to what?, editorial, New Law Journal, vol. 122, no. 5554, 13 July 1972, pp.621-622.
  8. ^ Waites, Matthew (2005, p.135-136). The age of consent – Young people, Sexuality and Citizenship. New York/London: Palgrave MacMillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-2173-4. ISBN 1-4039-2173-3.
  9. ^ Sexual Offences: Evidence to the Criminal Law Revision Committee, NCCL report no. 13, February 1976, p.6. (London:National Council for Civil Liberties).
  10. ^ Beckford, Martin (9 March 2009). "Harriet Harman under attack over bid to water down child pornography law". The Daily Telegraph (London). 
  11. ^ http://archive.thisiswiltshire.co.uk/2000/12/2/230312.html
  12. ^ Sarah's chance to air seriously wicked views (From The Northern Echo)
  13. ^ Martin, Nicole (29 November 2000). "Girls say teenage sex campaign is 'out of touch'". The Daily Telegraph (London). 
  14. ^ Waites, Matthew. (2005, pp. 212-214 and 220).
  15. ^ Waites, Matthew. (2005, p. 212).
  16. ^ The UK’s Policy Advisory Committee on Sexual Offences was created in December 1975, by Roy Jenkins, then Home Secretary of the British government, with the specific task of examining the law on the age of consent. Sources: Waites, Matthew (2005, op.cit., p.133); Policy Advisory Committee on Sexual Offences (PAC, June 1979, p. iii) – Working Party on the Age of Consent in Relation to Sexual Offences (London:HMSO).
  17. ^ Waites, Matthew. (2005, pp. 212 and 246, Note 9.1).
  18. ^ ‘One girl in six hits puberty by age of eight’, The Observer, 18 June 2000, pp.1-2; ‘Too much too young’, The Observer, 18 June 2000, Review, pp.1, 4; ‘Sex from 8 to 18’, UK’s Channel Four, Tuesday 27 June 2000, 9 p.m.
  19. ^ Wertheimer, A. and Macrae, S. (1999, p.19). Family and Household Change in Britain: A Summary of Findings from Projects in the Economic and Social Research Council Population and Household Change Programme (Oxford: Centre for Family and Household Research, Oxford Brookes University). Cited by Waites, Matthew (2005, p.214).
  20. ^ Johnson, A.M.; Wadsworth, J.; Wellings, K.; and Field, J. with Bradshaw, S. (1994) – Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications). Cited by Waites, Matthew (2005, p.214).
  21. ^ Waites, Matthew. (2005, p. 213).
  22. ^ Holland, J.; Ramazanoglu, C.; Sharpe, S.; and Thomson, R. (1998) – The Male in the Head: Young People, Heterosexuality and Power (London: Tufnell Press). Cited by Waites, Matthew (2005, p. 213).
  23. ^ Waites, Matthew (2005, p. 213).
  24. ^ Waites, Matthew (2005, pp. 220 and 222).
  25. ^ Tatchell, Peter (1996) – ‘Is Fourteen Too Young for Sex?’, Gay Times, June, pp. 36-38; Tatchell, Peter (2002) – ‘Why the Age of Consent in Britain Should be Lowered to Fourteen’, Legal Notes 38 (London:Libertarian Alliance).
  26. ^ Lucas, I. (1998, pp.214-215) – Outrage! An Oral History (London: Continuum). Cited by Waites, Matthew (2005, p. 220).
  27. ^ Bennion, Francis (2003, p.13) – Sexual Ethics and Criminal Law: A Critique of the Sexual Offences Bill 2003 (Oxford: Lester Publishing). Cited by Waites, Matthew (2005, p.220 and 222).
  28. ^ Sawyer, Miranda (2003). ‘Sex is not Just for Grown-ups’, The Observer, Review section, 2 November, pp.1-2.