Agglomerate

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Photograph of agglomerate rock (USGS).
IUPAC definition

Agglomerate (except in polymer science): Cluster of primary
particles held together by weak physical interactions.

Note 1: A primary particle is the smallest discrete identifiable entity
observable by a specified identification technique, e.g., transmission
electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, etc.

Note 2: The particles that comprise agglomerates can be dispersed
again.

Note 3: The definition proposed here is recommended for distinguishing
agglomerate from aggregate.[1]


Agglomerate (in polymer science)
Aggregate (in polymer science): Cluster of molecules or particles
that results from agglomeration.

Note: Quotation from ref.[2]

[3]


Aggregate
Agglomerate: Scrambled auto-assembly of otherwise isolated
single molecules or particles.

Note 1: Adapted from definitions in refs.[4][5][6] to reflect the absence
of order.

Note 2: Comb-like amphiphilic macromolecules form aggregates and
not micelles, in contrast to diblock amphiphilic copolymers.[7]


Aggregate (except in polymer science): Cluster of primary particles
interconnected by chemical bonds.

Note 1: The particles that comprise aggregates cannot be dispersed again.

Note 2: Alternative definitions of aggregate and agglomerate are used in
catalysis.[8] The distinction offered by these definitions is in conflict
with the distinction understood in the wider context and with the concepts
of aggregation and agglomeration. To avoid confusion the definitions
proposed here are recommended.[9]

Agglomerates (from the Latin 'agglomerare' meaning 'to form into a ball') are coarse accumulations of large blocks of volcanic material that contain at least 75% bombs. Volcanic bombs differ from volcanic blocks in that their shape records fluidal surfaces: they may, for example, have ropy, cauliform, scoriaceous, or folded, chilled margins and spindle,[clarification needed] spatter, ribbon, ragged, or amoeboid shapes. Globular masses of lava may have been shot from the crater at a time when partly molten lava was exposed, and was frequently shattered by sudden outbursts of steam. These bombs were viscous at the moment of ejection and by rotation in the air acquired their shape. They are commonly 1 to 2 feet (30 to 60 cm) in diameter, but specimens as large as 12 feet (3.7 m) have been observed.[needs update] There is less variety in their composition at any one volcanic centre than in the case of the lithic blocks, and their composition indicates the type of magma being erupted.

Agglomerates are typically found near volcanic vents and within volcanic conduits, where they may be associated with pyroclastic or intrusive volcanic breccias. Older (pre-1970) publications,[specify] particularly in Scotland, referred to any coarse-grained volcaniclastic rock as 'agglomerate', which led to debris flow deposits, talus deposits and other types of breccia being mistaken for vents. Agglomerates are typically poorly sorted, may contain a fine ash or tuff matrix and vary from matrix to clast support. They may be monolithologic or heterolithic, and may contain some blocks of various igneous rocks. There are various differences between agglomerates and ordinary ash beds or tuffs. Agglomerates are coarser and less frequently well-bedded. Agglomerates can be non-welded or welded, such as coarse basaltic 'spatter'. They typically form proximally during Strombolian eruptions, and are common at strongly peralkaline volcanoes. Some large agglomerate deposits are deposited from pyroclastic density currents during explosive caldera-forming eruptions, such as at Santorini, Taal, and Campi Flegrei. They may be massive to crudely bedded, and can attain great thicknesses.

Crystalline masses of a different kind occur in some numbers in certain agglomerates. They consist of volcanic minerals very much the same as those formed in the lava, but exhibiting certain peculiarities which indicate that they have formed slowly under pressure at considerable depths. They bear a resemblance to plutonic igneous rocks, but are more correctly to be regarded as agglomerations of crystals formed within the liquid lava as it slowly rose towards the surface, and at a subsequent period cast out by violent steam explosions. The sanidinites of the Eifel belong to this group. At Vesuvius, Ascension, St Vincent and many other volcanoes, they form a considerable part of the coarser ash-beds. Their commonest minerals are olivine, anorthite, hornblende, augite, biotite and leucite.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Terminology of polymers and polymerization processes in dispersed systems (IUPAC Recommendations 2011)". Pure and Applied Chemistry 83 (12): 2229–2259. 2011. doi:10.1351/PAC-REC-10-06-03. 
  2. ^ Richard G. Jones, Edward S. Wilks, W. Val Metanomski, Jaroslav Kahovec, Michael Hess, Robert Stepto, Tatsuki Kitayama, ed. (2009). Compendium of Polymer Terminology and Nomenclature (IUPAC Recommendations 2008) "The Purple Book". RSC Publishing. p. 464. ISBN 978-0-85404-491-7. 
  3. ^ "Terminology of polymers and polymerization processes in dispersed systems (IUPAC Recommendations 2011)". Pure and Applied Chemistry 83 (12): 2229–2259. 2011. doi:10.1351/PAC-REC-10-06-03. 
  4. ^ Alan D. MacNaught, Andrew R. Wilkinson, ed. (1997). Compendium of Chemical Terminology: IUPAC Recommendations (the "Gold Book") (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Science. ISBN 0-86542-684-8. 
  5. ^ J. Alemán; A. V. Chadwick, J. He, M. Hess, K. Horie, R. G. Jones, P. Kratochvíl, I. Meisel, I. Mita, G. Moad, S. Penczek, R. F. T. Stepto (2007). Pure and Applied Chemistry 79: 1801. 
  6. ^ W. J. Work; K. Horie; M. Hess; R. F. T. Stepto (2004). Pure and Applied Chemistry 76: 1985. 
  7. ^ "Terminology for biorelated polymers and applications (IUPAC Recommendations 2012)". Pure and Applied Chemistry 84 (2): 377–410. 2012. doi:10.1351/PAC-REC-10-12-04. 
  8. ^ Alan D. MacNaught, Andrew R. Wilkinson, ed. (1997). Compendium of Chemical Terminology: IUPAC Recommendations (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Science. ISBN 0-86542-684-8. 
  9. ^ "Terminology of polymers and polymerization processes in dispersed systems (IUPAC Recommendations 2011)". Pure and Applied Chemistry 83 (12): 2229–2259. 2011. doi:10.1351/PAC-REC-10-06-03. 
Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.