Agkistrodon contortrix mokasen

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Agkistrodon contortrix mokasen
Agkistrodon contortrix mokasen CDC.png
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Family: Viperidae
Subfamily: Crotalinae
Genus: Agkistrodon
Species: A. contortrix
Subspecies: A. c. mokasen
Trinomial name
Agkistrodon contortrix mokasen
Palisot de Beauvois, 1799
Synonyms
  • Agkistrodon mokason
    Palisot de Beauvois, 1799
  • Agkishodon mokasen
    Palisot de Beauvois, 1799
  • Cenchris mokeson Daudin, 1803
  • Scytale mockeson Say, 1819
  • Agkistrodon mokasen – Beyer, 1898
  • Ancistrodon mokasen Brown, 1908
  • Agkistrodon mokasen mokasen
    Gloyd & Conant, 1934
  • Agkistrodon mokeson mokeson
    – Gloyd & Conant, 1943
  • Agkistrodon mokeson
    Davis & Brimley, 1944
  • Agkistrodon contortrix mokeson
    Klauber, 1948
  • Agkistrodon contortrix mokasen
    – Klimstra, 1950
  • Ancistrodon contortrix mokeson
    Schmidt, 1953
  • Agkistrodon contortrix makasen Bonn & McCarley, 1953
  • Ancistrodon contortrix mokasen
    – Petersen, 1970
  • Agkistrodon contortrix mokasen
    Harding & Welch, 1980[1]
Common names: northern copperhead,[2] copperhead, highland moccasin,[3] more.

Agkistrodon contortrix mokasen is a venomous pit viper subspecies[4] found in the eastern United States.

Description[edit]

The northern copperhead grows to an average length of 61-91 cm (24-36 in), with a maximum of 134.6 cm (52.99 in).[5]

The dorsal scales are weakly keeled. The anal plate is single. The subcaudals are single, at least anteriorly.[5]

The color pattern consists of an hourglass pattern that runs the length of the body. From above, a series of dark chestnut crossbands look narrow in the center and wider on the sides. Between the crossbands, small dark spots are often present. There are dark rounded spots at the sides of the belly. The head is a copper-red color. Juvenile specimens are lighter in color, have a yellow tail tip, and a narrow dark line that runs through the eye that divides the darker head from the lighter colored labial scales.[5]

Common names[edit]

Northern copperhead,[2] copperhead, resident copperhead, highland moccasin, beech-leaf snake, chunk head, copper (adder), copper-bell, copper belly, copperhead moccasin, copperhead viper, copper snake, copper viper, deaf adder, deaf snake, dumb rattlesnake, harlequin snake, hazel head, North American copperhead snake, northern copperhead, pilot, poplar leaf, rattlesnake pilot, rattlesnake's mate, red adder, red eye, red snake, red viper, thunder snake, upland moccasin, white oak snake,[3] adder.[5]

Geographic range[edit]

Found in the United States, Virginia, east Texas, in southern Illinois, southern Indiana, extreme northeastern Mississippi, northern Alabama, northern Georgia northeast to Massachusetts (which considers them endangered), New York Hudson Valley Region, the Appalachian Mountain region and associated plateaus, also southwestern Pennsylvania.[2] No type locality was given, although [ ? ] was the area where Palisot de Beauvois made his observations.[1]

Behavior[edit]

These snakes are generally quiet, almost lethargic, preferring to lie motionless or to make a slow retreat when encountered. When sufficiently agitated, however, they can strike vigorously and may vibrate their tails rapidly.[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Volume 1. Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
  2. ^ a b c Gloyd HK, Conant R. 1990. Snakes of the Agkistrodon Complex: A Monographic Review. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. 614 pp. 52 plates. LCCN 89-50342. ISBN 0-916984-20-6.
  3. ^ a b Wright AH, Wright AA. 1957. Handbook of Snakes of the United States and Canada. Comstock Publishing Associates. (7th printing, 1985). 1105 pp. ISBN 0-8014-0463-0.
  4. ^ "Agkistrodon". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 1 August 2007. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Conant R. 1975. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. Second Edition. First published in 1958. Houghton Mifflin Company Boston. 429 pp. 48 plates. ISBN 0-395-19979-4. ISBN 0-395-19977-8 (pbk.).

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]