Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti
|Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti|
|Subspecies:||A. p. conanti|
|Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti
Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti, the Florida cottonmouth or green-tailed moccasin, is a venomous pitviper subspecies found in the southeastern United States, and Florida in particular. The subspecies was named in honor of the late American herpetologist, Roger Conant.
Adults grow up to 1,892 mm (74.5 inches) in length. Allen and Swindell (1948) reported one male specimen from Marion County, Florida that measured 1,829 mm (72 inches) and weighed 4.6 kg (10 pounds).
The color pattern is similar to that of A. p. piscivorus, apart from head markings that are plainly visible even in older, darker specimens: dark brown postocular stripes that are bordered above and below by narrow light lines. A pair of dark stripes are also visible at the front of the lower jaw, as well as a pair of dark vertical stripes at the tip of the snout. Mature specimens often lack any dorsal pattern.
Found in the United States in extreme southern Georgia and throughout Florida. It also inhabits many offshore islands. Intergradation with A. p. piscivorus occurs from southern South Carolina, west across Georgia, through the western part of the Florida panhandle to southeastern Alabama. Not present in the lower keys, despite an old record from Key West. Intergradation with A. p. leucostoma occurs east of Mobile Bay, Alabama, and slightly further east from there. The type locality given is "at the edge of Rochelle-Cross Creek Road, about 7 miles southeast of Gainesville, Alachua County, Florida" [USA].
According to Wright and Bishop (1915), in the Okefenokee Swamp it occurs in thickets along the edges of the cypress ponds of the islands, around the wooded edges of stretches of water, in areas where the woods of the islands meet pine woods, and throughout the swamp in general.
In the Everglades, Allen and Swindell (1948) mentioned that it can be found in palmetto clumps as much as a quarter mile from water. Otherwise these snakes tend to aggregate around drying water holes, most likely because of the increasing concentration of available prey. Duellman and Swartz (1958) described the species as inhabiting aquatic environments, cypress flats and wet prairies, but not pine forests, scrub or hammocks. The latter is contradicted by a report from northern Florida where large numbers were seen in wet pine-palmetto areas, except during very dry periods.
These snakes are ovoviviparous, and while they have no specific mating season, most births occur during the summer months. Females generally only breed every other year and give birth to between one and 15 young per litter. Newly born snakes average 18 cm in length.
- List of crotaline species and subspecies
- Crotalinae by common name
- Crotalinae by taxonomic synonyms
- McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, vol. 1. Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
- "Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 1 December 2007.
- Gloyd HK, Conant R. 1990. Snakes of the Agkistrodon Complex: A Monographic Review. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. 614 pp. 52 plates. LCCN 89-50342. ISBN 0-916984-20-6.
- Gloyd, H.K. (1969). "Two additional subspecies of North American crotalid snakes, genus Agkistrodon". Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 83: 219–232.
- Conant R. 1975. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. Second Edition. First published in 1958. Houghton Mifflin Company Boston. 429 pp. 48 plates. ISBN 0-395-19979-4 (hc), ISBN 0-395-19977-8 (pb).
- Mehrtens JM. 1987. Living Snakes of the World in Color. New York: Sterling Publishers. 480 pp. ISBN 0-8069-6460-X.
- Allen ER, Swindell D. 1948. The cottonmouth moccasin of Florida. Herpetologica, 4 (suppl. 1):1-16.
- Duellman WE, Swartz A. 1958. Amphibians and reptiles of southern Florida. Bull. Florida State Mus., 3: 181-324.
- Gloyd HK. 1969. Two additional subspecies of North American crotalid snakes, genus Agkistrodon. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 83: 219-232.
- Wright AH, Bishop SC. 1915. A biological reconnaissance of the Okefinokee Swamp in Georgia. 2. Snakes. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 67: 139-192.
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