|Jmol-3D images||Image 1
|Molar mass||130.19 g mol−1|
|Melting point||102 °C (216 °F; 375 K)|
|Boiling point||281 °C (538 °F; 554 K)|
|Solubility in water||high|
|Flash point||95.8 °C (204.4 °F; 368.9 K)|
|Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)|
|(what is: / ?)|
Agmatine also known as (4-aminobutyl)guanidine is an aminoguanidine that was discovered in 1910 by the Nobel laureate Albrecht Kossel. It is a common natural compound synthesized by decarboxylation of the amino acid arginine, hence also known as decarboxylated arginine.
Agmatine has been shown to exert modulatory action at multiple molecular targets, notably: neurotransmitter systems, key ion channels, nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and polyamine metabolism, thus providing bases for further research into potential applications.
The term "agmatin" (German) was coined in 1910 by Albrecht Kossel who first identified the substance in herring sperm. Most probably the term stems from A- (for amino-) + g- (from guanidine) + -ma- (from ptomaine) + -in (German)/-ine (English) suffix with insertion of -t- apparently for euphony. Within a year following its discovery agmatine has been found to increase blood flow in rabbits, but the physiological relevance of these findings was questioned given the high concentrations (high µM range) required. In the 1920s, researchers in the diabetes clinic of Oskar Minkowski have shown that agmatine can exert mild hypoglycemic effects. The scarcity of research on agmatine during the better part of the 20th century (until the early 1990s) is outstanding. Only in 1994, the discovery of endogenous agmatine synthesis in mammals has revived research in the field.
Agmatine biosynthesis by arginine decarboxylation is well-positioned to compete with the principal arginine-dependent pathways, namely: nitrogen metabolism (urea cycle), and polyamine and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis (see illustration 'Agmatine Metabolic Pathways'). Agmatine degradation occurs mainly by hydrolysis, catalyzed by agmatinase into urea and putrescine, the diamine precursor of polyamine biosynthesis. An alternative pathway, mainly in peripheral tissues, is by diamine oxidase-catalyzed oxidation into agmatine-aldehyde, which is in turn converted by aldehyde dehydrogenase into guanidinobutyrate and secreted by the kidneys.
Mechanisms of action
Agmatine was found to exert modulatory actions directly and/or indirectly at multiple key molecular targets underlying cellular control mechanisms of cardinal importance in health and disease. It is considered capable of exerting its modulatory actions simultaneously at these targets, thus fitting the therapeutic profile of a "magic shotgun". The following outline indicates the categories of control mechanisms and identifies their molecular targets:
- Neurotransmitter receptors and receptor ionophores. Nicotinic, imidazoline I1 and I2, α2- adrenergic, glutamate NMDAr, and serotonin 5-HT2A and 5HT-3 receptors.
- Ion channels. Including: ATP-sensitive K+ channels, voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs).
- Membrane transporters. Agmatine specific-selective uptake sites, organic cation transporters (mostly OCT2 subtype), extraneuronal monoamine transporters (ENT), polyamine transporters, and mitochondrial agmatine specific-selective transport system.
- Nitric oxide (NO) synthesis modulation. Differential inhibition by agmatine of all isoforms of NO synthase (NOS). But induction of endothelial NOS (eNOS).
- Polyamine metabolism. Agmatine is a precursor for polyamine synthesis, competitive inhibitor of polyamine transport, inducer of spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase (SSAT), and inducer of antizyme.
- Protein ADP-ribosylation. Inhibition of protein arginine ADP-ribosylation.
- Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs). Indirect down-regulation of the enzymes MMP 2 and 9.
- Advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation. Direct blockade of AGEs formation.
- NADPH oxidase. Activation of the enzyme leading to H2O2 production.
Agmatine sulfate injection can increase food intake with carbohydrate preference in satiated, but not in hungry rats and this effect may be mediated by neuropeptide. However, supplementation in rat drinking water results in reductions in water intake and body weight gain. Also force feeding with agmatine leads to a reduction in body weight gain during rat development.
Agmatine is present in small amounts in plant-, animal-, and fish-derived foodstuff and Gut microbial production is an added source for agmatine. Oral agmatine is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and readily distributed throughout the body. Rapid elimination of ingested (un-metabolized) agmatine by the kidneys has indicated a blood half life of about 2 hours.
Agmatine sulfate supplements have been marketed for several years now to the bodybuilding channel, touting muscle-building qualities, although using completely unsubstantiated claims.
A number of potential therapeutic applications for agmatine have been suggested based on the results of in vitro and in vivo studies.
Agmatine produces mild reductions in heart rate and blood pressure, apparently by activating both central and peripheral control systems via modulation of several of its molecular targets including: imidazoline receptors subtypes, norepinephrine release and NO production.
Agmatine hypoglycemic effects are the result of simultaneous modulation of several molecular mechanisms involved in blood glucose regulation.
Agmatine has been shown to enhance glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and to exert nephroprotective effects.
Agmatine has been discussed as a putative neurotransmitter/neuromodulator. It is synthesized in the brain, stored in synaptic vesicles, accumulated by uptake, released by membrane depolarization, and inactivated by agmatinase. Agmatine binds to α2-adrenergic receptor and imidazoline receptor binding sites, and blocks NMDA receptors and other cation ligand-gated channels. Short only of identifying specific ("own") post-synaptic receptors, agmatine in fact, fulfills Henry Dale's criteria for a neurotransmitter and is hence, considered a neuromodulator and co-transmitter. But identification of agmatinergic neuronal systems, if exist, still awaits future research.
Systemic agmatine can potentiate opioid analgesia and prevent tolerance to chronic morphine in laboratory rodents. Since then, cumulative evidence amply shows that agmatine inhibits opioid dependence and relapse in several animal species.
- "agmatine (CHEBI:17431)". Chemical Entities of Biological Interest. UK: European Bioinformatics Institute. 15 August 2008. Main. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
- Kossel A (1910). "Über das Agmatin". Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie (in German) 66: 257–261.
- "agmantine". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.
- Engeland R, Kutscher F (1910). "Ueber eine zweite wirksame Secale-base.". Zeitschr Physiol Chem (in German) 57: 49–65.
- Dale HH, Laidlaw PP (1911). "Further observations on the action of beta-iminazolylethylamine". J. Physiol. (Lond.) 43 (2): 182–95. PMC 1512691. PMID 16993089.
- Frank E, Nothmann M, Wagner A (1926). "über Synthetisch Dargestellte Körper mit Insulinartiger Wirkung Auf den Normalen und Diabetischen Organismus". Klinische Wochenschrift (in German) 5 (45): 2100–2107. doi:10.1007/BF01736560.
- Li G, Regunathan S, Barrow CJ, Eshraghi J, Cooper R, Reis DJ (1994). "Agmatine: an endogenous clonidine-displacing substance in the brain". Science 263 (5149): 966–9. doi:10.1126/science.7906055. PMID 7906055.
- Piletz JE, Aricioglu F, Cheng JT, Fairbanks CA, Gilad VH, Haenisch B, Halaris A, Hong S, Lee JE, Li J, Liu P, Molderings GJ, Rodrigues AL, Satriano J, Seong GJ, Wilcox G, Wu N, Gilad GM (2013). "Agmatine: clinical applications after 100 years in translation". Drug Discov. Today 18 (17-18): 880–93. doi:10.1016/j.drudis.2013.05.017. PMID 23769988.
- Demady DR, Jianmongkol S, Vuletich JL, Bender AT, Osawa Y (2001). "Agmatine enhances the NADPH oxidase activity of neuronal NO synthase and leads to oxidative inactivation of the enzyme". Molecular Pharmacology 59 (1): 24–9. PMID 11125020.
- Taksande BG, Kotagale NR, Nakhate KT, Mali PD, Kokare DM, Hirani K, Subhedar NK, Chopde CT, Ugale RR (2011). "Agmatine in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus stimulates feeding in rats: involvement of neuropeptide Y". Br. J. Pharmacol. 164 (2b): 704–18. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01484.x. PMC 3188911. PMID 21564088.
- Gilad GM, Gilad VH (2013). "Evidence for oral agmatine sulfate safety--a 95-day high dosage pilot study with rats". Food Chem. Toxicol. 62: 758–62. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2013.10.005. PMID 24140462.
- Nissim I, Horyn O, Daikhin Y, Chen P, Li C, Wehrli SL, Nissim I, Yudkoff M (2014). "The molecular and metabolic influence of long term agmatine consumption". J. Biol. Chem. 289 (14): 9710–29. doi:10.1074/jbc.M113.544726. PMID 24523404.
- Haenisch B, von Kügelgen I, Bönisch H, Göthert M, Sauerbruch T, Schepke M, Marklein G, Höfling K, Schröder D, Molderings GJ (2008). "Regulatory mechanisms underlying agmatine homeostasis in humans". Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 295 (5): G1104–10. doi:10.1152/ajpgi.90374.2008. PMID 18832451.
- Huisman H, Wynveen P, Nichkova M, Kellermann G (2010). "Novel ELISAs for screening of the biogenic amines GABA, glycine, beta-phenylethylamine, agmatine, and taurine using one derivatization procedure of whole urine samples". Anal. Chem. 82 (15): 6526–33. doi:10.1021/ac100858u. PMID 20586417.
- Halaris A, Plietz J (2007). "Agmatine : metabolic pathway and spectrum of activity in brain.". CNS Drugs 21 (11): 885–900. PMID 17927294.
- Raasch W, Schäfer U, Chun J, Dominiak P (2001). "Biological significance of agmatine, an endogenous ligand at imidazoline binding sites". Br. J. Pharmacol. 133 (6): 755–80. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0704153. PMC 1572857. PMID 11454649.
- Satriano J (2004). "Arginine pathways and the inflammatory response: interregulation of nitric oxide and polyamines: review article". Amino Acids 26 (4): 321–9. doi:10.1007/s00726-004-0078-4. PMID 15290337.
- Su RB, Li J, Qin BY (July 2003). "A biphasic opioid function modulator: agmatine". Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 24 (7): 631–6. PMID 12852826.
- Wilcox, G.; Fiska, A.; Haugan, F.; Svendsen, F.; Rygh, L.; Tjolsen, A.; Hole, K. (2004). "Central sensitization: The endogenous NMDA antagonist and NOS inhibitor agmatine inhibits spinal long term potentiation (LTP)". The Journal of Pain 5 (3): S19. doi:10.1016/j.jpain.2004.02.041.