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The Atiratra Agnicayana (ati-rātrá agní-cayana "the building up of the fireplace performed overnight") or Athirathram (Malayalam: അതിരാത്രം); the piling of the altar of Agni is a Śrauta ritual of the Vedic religion, the predecessor of modern day Hinduism which is considered to be the greatest ritual as per the Vedic ritual hierarchy. It is also the world's oldest surviving ritual. Its mantras and theological explanations in the Brahmana texts are first attested in the Yajurveda Samhitas (Taittiriya, Kathaka; Vajasaneyi). The practice of this ritual was generally discontinued among Brahmins by the late Vedic period, during the rise of Jainism and Buddhism in India. Nevertheless, a continuous, unbroken 3,000 year tradition has been found to exist among a few Nambudiri Brahmin families in Kerala, South India.
The entire ritual takes twelve days to perform, in the course of which a great bird-shaped altar, the uttaravedi "northern altar" is built out of 10,800 bricks. The liturgical text is in chapters 11 to 18 of the Shukla Yajurveda; the corresponding exposition of the ritual is in Books 6 to 9 of the Shatapatha Brahmana. A total of 29 sastras and stutis from Rigveda and Samaveda are also recited in entire Agnicayana rite. The original essence and purpose of the ritual is not correctly known. But, the immediate practical purpose of the Agnicayana is to build up for the sacrificer an immortal body that is permanently beyond the reach of the transitoriness, suffering, and death that, according to this rite, characterize man's mortal existence.
The ritual emerged from predecessor rituals, which were incorporated as building blocks, around the 10th century BC, and was likely continuously practiced until the late Vedic period, or the 6th century BC. In post-Vedic times, there were various revivals of the practice, under the Gupta Empire in the north (ca. 4th to 6th century), and under the Chola Empire in the south (ca. 9th century), but by the 11th century, the practice was held to have been discontinued, except for the Nambudiris of Kerala.
To observe the ritual, goat sacrifice is essential. Since animal sacrifice is frowned upon by the Hindu society since the end of Vedic age and is a punishable offense in modern India, all documented Agnicayanas have been performed without this and may be deemed incomplete.
In 1975 Indologist Frits Staal documented in great detail the performance of an Agnicayana conducted performed by Nambudiri Brahmins according to Samaveda tradition at Panjal, Kerala. The last performance before that had been in 1956, and the Nambudiris were concerned that the ritual was threatened by extinction. It had never before been observed by outsiders. In exchange for a financial participation of the scholars towards the cost of the ritual, the Nambudiris agreed that it should be filmed and recorded. The ritual was performed from 12 to 24 April 1975. An effigy was used to symbolize the goat sacrifice, due to overwhelming opposition by animal protetction groups. Staal (1989) bases a general analysis of the similarities of grammar and ritual on this performance.
After the 1975 Agnicayana, there have been several more Nambudiri performances: in 1990 Agnicayana at Kundoor, and in 2006 at Sukapuram. Belief holds Sukapuram to be one among the 64 villages originally established by Parashurama, the sixth avatar of Vishnu after creating Kerala by throwing his axe into the ocean. The Somayagam (Agnistoma) was performed for the first time in 222 years at Aluva from 25 April till 1 May 2009.
An Athirathram Yagna was conducted at Panjal (Trichur district, Kerala), home to most of the yagnas in Kerala including the 1975 one and where most of Samavedic Namboodiris reside from April 4–14, 2011.
Since then two more Athiratrams were conducted at Kodakara (Trichur district, Kerala) from March 23 to April 3, 2012 featuring rare Aaswalaayana (Pakazhiya) –Boudhaayana combination. The last Athirathram of this type was performed 112 years ago.
The ritual was also performed for the first time outside kerala by Nambudiris from 21 April 2012 to 2 May 2012 at at Bhadrachalam (Khammam district, Andhra Pradesh).
- Tull, Herman (1989). The Vedic origins of karma: cosmos as man in ancient Indian myth and ritual. SUNY Press. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-7914-0094-4.
- Staal, Frits (1975-76) The Agnicayana Ritual in India, 1975-1976 (supplied) 76.2.1 1975-1976
- Agni Vedic ritual of fire altar vol 1 page: 616
- Hyla Stuntz Converse (November 1974). "The Agnicayana Rite: Indigenous Origin?". History of Religions 14 (2): 81–95. JSTOR 1062002.
- Schechner, Richard (1989). Between theater and anthropology. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-8122-1225-9.
- "Officials in Yaga". Athirathram.org.
- Frits Staal (1983) Agni, the Vedic ritual of the fire altar
- "Worshipping the sun". The Hindu. 2005-08-05.
- "SOMA YAGYAS". The Vedic Society.
- More information can be found at http://athirathram2011.com.
- Frits Staal, Agni, the Vedic ritual of the fire altar (1983).
- Frits Staal, Rules Without Meaning. Ritual, Mantras and the Human Sciences, Peter Lang: New York- Bern-Frankfurt am Main-Paris, 1989.
- Itti Ravi Mamunne, Agni and the Foreign Savants EJVS 10 (2003) 
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- Forizs, L. Apāṃ Napāt, Dīrghatamas and the Construction of the Brick Altar. Analysis of RV 1.143 (pdf, 386 kB) paper read at the Vedic Panel of the 12th World Sanskrit Conference, Motilal Banarsidass, 2007 (in preparation)