Non-Nuclear Aggression Agreement

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Non-Nuclear Aggression Agreement
Agreement Between India and Pakistan on the Prohibition of Attack against Nuclear Installations and Facilities
Flags of India and Pakistan.jpg
Flags of India and Pakistan, 2012
Type Strategic Nuclear reduction, control and avoidance of subsequent nuclear conflicts
Context Cold war
Drafted November 30, 1988 (1988-11-30)
Signed December 21, 1988; 25 years ago (1988-12-21)
Location Islamabad, Pakistan
Effective 1 January 1991
Condition Ratification of both parties
Expiration Agreement is still in effect
Mediators Science ministries of India and Pakistan
Negotiators Foreign ministries of India and Pakistan
Signatories

Rajiv Gandhi
(Prime Minister of India)
Benazir Bhutto
(Prime Minister of Pakistan)

Parties  India
 Pakistan
Ratifiers Parliament of India
Parliament of Pakistan
Depositary Governments of Pakistan and India
Languages

The Non-nuclear aggression agreement is a bilateral and nuclear weapons control treaty between the two South Asian states, India and Pakistan, on the reduction (or limitation) of nuclear arms and pledged not to attack or assist foreign powers to attack on each's nuclear installations and facilities.[1] The treaty was drafted in 1988, and signed by the Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto and her Indian counterparts, Rajiv Gandhi on 21 December 1988; it entered into force on January 1991.[1]

The treaty barred its signatories to carry out a surprise attack (or to assist foreign power to attack) on each other's nuclear installations and facilities. The treaty provides a confidence-building security measure environment and refrained each party from "undertaking, encouraging, or participating in,directly or indirectly, any action aimed at causing destruction or damage to any nuclear installation or facility in each country".[1] Starting in January 1992, India and Pakistan have annually exchanged lists of their respective civilian nuclear-related facilities.[2]

Historical context[edit]

In a memoirs written by Pakistani scientist and theorist Munir Ahmad Khan, Pakistan had to be mindful of blatant attack on Pakistan's nuclear installations by its eastern competitor, India.[citation needed] The Israeli Air Force surprise attack (See: Opera) on Iraqi nuclear program had crippled Iraq's nuclear weapons pursuit.[citation needed] Suspicions raised in Pakistan about the parallel attack akin to Opera might be undertaken by Indian Air Force.[citation needed]

Foreign service officer Abdul Sattar maintained that the hectic discussions used to take place at the Foreign Office between the Ministries of Defence, Foreign Affairs, and Science in Islamabad over this issue each day.[citation needed] The ISI was convinced with the Indian attacks and the government was equally paranoid to the fact that Prime Minister Indira Gandhi had ordered to prepare contingency plans for an attack under the codename "Attack on Kahuta".[citation needed] Though, Munir Ahmad Khan's approached to his Indian counterparts at IAEA had neutralize the Indian air force attacks, both countries had continued security developments around their facilities.[citation needed] In 1986-87, the massive exercise, Brasstacks was carried out by the Indian Army, raising the fears of Indian attack on Pakistan's nuclear facilities.[3] Since then, the Foreign ministries of both countries had been negotiating to reach an understanding towards the control of nuclear weapons.[2]

After the 1988 general elections, Prime minister Benazir Bhutto extended the invitation of Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi.[4] On 31 December 1988, Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi paid a state visit to Pakistan and met with Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto in Islamabad.[4] Further discussion brought the negotiations to an end on 31 December 1988, in Islamabad, when Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto and Prime minister Rajiv Gandhi signed the "Non-Nuclear Attack Agreement". The treaty was ratified by the parliaments of India and Pakistan on ratified on January 27, 1991.[1] The exchanged the first lists of India Pakistan's nuclear installations was swapped between two nations on January 1, 1992.[5][6]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Public Domain. "India-Pakistan Non-Attack Agreement". Work of Governments of India and Pakistna. Published by Nuclear Threat Initiatives (NTI). Retrieved 14 February 2013. 
  2. ^ a b Press (2011-01-01). "Pakistan, India swap nuclear sites lists". China nEws. Retrieved 14 February 2013. 
  3. ^ See: Operation Brasstacks of Indian Army
  4. ^ a b Hassan, Akhtar (27 February 1999). "Declaration termed milestone: No concessions made at summit: FO". Dawn News, 1999. Retrieved 16 February 2013. 
  5. ^ Our Staff Reporter (January 1, 2009). "Pakistan, India to swap nuclear sites lists today". The Nation. Retrieved 16 February 2013. 
  6. ^ By the CNN Wire Staff (January 1, 2012). "Pakistan, India swap lists of nuclear sites". CNN. Retrieved 16 February 2013. 

Government sources[edit]