An agricultural revolution or agrarian revolution is a period of transition from the pre-agricultural period characterized by a Paleolithic diet, into an agricultural period characterized by a diet of cultivated foods; or a further transition from a living form of agriculture into a more advanced and more productive form of agriculture, resulting in further social changes, and some argue in worse individual living conditions. Examples of historical agricultural revolutions include:
- The Neolithic Revolution (around 10,000 B.C.E), the initial transition from hunting and gathering to settled agriculture in prehistory and developing the ability to farm crops. This period is commonly referred to as the 'First Agricultural Revolution'.
- The Arab Agricultural Revolution (8th–13th centuries), diffusion of many crops and farming techniques across Arab world and Muslim world during Islamic Golden Age.
- The British Agricultural Revolution (17th–19th centuries), an increase in agricultural productivity in Great Britain which helped drive the Industrial Revolution.
- The Scottish Agricultural Revolution (18th–19th centuries), the British Agricultural Revolution in Scotland specifically, which led to the Lowland Clearances.
- The Green Revolution (1943–late 1970s), a series of research, development, and technology transfer initiatives that increased industrialized agriculture production in India and other countries in the developing world (the 'Second Agricultural Revolution').
Notes and references
- From Animals into Gods: A Brief History of Humankind, Yuval Harari